Clifford Odets 1906-1963
Odets was one of the most prominent American playwrights of the 1930s. His first significant play, the one-act "Waiting for Lefty," with its leftist philosophy and powerful, realistic conflicts, was an immediate sensation when it was produced in 1935. Telling the story of a taxi drivers' union that is preparing to take a strike vote, "Waiting for Lefty," like many of Odets' other plays, depicts the search by working-class characters for a place in modern society. His works have sometimes been narrowly defined as mere "agitprop"—agitation-propaganda—plays, but Odets sought to move beyond the confines of political writing to address such issues as love, family, and personal integrity. Today, Odets' plays retain a historical significance for their depictions of American life after the Great Depression.
Odets was born in Philadelphia to Louis J. Odets and Pearl Geisinger Odets, and he grew up in a Jewish section of the Bronx in New York. His middle-class family had a prosperous business in the 1920s and was financially secure during the Depression. Odets quit high school and pursued poetry writing for a time, earning his father's anger and disappointment. When he decided to become a stage actor, his parents gave their qualified approval. He joined an amateur company and from 1925 to 1927 performed in radio plays, vaudeville acts, and summer stock productions. In 1930 he joined the Group Theatre. Founded by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford, and Lee Strasburg, the Group Theatre was intended to be a training program in which a unified acting method would forge the actors into a single organism. Furthermore, it was seen as an idealistic collective that would attempt to change society through the onstage presentation of politically activist views. Odets gained little recognition in the organization as an actor, but when the company began staging his plays, it achieved some of its most notable early successes. In 1935 four of Odets' plays were produced: "Waiting for Lefty" and the short play "Till the Day I Die" presented in a double bill, followed by the critically acclaimed Awake and Sing! and the critically attacked Paradise Lost. After the failure of this last play, Odets accepted a position as a scriptwriter for Paramount Studios in Hollywood. Refuting charges that he was "selling out," he contended that he could improve his craft and also help finance the Group Theatre. He returned to the Group Theatre in 1937 for the production of his next play, Golden Boy. This became the greatest commercial success of Odets' career. Following the failure of Odets' 1941 play, Clash by Night, the Group Theatre disbanded, and Odets returned to Hollywood. Although he continued to work in the theater, and had another success with The Country Girl in 1950, his most acclaimed later works were the scripts for such films as None but the Lonely Heart and Humoresque. Odets often spoke disparagingly of his film work, but he remained in Hollywood until his death.
Odets' career as a playwright is often divided by critics into three phases. The first and most important of these encompasses Odets' efforts as a proletarian dramatist. Odets joined the Communist Party in 1934, and "Waiting for Lefty," Awake and Sing!, and Paradise Lost were all written during his brief association with that group. These plays confirm leftist principles while declaring archaic the values of middle-class America. "Lefty" is so structured that the personal problems of the characters reflect the conflict between the labor union and the taxi company. Awake and Sing! examines the aspirations of a Jewish working-class family that has become disillusioned by an oppressive economic system. In Paradise Lost a middle-class businessman and his family are destroyed by a series of disasters. Each character in this play represents a particular middle-class value, and the catastrophes that befall them symbolize the fall of these values during the 1930s. The second phase of Odets' career includes plays involving personal relationships rather than direct social criticism. Golden Boy portrays the quest for success and the tragedies suffered as a result of faulty decisions and changes in values. The other plays in this group, Rocket to the Moon, Night Music, and Clash by Night, are love stories that focus more on plot and dialogue than on characterization and social commentary. The final phase of Odets' career comprises semi-autobiographical dramas with psychological overtones. Social commentary is nearly nonexistent in these late works. In The Big Knife a movie actor is offered a multimillion-dollar contract but wants to escape the corruption of the film industry and return to the New York stage. The Country Girl is about an alcoholic actor who attempts a comeback on Broadway with the help of his wife, on whom he is totally dependent. Odets' last play, The Flowering Peach, is adaptation of the biblical story of Noah. It is unusual in Odets' work for combining elements of comedy, philosophy, and theology.
By the end of 1935, Odets' impressive first year as a playwright, many critics were praising him as a genius who spoke for the American people. Later critics, however, considered Odets' early works propagandistic, with stereotypical characters and obvious messages. Recently, though, critics have begun to reappraise his plays, especially Awake and Sing! and The Flowering Peach. Odets' work is now appreciated for its moving dialogue and the author's belief in the nobility of humanity. The protagonists of Odets' plays are noted for their ceaseless battles to maintain their individuality despite pressure from the conformist forces of society. Odets has also been seen from a historical perspective as a skilled theatrical craftsman who captured the mood and spirit of a particular moment in the American experience.
"Waiting for Lefty" 1935
"Till the Day I Die" 1935
Awake and Sing! 1935
Paradise Lost 1935
The Silent Partner 1936
Golden Boy 1937
Rocket to the Moon 1938
Night Music 1940
Clash by Night 1941
The Russian People [adaptor; from a play by Konstantin Simonov] 1942
The Big Knife 1949
The Country Girl 1950
The Flowering Peach 1954
Golden Boy, the Musical [with William Gibson] 1964
The General Died at Dawn 1936
None but the Lonely Heart [adaptor; from a novel by Richard Llewellyn] 1944
Deadline at Dawn [adaptor; from a novel by William Irish] 1945
Humoresque [adaptor with Zachary Gold; from a novel by Fannie Hurst] 1945
The Sweet Smell of Success [adaptor with Ernest Lehman; from a short story by Lehman] 1957
The Story on Page One 1959
Wild in the Country 1960
(The entire section is 117 words.)
Some Problems of the Modern Dramatist (1935)
SOURCE: The New York Times, 15 December 1935, Section II, p. 1
[In the following article, Odets defends his technique of constructing plays without plots.]
No one will deny that all over the world today life is changing for better or worse for millions of human beings. Such changes have taken place before in history; and in each place where it has happened life has been a hell for the artist trying to express that time.
For as the established social order breaks down, the same process is working out in the artist's forms. Blithely, and with great talent, Mozart is able to spill twoscore or so symphonies on paper. Beethoven, a few years later, in a period of social flux, is able to write only nine, which means that the symphonic form was sufficiently stabilized for Mozart to keep minting out coins from the same mold, while his distinguished pupil had to make a new mold for each of his gold pieces.
Beethoven was caught in a period when society was slowly and surely swinging upward to what is now known as an individualistic society. Today that society is changing to something else. The serious artist—large or small talent—is finding again that the old forms fail him. He must make his own molds. Which brings us to the question of the "well-made three-act play."
Even a cursory...
(The entire section is 3784 words.)
Overviews And General Studies
Michael J. Mendelsohn (essay date 1963)
SOURCE: "Clifford Odets: The Artist's Commitment," in Literature and Society, edited by Bernice Slote, University of Nebraska Press, 1964, pp. 142-52.
[The following was originally presented as a conference paper in 1963. Mendelsohn views Odets' social and personal beliefs in the context of his early plays.]
Early in Clifford Odets' 1949 melodrama, The Big Knife, the central character recalls something significant about his youth:
My uncle's books—for that neighborhood—I'll bet he had a thousand! He had a nose for the rebels—London, Upton Sinclair—all the way back to Ibsen and Hugo. Hugo's the one who helped me nibble my way through billions of polly seeds. Sounds grandiose, but Hugo said to me: "Be a good boy, Charlie. Love people, do good, help the lost and fallen, make the world happy, if you can!" [I]
These words spoken by Charlie Castle have clear autobio-graphical overtones for anyone familiar with Odets' early life. More important, they provide one clue to our understanding of the mixture of proletarianism, humanitarianism, and intellectualism that is Clifford Odets.
But books are of secondary importance in Odets' career compared with the anxieties and ferment of the early depression years. The claim that Odets' work was a...
(The entire section is 19056 words.)
Awake And Sing!
Stark Young (review date 13 March 1935)
SOURCE: "Awake and Whistle at Least," in The New Republic, Vol. LXXXII, No. 1058, 13 March 1935, p. 134.
[In the following, Young offers a mixed review of Awake and Sing!, judging it a "workaday drama."]
There are a number of pertinent things to be said of the Group Theatre's last production. It is, in the first place, a piece written by a member of the Group itself; and that is a notable point. The direction was under Mr. Harold Clurman, one of the heads of the Group, and it was good directing in general, intelligent, full of a stage sense, and thoroughly foreseen. I thought it needed only greater variations in pitch. The company in general shows growth; technically, the whole performance of the play is more even and distributed among the individual players than has often been the case in the past. The play itself deserves genuine attention critically.
Awake and Sing shows great promise, especially in the field of melodrama. It begins, moves along and develops with real skill. The attention it exacts is definite and constant. The only boredom I felt was with the recurring ugliness, sometimes so prolonged that I was led to wonder why I should bother with such people as these characters seemed to be.
This effect of stridency and ugliness,...
(The entire section is 3783 words.)
"Waiting For Lefty
"WAITING FOR LEFTY
The Literary Digest (review date 6 April 1935)
SOURCE: "An Exciting Dramatist Rises in the Theater," in The Literary Digest, 6 April 1935, p. 18.
[In the following, the anonymous critic gives the dual bill of "Till the Day I Die" and "Waiting for Lefty" a favorable reception.]
In less than ninety days, toiling with the unrest of his times as a central theme, a young actor in the New York theater, a young actor who was competent, but never performance-material to make the heavens sing in praise of him, has become the most exciting spokesman the world of workers yet has produced, and, as something more than mere lagnappe to that feat, he has become perhaps the most articulate dramatist available in the theater.
Clifford Odets, almost a boy, lean, nervous, aflame with indignation at what he sees around him, is the author of three plays which have made his name a new force in drama, and his work a new power for the restoration of drama.
A few weeks ago the theater was slipping naturally and quietly into the sleep of spring. When everything else in nature awakens, it is the custom of the drama to close its eyes for the long snooze.
This season was no different, until, one night, not long ago, the Group Theater presented Awake and...
(The entire section is 2771 words.)
Joseph Wood Krutch (review date 13 November 1937)
SOURCE: A Review of Golden Boy, in The Nation, New York, Vol. 145, No. 20, 13 November 1937, p. 540.
[In the following review, Krutch states: "There are moments when Golden Boy seems near to greatness; there are others when it trembles on the edge of merely strident melodrama. "]
In Golden Boy Clifford Odets has written what is certainly his best play since Awake and Sing. To say this is to say that the piece exhibits unmistakable power and genuine originality, even though it is not, unfortunately, to deny that there is still in his work something which suggests imperfect mastery of a form he will probably have to invent for himself if he is ever to become completely articulate. There are moments when Golden Boy seems near to greatness; there are others when it trembles on the edge of merely strident melodrama.
Ostensibly the play deals with the career of a young Ital ian boy who abandons the fiddle for the prize ring because "you can't pay people back with music," and because he wants the money which will make him forget an embittered youth. Actually the theme is the same as the theme of Awake and Sing, and the power which Odets exhibits is again the power to suggest the lonely agony of souls...
(The entire section is 3787 words.)
Demastes, William W. Clifford Odets: A Research and Production Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991, 209 p.
Offers exhaustive lists of works by and about Odets as well as thorough descriptions of each play, including characters, plot summary, and critical overview for each.
Brenman-Gibson, Margaret. Clifford Odets: American Playwright: The Years from 1906 to 1940. New York: Atheneum, 1981, 749 p.
Focuses on Odets' psychological characteristics, pro viding insight into the person behind the plays.
Mendelsohn, Michael J. Clifford Odets: Humane Dramatist. Deland, Fla.: Everett/Edwards, 1969, 138 p.
Standard biographical material supplemented by personal interviews and correspondence with Odets.
Shuman, R. Baird. Clifford Odets. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962, 160 p.
Argues that Odets' later plays are as important as his earlier work and explores allegorical significance in all his writings.
Weales, Gerald. Odets the Playwright. New York: Methuen, 1985, 205 p.
Studies all of Odets' writings, from stage plays to screen plays, and includes newspaper interviews, reviews, and memoirs.
Odets, Clifford. "Genesis of a Play."...
(The entire section is 1094 words.)