Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta Exposition speech, which accepts segregation of the races.
The Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but equal treatment of the races is constitutional.
The Niagara Movement is founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and other black leaders to urge more direct action to achieve black civil rights.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is organized.
National Urban League is founded to help the conditions of urban African Americans.
Farrad Muhammad establishes in Detroit what will become the Black Muslim Movement.
A. Philip Randolph threatens a massive march on Washington unless the Roosevelt administration takes measures to ensure black employment in defense industries; Roosevelt agrees to establish Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC).
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is organized in Chicago.
Race riots in Detroit and Harlem cause black leaders to ask their followers to be less demanding in asserting their com- mitment to civil rights; A. Philip Randolph breaks ranks to call for civil disobedience against Jim Crow schools and railroads.
The Supreme Court, in Morgan v. The Commonwealth...
(The entire section is 1876 words.)
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