Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography


(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on June 20, 1858, the first child of Andrew Jackson and Ann Maria Sampson Chesnutt. Charles’ parents had met as members of a northbound wagon train of free people of color leaving Fayetteville, North Carolina, where legal and social restrictions imposed on free blacks had become intolerable. Andrew served with the Union forces as a teamster in the Civil War, after which the family moved back to Fayetteville, where Andrew opened a grocery store with the aid of his father, Waddell Cade, a white man and former slaveholder.

Ann Maria died in 1871, the store failed soon after, and Charles was forced to drop out of the Howard School (which has since evolved into Fayetteville State University) to help support the family. Recognizing Charles’s exceptional ability, his principal immediately hired him as a student-teacher at age fourteen. Chesnutt became the principal of the Howard School at age eighteen, then returned to the newly established State Colored Normal School in Fayetteville, a teacher-training institution for African American students, as a teacher and assistant to the principal.

Chesnutt married Susan Perry, a fellow teacher, in 1878 and became principal of the Normal School in 1880, at the age of twenty-two. Discouraged by the unjust treatment of blacks in the South, by 1883 he had trained himself in stenography well enough to resign from his position and find work in the North. He eventually settled in Cleveland, where he worked as a legal stenographer and studied law, passing the Ohio bar examination in 1887 with the highest scores in his class. Chesnutt capitalized on his stenographic and legal training to set up a court-reporting business, which quickly became profitable.

That same year, he published his first important story, “The Goophered Grapevine,” in the August,...

(The entire section is 767 words.)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Chesnutt failed to achieve his ambitious project of reforming the social consciousness of his white audience, but he nevertheless succeeded in earning national fame and the respect of the literary establishment. As Chesnutt himself said of his literary career, “My books were written, from one point of view, a generation too soon. . . . I was writing against the trend of public opinion on the race question at that particular time.” Later generations of readers have proven more receptive to his insightful analyses of racial injustice. While his success in balancing the demands of entertainment and moral purpose has made the folklore tales of The Conjure Woman his more widely read work, critics have more recently come to appreciate the artistry and power of his later, more realistic short stories and novels.

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on June 20, 1858. He attended Cleveland public schools and the Howard School in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Having distinguished himself academically early in his schooling, Chesnutt was taken into the tutelage of two established educators, Robert Harris of the Howard School and his brother, Cicero Harris, of Charlotte, North Carolina. He later succeeded Cicero Harris as principal of the school in Charlotte in 1877 and followed this venture with an appointment to the Normal School in Fayetteville to train teachers for colored schools.

On June 6, 1878, Chesnutt was married to Susan Perry. Shortly after his marriage, he began his training as a stenographer. Even at this time, however, his interest in writing competed for his energies. He spent his spare time writing essays, poems, short stories, and sketches. His public writing career began in December of 1885 with the printing of the story “Uncle Peter’s House” in the Cleveland News and Herald. Several years passed and “The Goophered Grapevine” was accepted by The Atlantic Monthly and published in 1888. Continuing his dual career as a man of letters and a businessman/attorney for more than a decade after his reception as a literary artist, Chesnutt decided, on September 30, 1899, to devote himself full-time to his literary career. From that moment on he enjoyed a full and productive career as a man of letters.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Chesnutt became more politically active as a spokesman for racial justice. He toured the South and its educational institutions such as Tuskegee Institute and Atlanta University. He joined forces with black leaders such as Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois. In May of 1909, he became a member of the National Negro Committee, which later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The last two decades of Chesnutt’s life were less active because his health began to fail him in 1919. He was, however, elected to the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce in 1912. Chesnutt continued to write until his death on November 15, 1932.

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born on June 20, 1858, in Cleveland, Ohio. When he was nine years old, his family moved to Fayetteville, North Carolina, where he spent his youth. Although he was of African American descent, his features barely distinguished him from Caucasians. He learned, however, that family blood was very important in determining a person’s social and economic prospects.

Chesnutt’s mother died in 1871, when he was thirteen years old. Two years later, he left school to take a teaching job, in order to supplement the family income. In 1878, he married Susan Perry, a fellow teacher and daughter of a well-to-do black barber in Fayetteville. He had begun teaching in 1877 at the new State Colored Normal School in Fayetteville, and in 1880 he became principal of that school.

On a job-hunting trip to Washington, D.C., in 1879, Chesnutt was unable to find work. He had been studying stenography and hoped to obtain a job on a newspaper. In 1883, he was able to begin a new career as a stenographer and reporter in New York City, and shortly afterward he moved to Cleveland, where he was first a clerk and then a legal stenographer. Two years later, he began studying law, and in 1887, he passed the Ohio bar examination with the highest grade in his group. He opened his own office as a court reporter in 1888.

Between 1887 and 1899, beginning with the publication of “The Goophered Grapevine” by The Atlantic Monthly, he achieved some success as a short-story writer. In 1899, when Houghton Mifflin published two collections of his short stories, he gave up his profitable business and began writing novels full time—something he had dreamed of doing for many years.

His first published novel, The...

(The entire section is 720 words.)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on June 20, 1858, but spent most of his childhood in Fayetteville, North Carolina. He began teaching there at the age of sixteen, becoming principal of the State Normal School at Fayetteville when he was only twenty-three. In Fayetteville, he also learned the stenographic skills that enabled him to achieve financial security. He left North Carolina in 1883 and settled in Cleveland, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar, passing the exam in 1887.

Although he was happy earning a living in the legal profession, his true passion was writing. His earliest successes were his sketches and short stories; his earliest significant publication was in 1885. Chesnutt’s two main interests were the customs, folklore, and superstitions of African Americans and the sociological and legal problems with which American civilization confronted blacks. He drew upon his early southern experience for the former and upon his legal training in the North for the latter. Frederick Douglass, whom Chesnutt made the subject of a book, was one of the first to see the value of African American folklore; Chesnutt expanded upon Douglass’s insight and made such material the focus of many of his stories. Chesnutt’s treatment of African American folklore is similar to that of the Uncle Remus stories.

His first published short-story collection is his best known; The Conjure Woman contains his most widely read story, “The Goophered Grapevine,” and five other stories that utilize dialect. The Wife of His Youth, and Other Stories of the Color Line contains nine stories, including “The Sheriff’s Children.” Chesnutt was the first African American author to have a story published in a major literary magazine (Atlantic Monthly). His novels were less successful than his stories. Both The House Behind the Cedars and The Marrow of Tradition are concerned with African American social problems and with the newly emerging black middle class.

New scholarly research has contributed to a growing understanding of the complexities of African American life and literature in the nineteenth century. This research has contradicted, or at the least has mitigated, previously held opinions that in his novels character and plot are often subordinated to propagandistic and didactic interests. His characterizations, in fact, can be unpredictable and intriguing. Chesnutt died in Cleveland in 1932.

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(eNotes Publishing)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1858, the son of two free African Americans. Both of his grandfathers were white, and his grandmothers were probably of mixed racial ancestry as well. Although his own physical appearance seemed more “white” than “black,” Chesnutt self-identified as black and bore the stigma of race as a result. For these reasons, many of Chesnutt’s short stories dealt with characters of mixed racial heritage and the issue of “passing,” where a person of African American descent would live under the identity of a white.

In 1866, Chesnutt’s family moved to Fayetteville, North Carolina, where Charles attended a Freedmen Bureau school, became a teacher, and then a...

(The entire section is 279 words.)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Charles Waddell Chesnutt was born in 1858 in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of free African Americans who had left the South a few years...

(The entire section is 601 words.)