Comedy of Manners
Comedy of Manners
The comedy of manners is a genre of comedy that flourished on the English stage during the Restoration period. Plays of this type are typically set in the world of the upper class, and ridicule the pretensions of those who consider themselves socially superior, deflating them with satire. With witty dialogue and cleverly constructed scenarios, comedies of manners comment on the standards and mores of society and explore the relationships of the sexes. Marriage is a frequent subject. Typically, there is little depth of characterization; instead, the playwrights used stock character types—the fool, the schemer, the hypocrite, the jealous husband, the interfering old parents—and constructed plots with rapid twists in events, often precipitated by miscommunications. The roots of the comedy of manners can be traced back to Molière's seventeenth-century French comedies and to the “humours” comedy of Ben Jonson; indeed, certain characteristics can be found as far back in time as ancient Greek plays.
Critics agree that the masters of the comedy of manners were George Etherege (1635-1692), William Wycherley (1640-1716), John Vanbrugh (1664-1726), William Congreve (1670-1729), and George Farquhar (1678-1707). Etherege's The Comical Revenge; or, Love in a Tub (1664) and She Wou'd If She Cou'd (1668) are often seen as inaugurating the genre of the comedy of manners, and his characters, including Sir Frederick Frollick and Sir Fopling Flutter, were favorites with audiences and became standard character types.
Wycherly's comedies are pointed and relatively harsh. The Country Wife (1674) deals with the jealousy experienced by an old man, Bud Pinchwife, married to a young woman, Margery. Margery's affair with another man, and her concealment of it, is accepted as proper and understandable in light of Bud's abusiveness. (He threatens repeatedly to stab his wife.) Wycherley's masterpiece, The Plain Dealer (1676), is based on Molière's Le Misanthrope and follows the relationship problems of a sea-captain, Manly.
Congreve is considered by many critics to have been the greatest wit of the dramatists writing in this vein; William Hazlitt declared Congreve's dialogue brilliant and his style perfect. The Old Bachelour (1693) was a great popular success, as was Love for Love (1695). His last comedy, The Way of the World (1700), is now considered his masterpiece but was not successful upon its premier. Although marriage is at its center, the preoccupation is with contracts and negotiation of terms, not passionate love.
Vanbrugh's The Relapse: Or Virtue in Danger (1696) has two plots, only slightly connected, and includes seduction, infidelity, impersonation, and the attempt to gain another's fortune. Vanbrugh's masterwork, The Provoked Wife (1697), became notorious because it was given special attention by critic Jeremy Collier in his case against the immorality of the stage. In keeping with the plays of the time, the names of the characters often reflect their type: Heartfree, Sir John Brute, Constant, Lady Fanciful, and Colonel Bully.
Farquhar's comedies were written at the end of the period and serve as a transition to later comedies, noticeable in their greater sensitivity to characters as individuals rather than types. The Recruiting Officer (1706) makes fun of some of the foibles of military heroes, while The Beaux' Stratagem (1707) includes a remarkably modern-style divorce, due to the couple failing to make each other happy.
While they wrote in the latter portion of the eighteenth century, after the Restoration period, and after sentimental comedy had become the dominant comedic form, Richard Brinsley Sheridan and Oliver Goldsmith composed plays that revived and renewed the comedy of manners genre. Sheridan's The School for Scandal (1777) and Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer (1773), in particular, received popular and critical acclaim when first produced, and have been continuously staged to the present day.
Because the comedy of manners so readily presents a view into the attitudes of society of the past, scholars find its study rewarding. Newell W. Sawyer has traced the development of the genre and relates it to the changes occurring in society at large. John Palmer has focused on the changes in comedy wrought by Collier, whose criticism of what he deemed moral lapses in certain plays affected what playwrights produced thereafter. Attitudes toward youth and old age have been examined by Elisabeth Mignon, who noted the comedy of manners' reflection of society's preoccupation with aging. Margaret Lamb McDonald and Pat Gill have analyzed the comedy of manners for what it reveals about attitudes toward women, particularly in regards to their intelligence, independence, and sexuality. Not all critics have devoted their time solely to its treatment of society's mores; some, such as David L. Hirst, have performed close readings of the texts themselves in order to judge the comedies on their merits as comedies.
The Old Bachelour (play) 1693
The Double-Dealer (play) 1694
Love for Love (play) 1695
The Way of the World (play) 1700
The Comical Revenge; or, Love in a Tub (play) 1664
She Wou'd If She Cou'd (play) 1668
The Man of Mode (play) 1676
The Recruiting Officer (play) 1706
The Beaux' Stratagem (play) 1707
The Good-Natur'd Man (play) 1768
She Stoops to Conquer (play) 1773
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
The Rivals (play) 1775
The School for Scandal (play) 1777
The Relapse: Or Virtue in Danger (play) 1696
The Provoked Wife (play) 1697
The Confederacy (play) 1705
The Country Wife (play) 1674
The Plain Dealer (play) 1676
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SOURCE: Dobrée, Bonamy. “The Framework” and “The Comedy of Manners.” In Restoration Comedy: 1660-1720, pp. 17-30;31-8. 1924. Reprint. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
[In the following excerpts from a work originally published in 1924, Dobrée provides background on Restoration society and describes differences between the comedy of manners and the earlier comedy of humours.]
Let us first examine briefly the soil in which this comedy grew.
The most hasty student of history regards the quarter-century succeeding the Restoration as one of unbridled licence, in which everybody from the king downwards was corruptible. He learns that morality was in abeyance, or at least submerged under a flood of not altogether joyous wickedness, and that ‘polite’ society was engaged in consciously living to the top of its bent, determined to extract what pleasure it could out of life. But this, of course, was not true of the whole community; it never could be, because always, somewhere beneath the surface, the normal life continues, quiet and self-possessed. Even about the court such men as Evelyn could exist, such women as Dorothy Osborne and the one who became Margaret Godolphin. But the lurid picture is at least superficially true of the society with which we have to do, that is, the society which patronized the theatre; amid the galaxy of wit...
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SOURCE: Hirst, David L. “The Seventeenth Century.” In Comedy of Manners, pp. 6-35. London: Methuen & Co Ltd, 1979.
[In the following essay, Hirst delineates the themes that distinguish the comedy of manners as a distinct genre and examines some of the works of the leading playwrights of the seventeenth century.]
I will believe, there are now in the world Good-natured friends, who are not prostitutes, And handsome women worthy to be friends: Yet, for my sake, let no one e'er confide In tears, or oaths, in love, or friend untried.
(William Wycherley: The Plain Dealer, 1676)
The terms Restoration comedy and comedy of manners have become virtually synonymous; but in the twentieth century both require careful reconsideration. The comedy of manners is a dramatic genre which has continued in England to the present day; Restoration comedy has always been a curious misnomer: Charles II came to the throne in 1660, and to describe all the comedies of the next fifty years as ‘Restoration’ is meaningless. The term is perhaps meaningful when considering those plays written during Charles's reign, but to apply it to the dramas produced under James II, William and Mary and Queen Anne, whose political policies and life-style differed greatly, is absurd. Certainly the comedies written in these five decades have much in common which distinguished them from the Jacobean...
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Criticism: Comedy Of Manners And Society
SOURCE: Palmer, John. “Critical Preliminaries.” In The Comedy of Manners, pp. 1-29. 1913. Reprint. New York: Russell & Russell, Inc., 1962.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1913, Palmer describes the impact that Jeremy Collier's Short View of the Profaneness and Immorality of the English Stage had on the comedy of manners.]
Who are the comic dramatists of the Restoration? Dryden wrote comedies; Shadwell's Squire of Alsatia was as popular in its day and regarded as of equal importance with The Country Wife; Sir Charles Sedley, Buckingham, and Rochester, have a claim to be included; Aphra Behn, Crowne and Settle could not very well be omitted in an exhaustive study of the comedy of the period; Otway was the author of no fewer than three original comedies; Colley Cibber was a formidable contemporary rival of Vanbrugh and Farquhar. But it is obviously impossible within the limits of a single volume to include every author of a comedy who wrote within a period of fifty years. What shall be our principle of selection?
The Leigh Hunt edition of the comic dramatists is a collected edition of the plays of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar. Apparently Macaulay had no fault to find with the selection of these four authors as the principal comic writers of the period. Hazlitt agrees. These are the four undoubtedly great figures in our comic...
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SOURCE: Sawyer, Newell W. “The Decline of a Tradition.” In The Comedy of Manners: From Sheridan to Maugham, pp. 1-21. 1931. Reprint. New York: Russell & Russell, 1969.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1931, Sawyer traces the evolution of comedy during the eighteenth century and discusses the societal forces and influences that provoked changes in the genre.]
It has been often attested that one gets close to the real soul of a man or a people through observing what that man or that people finds to laugh at. Without entering into the philosophy of the matter, however, we may at least be sure that the term “comedy” connotes larger possibilities than those of mere entertainment, and as a form of drama, for instance, affords a vehicle for the criticism of life. The purpose of our present discussion is to note the character and performance of a particular type of comedy, the comedy of manners, in England from the time of Sheridan's The School for Scandal to the beginning of the World War in 1914. When we contrast this type in its flourishing in 1700 and in its languishing in 1800 we are confronted with more than the vicissitudes of stage history: we glimpse in reflection significant changes in English society.
For a moment let us call to mind the nature of comedy in general and of the comedy of manners in particular.
Comedy may be said to...
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SOURCE: Mignon, Elisabeth. Introduction to Crabbed Age and Youth: The Old Men and Women in the Restoration Comedy of Manners, pp. 3-35. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1947.
[In the following essay, Mignon analyzes the comedy of manner's attack on old age and its reverence for youth, illustrating with numerous examples.]
Superannuated belles and timeworn rakes crowded the English stage between 1660 and 1700. The old women with their decayed charms are always pursuers, never pursued. The old men are predestined to wear the horns on their ugly foreheads. The aged of both sexes are loathsome to the gay young blades and precocious heroines who bewilder and victimize them. For it is the young who rule with arrogant ease the beau monde of these plays. It is the old who are intruders. To their highly sophisticated juniors they are merely old harridans and fossils.
The autumnal face of a lady past her rambling days, the palsies of a dotard are subjects for fun and raillery. The laughter of the young characters is most gay when these same old men and women have recourse to camouflage to hide their defects. For the aged dissemblers there is no escape from the supercilious glances of the fashionable gallants and belles.
The conflict between youth and old age furnishes many of the plots in these comedies. Airily superior for four acts, the younger generation always...
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Criticism: Comedy Of Manners And Women
SOURCE: McDonald, Margaret Lamb. “The Witty Heroine in Restoration Comedy: 1660-1690.” In The Independent Woman in the Restoration Comedy of Manners, pp. 46-97. Salzburg, Austria: Institut für Englische Sprache und Literatur, Universität Salzburg, 1976.
[In the following essay, McDonald studies the development of the intelligent heroine in the comedy of manners and examines how she uses mimicry and mockery to deflate the pretentious.]
What happens to the learned lady in Restoration comedy? After 1660 the affected woman of earlier seventeenth century comedy underwent still more modifications before she finally emerged as the truly witty heroine. True it is that the aging female philosopher introduced in Jonson's immortal Lady Pol, as well as the affected young lady or pseudo-scholar represented by Fletcher's Rosalura and Lillia Bianca, remain favorites during the Restoration in the works of Dryden, Shadwell, Mrs. Aphra Behn and a number of other playwrights. But among the major playwrights we note at the same time an attempt to picture a heroine who is not to be ridiculed for her learning. It is from this new treatment of the learned lady that the witty heroine emerges.
Professor Jean Gagen in her very thorough study, The New Woman in English Drama: 1600-1750, writes that most learned women in Restoration drama continued to be used as targets of satire, either good-natured...
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SOURCE: Gill, Pat. “A Trick Done with Mirrors.” In Interpreting Ladies: Women, Wit, and Morality in the Restoration Comedy of Manners, edited by John Stacey, pp. 1-21. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1994.
[In the following essay, Gill explores how Restoration playwrights used satire to deal with society's moral restrictions against sexualized females.]
Disappointed and angry at the critical response to The Double Dealer (1693), William Congreve included a peevish justification of the work in his dedication. In it he warns “the Ladies” offended by the vulgarity in his satirical portraits that moral objections reflect badly on those who find fault.1 Any lascivious depictions in this play, he archly contends, are figments of their own guilty imaginings: “I have heard some whispering, as if [the Ladies] intended to accuse this Play of Smuttiness and Bawdy: But I declare I took a particular care to avoid it, and if they find any in it, it is of their own making, for I did not design it to be so understood. But to avoid my saying anything upon a Subject which has been so admirably handled before, and for their better instruction, I earnestly recommend to their perusal the Epistle Dedicatory before the Plain Dealer.”2 Since William Wycherley, the author of the above-mentioned Epistle, dedicates it to a famous London bawd, Congreve's recommendation is...
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Ashton, John W. “The Comedy of Manners.” In Types of English Drama, pp. 385-88. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940.
Overview of the comedy of manners; discusses its characteristics and praises William Congreve's contributions.
Knutson, Harold C. “Corneille and the Comedy of Manners.” Papers on French Seventeenth Century 11, no. 21 (1984): 393-407.
Finds resemblances in tone, character, and structure between the English comedy of manners and the comedies of French dramatist Pierre Corneille.
Muir, Kenneth. “Decline and Renewal.” In The Comedy of Manners, pp. 154-65. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1970.
Views the late eighteenth-century comedies of Richard Brinsley Sheridan and Oliver Goldsmith as a revival of the comedy of manners, and a reaction to the sentimental comedy that had gained ascendancy.
Sharma, R. C. “The Gay and the Wild.” In Themes and Conventions in the Comedy of Manners, pp. 18-77. New York: Asia Publishing House, 1965.
Examines various characteristics and conventions in the depiction of the relations between the sexes in the comedy of manners.
Singh, Sarup. Family Relationships in Shakespeare and the Restoration Comedy of Manners. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983, 233...
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