(Critical Survey of Literature, Revised Edition)

Chang-hi-tang, a beautiful girl of sixteen, was sold to a teahouse in Nanking by her mother. Her father, a market gardener and grower of silkworms, had been unable to pay his taxes, and in consequence he and his wife and children were driven from their home. Later, the father had hanged himself. Hi-tang’s brother, Chang-ling, was opposed to her sale into the house of ill fame but, being a poor scholar, he could do nothing to help his family. He took a part of the money paid for his sister and left Nanking to seek his own fortune.

On her first night in the teahouse, Hi-tang met Prince Po, one of the emperor’s many sons, and the young man was struck with her beauty and many accomplishments. The girl drew a circle of chalk to symbolize her fate. But before their love could be fulfilled, another man visited the teahouse. Mr. Ma, the mandarin and tax collector, outbid the prince and bought Hi-tang as his concubine.

One year later, Hi-tang had given birth to a boy. Mr. Ma, though a man given to sensual pleasure and money-seeking, felt real love for the concubine. Naturally, his childless lawful wife was jealous.

One day Chang-ling, in beggar’s rags, appeared at the door of Mr. Ma’s house. Hi-tang did not at first recognize him. Then he told her that he had joined a secret society, the Brotherhood of the White Lotus, whose purpose was to take revenge on the oppressors of the poor. Mr. Ma’s name was marked in the blacklist, and the gangsters intended to murder him and plunder and burn his house. Hi-tang tried to dissuade her brother by consulting the oracle. She drew a circle and threw a knife. Instead of striking inside the circle, the knife cut the chalk-line; it seemed the gods did not approve of the crime. Chang-ling then agreed to reconsider the case. Hi-tang gave him her fur jacket to protect him from cold.

Mrs. Ma, who had seen the stranger, reported to Mr. Ma that Hi-tang had been talking to a man, obviously a lover, and had given away her fur jacket. Mr. Ma was satisfied when Hi-tang said that the man was only her brother.

On the same day Chow, an official of justice in the local courts, was invited to Mr. Ma’s house to discuss a legal point. Mr. Ma was thinking of getting a divorce and raising Hi-tang to the rank of wife. Divorce to Mrs. Ma would mean the loss not only of her position but also of the inheritance of Mr. Ma’s property. Even if she remained the head wife, as Chow explained to her, the concubine and her boy would be the heirs to the property and she could expect to receive only a certain amount of allowance, as she was childless. She was desperate. But Chow was actually her paramour, so she could depend on his help.

Her solution came when Mr. Ma wanted a drink: she put in the tea the poison brought by Chow. It was Hi-tang who served the tea, so she became the suspect when Mr. Ma dropped dead after taking the drink. She was put under arrest and sent to the prison.

Chu-chu, the local judge, accepted a bribe from Mrs. Ma. Her position was further strengthened by the testimony of a midwife who declared that it was really Mrs. Ma who had...

(The entire section is 1283 words.)