Chinese Civil War (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: At issue: Control of China. Result: The unification of mainland China under Mao Zedong’s Chinese Communist Party.
After the last Chinese emperor was overthrown in 1911, Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party, or Guomindang (Kuomintang), became president of the new republic, although control of the country soon passed to Yuan Shikai. After Yuan’s death, heightened regional loyalties resulted in violence, and in the 1920’s, Russian agents promoted Marxist ideas and pressured Sun to accept communists in the Nationalist Party.
Sun fashioned a United Front in 1924 to bring communists and Nationalists together and established the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton. The object of the United Front was to extend the government of Nationalist China over regions controlled by provincial warlords, but Sun died in March, 1925, before realizing that goal.
He was succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek, who launched the two-year-long Northern Expedition against the warlords in 1926. With support from one warlord, Feng Yuxiang, who had his own National People’s Army, Chiang left his base in Canton to overcome resistance in Nanjing (1926), which became his new capital. From there he moved his army along the Yangtze towns to drive out Wu Pei-fu from Hankow and Wuchang in September, 1926. In March, 1927, Chiang took his army into Nanjing and...
(The entire section is 1001 words.)
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