Preeminently, Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander is a Catholic work in two regards. First, it bears the imprimatur of the Church and stands both as Merton’s reflections on the essence of its beliefs and as a reaffirmation of his own accepted faith in man’s need to transcend his delusive self-love and egotistical preoccupations and to devote himself to comprehending what is in the heart of Christ. Second, the work is catholic—universal, open-and broad-minded—in its ecumenical reach. Merton warmly acknowledges the perceptiveness and wisdom as well as the errors of good intention in writings that address the deep questions of human nature and the modern predicament. Notwithstanding his own critical reservations about the meanings such authorities placed upon their observations, Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander is organized as a series of implicit dialogues with these other minds. Some of them, such as Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, are Protestant theologians; some, such as Albert Einstein, Hannah Arendt, and the Old Testament prophets, are Jewish; some, such as Mahatma Gandhi, Chuang-tzu, Confucius, and Mencius, represent various Oriental beliefs; others—Jacques Maritain, Louis Massignon, Cardinal John Henry Newman, and Saint Thomas Aquinas—are Catholic; and still others—Karl Marx, Lewis Mumford, Edmund Wilson, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre—are proclaimed secularists. In the somewhat episodic passages of the work, none of these figures, nor any of the dozens of others mentioned, is subjected to a detailed intellectual examination by Merton. Rather, they are collectively deployed as exemplars—as a supporting cast whose briefly recapitulated views lend a richer dimension to his own considered opinions.
These views are ordered by Merton around three major themes. He addresses each of them with an essentially controlled passion and, despite some expressions of disgust and occasional sighs of despair, with a qualified meliorism. That is, while the world of the 1960’s, perceived in the light of his criteria, was not (as was generally believed) continuously improving, but in fact seemed bent upon selfdestruction, the means by which to correct its fundamental weaknesses were at hand; indeed, they had been for more than nineteen hundred years.
Foremost, Merton repeatedly emphasizes that the historical distinctiveness of the Western world lies in its Christian (he allows Judeo-Christian) tradition; writing in the 1950’s and 1960’s, however, he must acknowledge the substantial abandonment of that tradition. Ignorance, the glamour and simplifications of ideologies and nationalisms, the false worship of science and technologies, societies’ unblinking dedication to materialism, and a general misapprehension of the real nature of freedom are all, in his judgment, responsible contributors to this disastrously erosive course. So long as there exists a scant general appreciation of Christianity’s unique approach to man, particularly man in conflict with himself and his society,...
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Merton’s career as monk and writer has been described as an uncertain love affair with the world. In 1941, he happily abandoned the world, averring that he hoped never again to be a participant in its mean and violent affairs. His early writings, such as The Seven Storey Mountain (1948), the first to bring him general literary notoriety, Figures for an Apocalypse (1948), and Exile Ends in Glory: The Life of a Trappistine, Mother M. Berchmans, O.C.S.O. (1948), extolled the contemplative life and upheld the correctness of his decision to find fulfillment in monasticism. By the 1950’s, however, if The Sign of Jonas (1953) and No Man Is an Island (1955) are valid indications, he was at least on speaking terms with the world. By the 1960’s, as his biographer James Thomas Baker notes, he had resumed the more sanguine disposition of his youth and again, as evidenced not only in Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander but also in Seeds of Destruction (1964) and Faith and Violence: Christian Teaching and Christian Practice (1968), became the world’s friend and lover.
Changes within the Roman Catholic church itself partially accounted for this evolution of Merton’s attitudes and opinions. Early in 1959, Pope John XXIII called for a worldwide council to undertake an aggiornamento (an updating of Catholicism), which eventuated by 1962 in Vatican II, arguably the most significant religious event of the twentieth...
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