Blood, Susan. Baudelaire and the Aesthetics of Bad Faith. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997. Examines the role of Baudelaire in the history of modernism and the development of the modernist consciousness. Detailed analysis of the poetry, especially its relationship to Baudelaire’s writings on caricature and the problem of its “secret architecture.” Also examines the nature of Baudelaire’s symbolism.
Evans, Margery A. Baudelaire and Intertextuality. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Study of Paris Spleen, 1869, which validates its reassessment as a work that rivals the success of Flowers of Evil. Sees these prose poems as hybrid works that set themselves up for comparison with the novel as much as with lyric poetry.
Hyslop, Lois Boe. Charles Baudelaire Revisited. New York: Twayne, 1992. Useful and uncomplicated general introduction to the life and work of Baudelaire. Sees Baudelaire as transforming his emotional torment into aesthetic form, and as finding both beauty and spiritual revelations within the dark side of modernity. Discusses Paris Spleen, 1869 and Flowers of Evil as major works and pays much attention to Baudelaire’s theories of art. Includes a chronology and bibliography.
Leakey, F. W. Baudelaire: “Les Fleurs du mal.” Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Thorough, appreciative, and thoughtful introduction to Flowers of Evil, with particular attention to the sociopolitical context in which the poems were written. Includes a detailed discussion of individual poems and a bibliography.
Richardson, Joanna. Baudelaire. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. (See Magill’s Literary Annual review) A reliable and well-documented biography.
Thompson, William J., ed. Understanding “Les Fleurs du mal.” Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1997. Collection of sixteen essays by various authors on Flowers of Evil, with the express purpose of giving students a clear, scholarly introduction to the poems. Each essay selects one particular poem for detailed discussion, and the analysis may be theoretical or textual. Essays represent a variety of critical perspectives, including feminist, Jungian, sociopolitical, and structuralist.