Gilman, Charlotte Perkins (Feminism in Literature)
Adistinguished social reformer and feminist, Gilman produced several works of nonfiction devoted to her social and economic theories, as well as fictional texts embodying those principles. Her most famous works are The Yellow Wallpaper (1892), depicting a young mother's descent into madness, and the utopian fantasy Herland (1915).
BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIONBorn July 3, 1860, in Hartford, Connecticut, Gilman was the daughter of Frederick Beecher Perkins, a librarian and magazine editor, and Mary Fitch Wescott Perkins. She was the grandniece of the abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe, the feminist Catherine Beecher, and the suffragist Isabella Beecher Hooker. Gilman's father, known for his volatile temper, had difficulty measuring up to the standards of the Beecher family; he tried several professions before finally devoting himself to literature. He served as assistant director of the Boston Public Library, and in 1880 became director of the San Francisco Public Library. He left the family shortly after Gilman was born and provided only meager financial support on an irregular basis until 1873, when Mary Perkins filed for divorce. Plagued by financial difficulties, Gilman, her mother, and Gilman's older brother Thomas moved frequently and occasionally stayed with relatives. Gilman was thus exposed to the independence and social activism of her great aunts.
When she was fourteen, aided by an inheritance, Gilman began attending a private school. Within two years she was teaching art and working as a commercial artist. At the age of nineteen, Gilman began studying art at the Rhode Island School of Design, where she met her first husband, artist Walter Stetson. They were married in 1884 and a year later had a daughter, Katherine Beecher Stetson. Following Katherine's birth, Gilman began suffering from depression and traveled to California for an extended stay with her good friend, Grace Channing. When she returned, she began writing articles and poetry which were published in People, a weekly newspaper in Providence, and Women's Journal, a publication of the American Woman Suffrage Association. Her depression soon returned, however, and she consulted S. Weir Mitchell, the famous Philadelphia neurologist noted for his "rest cure." The prescribed treatment—complete inactivity and isolation—brought Gilman, in her own words, "perilously close to losing my mind." It was an experience that would later form the basis for The Yellow Wallpaper.
In 1887 the Stetsons separated, and mother and daughter moved to Pasadena, California, where Gilman took up life as a writer and activist. She lectured throughout the United States and England on labor reform and women's issues, and began publishing her nonfiction theoretical works. In 1891 she moved to Oakland and became active in a number of reform movements, including the Nationalist Party, a socialist group devoted to the program of social reform outlined in Edward Bellamy's novel Looking Backward: 2000-1887. In 1900 Gilman married George Houghton Gilman, who proved very supportive of her work as an activist. From 1909 to 1916 she served as writer and editor of The Forerunner, a monthly journal devoted to social reform, which featured Gilman's essays, poems, short stories, and sketches. In 1932 she was diagnosed with inoperable breast cancer; two years later her husband George died, and the following year Gilman took her own life to escape the pain and inevitability of a slow death from her condition. She died August 17, 1935.
During her lifetime, Gilman's most influential work was the theoretical piece Women and Economics (1898), in which she outlined the consequences of women's economic dependence, both for individual women and for society as a whole. Her other major theoretical writings include Concerning Children (1900), containing her thoughts on educating and disciplining children; The Home: Its Work and Influence (1903), dedicated to dispelling the common myths surrounding the sanctity of the home and describing the price women pay for lives of domestic service; and Human Work (1904), a discussion of the social and civic functions of labor, considered by Gilman her most important work.
Much of Gilman's literary output was published in her monthly magazine The Forerunner, which she published from 1909 to 1916, serving as both its editor and sole contributor. The magazine contained short stories and plays, poetry, essays, reviews of current books and articles, and an advice column called "Personal Problems." Some of her works, both fiction and nonfiction, were originally serialized in The Forerunner; one such work was The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture, which appeared in the magazine in 1909 and was published in book form two years later. Gilman's fictional contributions to the magazine were normally devoted to the themes and concerns raised in her works of social and political theory. Many of her stories involved the wrongs inflicted on women by men, including extramarital affairs, venereal diseases, and physical abuse.
Gilman is best known for her novella The Yellow Wallpaper, originally published in New England Magazine and reprinted in William Dean Howell's collection The Great Modern American Stories (1920). The work has been variously interpreted as a gothic horror story, a feminist polemic, and an autobiographical tale of the author's own experience with the popular medical treatment of Dr. S. Weir Mitchell. The Yellow Wallpaper, along with Gilman's feminist utopian novel Herland, were rediscovered by feminist scholars in the 1970s, after many decades of critical neglect. Herland originally appeared in serial form in The Forerunner (1915) and depicts an all-female world where men are unnecessary, even for reproduction. Three males from the outside world enter Herland and, along with three of its inhabitants, engage in an extended dialogue that points out the differences between their respective cultures. Both The Yellow Wallpaper and Herland were reissued in the 1970s and remain among the most-studied works in women's studies courses.
Gilman's reputation during her lifetime was based on the vast body of nonfiction work she produced on social and political issues. Her contemporaries praised Women and Economics, her most celebrated work, and compared it to John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women. Such social reformers as Jane Addams and Florence Kelly contributed to the book's positive reception. However, Women and Economics, like most of Gilman's writings, entered a long period of critical neglect until feminist scholars in the 1970s led a revival of interest in her fiction. A reassessment of her nonfiction works began later, with her treatise on women's economic dependence on men gaining recognition as an important work in the field of economics as well as in the area of women's studies.
Although scholars generally agree that Gilman was a pioneer in analyzing social and economic relationships based on gender, many modern critics fault the narrowness of her reformist vision. According to Ann J. Lane (see Further Reading), Gilman "seriously neglected issues of class, race, and ethnicity and their complex interaction with gender. She believed in laws of racial development, which today are read, usually correctly, as racist and ethnocentric." Similarly, Shelley Fisher Fishkin acknowledges that some of Gilman's theories "do not wear well" today, among them "her racism, her ethnocentrism, her anti-Semitism, her homophobia, her xenophobia, and her simplistic faith in evolutionary progress." However, many of Gilman's ideas on gender relations seem as relevant to contemporary students as they were in Gilman's own time, and Fishkin reports the widespread use of Gilman's texts in American college courses, ranging from literature and women's studies to economics and American studies.
Most prominent of the Gilman texts used in the classroom today is The Yellow Wallpaper. Catherine Golden reports that not only was the work virtually unknown until the early 1970s, Gilman originally had great difficulty getting the story published. Golden reprints a rejection letter from the editor of the Atlantic Monthly, who was so disturbed by the piece that he claimed he could not make his readers as miserable as he had made himself by reading it. In the twenty-first century, the work frequently appears in anthologies and has established "a firm place in the feminist literary canon," according to Golden, and criticism of the story has reached a point of such complexity that "critics openly debate central aspects of the story with each other," and are "as actively engaged in reading and responding to each other's interpretations of 'The Yellow Wallpaper' as they are in reading the story itself." Golden attributes this debate to the open-ended quality of the text, which "seems to raise more questions than it answers."
"The Yellow Wallpaper" (novella) 1892; published in book form as The Yellow Wallpaper 1899
In This Our World (poetry) 1893
"The Rocking Chair" (short story) 1893
Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution (nonfiction) 1898
Concerning Children (essay) 1900
The Home: Its Work and Influence (essay) 1903
Human Work (essay) 1904
The Punishment That Educates (essay) 1907
Women and Social Service (essay) 1907
"The Cottagette" (short story) 1910
What Diantha Did (novel) 1910
The Crux (novel) 1911
Something to Vote For (play) 1911
"Making a Change" (short story) 1911
The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture (essay) 1911
Moving the Mountain (novel) 1911
"Turned" (short story) 1911
Benigna Machiavelli (novel) 1914
Herland (novel) 1915
With Her in Ourland (novel) 1916
His Religion and Hers: A Study of the Faith of Our Fathers and the Work of Our Mothers (essay) 1923
The Living of Charlotte Perkins...
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SOURCE: Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Women and Economics." In The American Reader: Words That Moved a Nation, edited by Diane Ravitch, pp. 205-06. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990.
In the following excerpt from her 1898 book Women and Economics, Gilman discusses the cost of the restrictions placed upon women in America—to individuals and to society as a whole.
What we do modifies us more than what is done to us. The freedom of expression has been more restricted in women than the freedom of impression, if that be possible. Something of the world she lived in she has seen from her barred windows. Some air has come through the purdah's folds, some knowledge has filtered to her eager ears from the talk of men. Desdemona learned somewhat of Othello. Had she known more, she might have lived longer. But in the ever-growing human impulse to create, the power and will to make, to do, to express one's new spirit in new forms,—here she has been utterly debarred. She might work as she had worked from the beginning,—at the primitive labors of the household; but in the inevitable expansion of even those industries to professional levels we have striven to hold her back. To work with her own hands, for nothing, in direct body-service to her own family,—this has been permitted,—yes, compelled. But to be and to do anything...
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SOURCE: Hill, Mary A. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Feminist's Struggle with Womanhood." In Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Woman and Her Work, edited by Sheryl L. Meyering, pp. 31-50. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1989.
In the following essay, originally published in 1980, Hill discusses the development of Gilman's feminism within the confines of her prescribed roles as wife and mother.
In a letter written from Belmont, New Hampshire, September 2, 1897, Charlotte Perkins Stetson exclaimed, "Thirty-five hundred words I wrote this morning, in three hours!" A book's chapter in one sitting; a successive six-week dizzy pace of morning writing; elaborate consultations with her closest critic, Houghton Gilman, soon to be her second husband; and thus was Women and Economics dashed into print. Jane Addams, already emerging as one of America's foremost social reformers, expressed her gratitude to Charlotte, her "pleasure and satisfaction," her "greatest admiration" for the "Masterpiece." Florence Kelly, another pioneer of social settlement reform viewed it as "the first real, substantial contribution made by a woman to the science of economics." According to The Nation, "Since John Stuart Mill's essays on The Subjection of Women, there has been no book dealing with the whole position of women to approach it in...
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SOURCE: Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. "Reading Gilman in the Twenty-First Century." In The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, edited by Catherine J. Golden and Joanna Schneider Zangrando, pp. 209-22. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2000.
In the following essay, Fishkin discusses Gilman's ideas and writings she deems relevant to contemporary students, and speculates on Gilman's potential reaction to the current condition of women.
When Constance Coiner took a job as an assistant professor at SUNY-Binghamton, she tells us that she
went immediately to the public elementary school, where the principal told me that the kindergarten Ana would attend ended at 10:30 A.M. Having had my expectations affected by 16 years in what Sixty Minutes dubbed the People's Republic of Santa Monica, California, I asked, "And what provisions are made for children after 10:30?" "Oh, their mothers come and pick them up," he offered with a shrug. "What about parents who work outside the home?" I said, emphasizing "parents" through gritted teeth. "Oh, they get babysitters," he replied.>1>
It was much more than a purely "academic" exercise, then, when Constance required her students that semester—most of whom were prelaw or pre-med or pre-graduate school—to...
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CATHERINE GOLDEN (ESSAY DATE 1992)
SOURCE: Golden, Catherine. "One Hundred Years of Reading 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" In The Captive Imagination: A Casebook on "The Yellow Wallpaper," edited by Catherine Golden, pp. 1-23. New York: The Feminist Press, 1992.
In the following essay, Golden offers a comprehensive overview of criticism on The Yellow Wallpaper.
The redefinition of the literary canon has directed attention to a number of overlooked works by late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century women writers. Prominent among this group is Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." From its first publication in the January 1892 issue of New England Magazine1 until the early 1970s, "The Yellow Wallpaper" was virtually unknown; it found its way into only a few collections of short fiction between 1892 and 1972.2 A cursory glance at the chronologically arranged Table of Contents and Bibliography of this book reveals the critical attention this complex and controversial story has received since it was republished in 1973. Along with Herland, "The Yellow Wallpaper" has gained distinction among the fiction produced by Gilman, a leading turn-ofthe-century feminist lecturer and writer;3 her fictional account of a psychological breakdown offers a chilling...
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Scharnhorst, Gary. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985, 203 p.
Comprehensive bibliography of Gilman's works and biographical sources, and a brief selection of criticism devoted to her work.
Kessler, Carol Farley. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Her Progress Toward Utopia with Selected Writings New York: Syracuse University Press, 1995, 316 p.
Offers a biography of Gilman and a critical bibliography.
Lane, Ann J. To "Herland" and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990, 432 p.
Comprehensive biography covering the hardships and difficulties Gilman faced and the relationship between her life and her work.
Allen, Polly Wynn. Building Domestic Liberty: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Architectural Feminism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988, 195 p.
Examination of Gilman's architectural designs for feminist domestic spaces, landscapes, and neighborhoods.
Beer, Janet. "The Means and Ends of Genre...
(The entire section is 648 words.)