For Further Discussion
1. Compare the policies of W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. Whose program promised more immediate gains for blacks? Was it possible for blacks to better their condition without pressing for the political and social rights advocated by Du Bois?
2. Was Washington’s case for black accommodation to white society an appropriate response to black grievances when viewed in a historical context? Why did Washington’s policies fall out of popularity after his death in 1915?
3. Even before the heyday of the civil rights movement in the mid–twentieth century, the black freedom struggle was characterized by both judicial activism and social activism. Did the legal machinery of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) preclude or insubstantiate A. Philip Randolph’s ideas on mass-action campaigns, or did the two approaches complement one another?
1. What evidence does Thurgood Marshall give to counter James Jackson Kilpatrick’s claim that southern racial practices were relatively benign?
2. Why did the authors and signers of the Southern Manifesto find the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education an abuse of judicial power? Explain how both Earl Warren and the Southern Manifesto authors use Plessy v. Ferguson to bolster their antithetical views regarding school segregation.
3. Does Louis Anthes...
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