Catherine Gore 1799(?)-1861
(Born Catherine Grace Frances Moody; also wrote under the pseudonyms CD., D.F.G., Mrs. Charles Gore, and Albany Poyntz) English novelist, dramatist, nonfiction writer, poet, and composer.
Gore was one of the most popular authors of the "fashionable novel," or "silver-fork novel," a romance genre popular from the mid-1820s to 1850. In her lifetime, Gore wrote more than sixty novels, dramas, and verse, most of them published anonymously; among her best-known novels are Mothers and Daughters: A Tale of the Year 1830 (1831), Mrs. Armytage; or, Female Domination (1836), and Cecil; or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb (1841). Like many silver-fork novelists, Gore wrote detailed depictions of the upper classes during the reign of George IV (1811 to 1830). She often portrayed dominant men and submissive women, who content themselves with subordinate positions in their marriages, homes, and families. Gore has been criticized for her inclusion of copious details involving scandals, gossip, etiquette, social gatherings, and fashion; she is singled out, however, for her sharp and realistic portrayal of upper-class life, as well as for her satirization of her aristocratic subjects. Among her most avid readers were middle-class women, with whom she often sympathized and who looked to her novels for instruction in such details as proper dress and behavior, and how to converse.
Although Gore was one of the most popular silver-fork novelists, little is known about her life—Gore herself concealed much about her origins. She is believed to have been born in East Retford, Nottinghamshire, in 1799, to a merchant-class family. After her father's death, the family moved to London, where Gore was educated primarily at home. She began writing novels, poetry, and short fiction in the 1820s. In 1823, she married army officer Charles Arthur Gore, who retired soon thereafter, and with whom she had ten children. After her marriage, Gore rose to prominence in the London high society that would serve as the subject for her most successful fashionable novels, beginning with Women as They Are; or, Manners of the Day in 1830. In 1832 the Gores moved to Paris, which again offered a rich setting for many of her novels; by then, Gore was supporting her family with her prolific writing. In the early 1830s, Gore also wrote several plays that were moderately successful—including The School for Coquettes (1831)—but none were nearly as popular as her books. In 1840, the Gores returned to England. The publication in 1841 of Gore's best-known novel, Cecil; or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb, caused a stir in high-class circles, but little commotion elsewhere; by then the popularity of the fashionable novel was waning. Gore was plagued by misfortune later in life, beginning with her husband's death in 1846. In addition, after receiving a substantial inheritance from a relative, Gore lost the money in a bank fraud in 1855. She was forced into retirement in 1858 by failing eyesight—an irony given her reputation as a sharp-eyed observer of the upper classes—and died on January 29, 1861, in Lyndhurst, Hampshire.
Although Women as They Are was Gore's first fashionable novel, Pin Money (1831) was her first success. The moral in Pin Money, as in many of her novels, is that the husband should be dominant while the wife remains submissive—and therefore closer to the "feminine ideal". In Pin Money, for example, the female protagonist voluntarily relinquishes control of her allowance to her husband after she nearly bankrupts herself with extravagant purchases. Manipulative women are punished in Mothers and Daughters: A Tale of the Year 1830—only the female character who marries for love achieves happiness, unlike the woman who attempts to raise her social standing through marriage. In Mrs. Armytage; or, Female Domination (1836), one of Gore's few nonfashionable novels, the author portrays the powerful, manipulative title character as "unnatural," stretching, as she does, the boundaries of her "proper" sphere of home and family. Gore's novels also demonstrate a wistfulness for the waning Regency era. In The Hamiltons; or, The New Era (1834), Gore tells of a married member of Parliament, who devotes all his energies to retaining his office. According to critics, Gore's depiction of the Tories' sole concentration on office-holding reveals her bias toward the Whig (or reform) party. In her best-known novel, Cecil; or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb, Gore also celebrated the London Regency era: the title character, a conceited and adventurous young man, enters London society, engages in several romantic liaisons, visits Europe with Byron, and obtains the family fortune, before eventually finding himself in the court of George IV.
In the preface to Pin Money, Gore stated her intent "to transfer the familiar narrative of [Jane] Austen to a higher sphere of society." Although the subject matter of the two authors is similar, Gore never attained the literary status of Austen. Gore herself, in fact, recognized the lack of literary value in her work, referring to her "sickly progenitor of fashionable novels," and once confiding to the editor of the Athenaeum: "I was a reader of rubbish long before I became a writer of it." Critics generally describe Gore's novels as caricature. Her stories tend to be largely superficial, with little character or plot development, and filled with "puffing," or the incessant name-dropping of shops and tradesmen that catered to the upper class. Her writing is also highly affected, according to critics, filled with an overabundance of foreign phrases, quotations, allusions, and polysyllabic words. For these shortcomings, Thackeray parodied her work in his "Novels by Eminent Hands" in 1847. Yet even Thackeray, like other critics, found room to praise her for her detailed observations of the manners and mores of upper-crust society, as well as for her ability, unlike other silver-fork novelists, to satirize her subjects with her sharp wit. Likewise, Charlotte Brontë praised The Hamiltons in a letter to Gore: "I found in its pages not the echo of another mind—the pale reflection of a reflection—but the result of original observation, and faithful delineation from actual life." Gore's work continues to be of interest from a historical perspective, as scholars acknowledge her as an accurate chronicler of fashionable society during the Regency period.
The Two Broken Hearts (verse) 1823
Hungarian Tales (short stories) 1829
Women as They Are; or, Manners of the Day (novel) 1830
Pin Money (novel) 1831
Mothers and Daughters: A Tale of the Year 1830 (novel) 1831
The School for Coquettes (drama) 1831
The Fair of May Fair (short stories) 1832; republished as The Miseries of Marriage; or, The Fair of May Fair 1834
The Sketch Book of Fashion (novel) 1833
The Hamiltons; or, The New Era (novel) 1834
The Diary of a Désennuyée (novel) 1836
Mrs. Armytage; or, Female Domination (novel) 1836
The Cabinet Minister (novel) 1839
The Dowager; or, The New School for Scandal (novel) 1840
Preferment; or, My Uncle the Earl (novel) 1840
Greville; or, A Season in Paris (novel) 1841
Cecil; or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb (novel) 1841
Cecil; a Peer (novel) 1841; republished as Ormington; or, Cecil: a Peer 1842
The Money-Lender (novel) 1843; republished as Abednego 1854
The Banker's Wife; or, Court and City (novel) 1843
Quid Pro Quo; or, The Day of the Dupes (drama) 1844
The Dean's Daughter; or, The Days We Live In (novel) 1853
Progress and Prejudice (novel) 1854
The Two Aristocracies (novel) 1857
Heckington: A Novel (novel) 1858
SOURCE: Review of Pin Money, in Westminster Review, Vol. 15, October, 1831, pp. 433-42.
[In the following review, the anonymous writer criticizes Pin Money for its puffing—its indiscriminate name-dropping of upper-class shops and tradesmen—but finds that the novel contains "exceedingly clever sketches of society."]
Pin Money is a novel which shews, in three volumes, the danger of a married lady's possessing four hundred a year independent of her husband. A person reasoning of these times in another age, might be led into a great mistake, by considering as an indication of the vast diffusion of wealth in this country, that...
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SOURCE: "New Novels: Mrs. Gore's Greville; or, A Season in Paris, and Bulwer's Night and Morning" in Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. 8, March, 1841, pp. 186-91.
[In the excerpt below, Johnstone praises Greville; or, A Season in Paris for capturing the characteristic differences between the French and English aristocracies.]
The novel season of 1841 has opened brilliantly. Sir Edward Bulwer makes his bow to the public, after an absence of three years; Mrs. Gore her curtsy, after about the same number of months. The former occupies his original English ground, with no diminution of force and vigour, and with ripened experience of men and manners; the...
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SOURCE: "Female Novelists," in New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 95, June, 1852, pp. 157-68.
[In the following overview of several of Gore's novels, Jacox—who contends that "the fashionable novel occupies but humble rank" among literary genres—nevertheless praises Gore for her "facile mastery of the materials with which she works."]
What constitutes a first-rate novel is a problem which might raise consternation in the senate-house of Cambridge; a problem knotty enough to stagger the entire corporation of wranglers, and strike the senior ops "all of a heap," and impel the junior ops (wooden spoon and all) to take refuge in suicide. When a plenary and...
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SOURCE: "A Ladies' Miscellany," in A Victorian Album: Some Lady Novelists of the Period, Columbia University Press, 1946, pp. 3-45.
[In the following excerpt, Stebbins finds Gore's novels "insipid, " criticizing their lack of plot development and well-drawn characters, and pointing out her tendency to over-indulge in foreign phrases and polysyllabic words.]
The always moral, always trite [Catherine] Gore (1800-1861) exerted royal authority over English readers by a combination of inflexible standards of behavior and a knowledge of aristocratic circles. Where she learned so much about the upper classes is a matter of conjecture; she was born into a mercantile family,...
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SOURCE: "The Writings of Catherine Gore," in Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. X, No. 1, Summer, 1976, pp. 404-23.
[In this excerpt, Anderson uses a feminist perspective to identify the "womanly ideology" present in both Gore's work and many present-day romance novels, and argues that is it this motif that is the source of their appeal to women of all classes.]
By the end of the eighteenth century woman's position in society was beginning to be discussed in Western Europe. The political revolutions in America and France, with their emphasis on individual rights; the romantic cult of sensibility, which stressed the value of emotions and the heart; the new concern with...
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SOURCE: "Transmuting the Commonplace: A Problem of Style," in The Novelist and Mammon: Literary Responses to the World of Commerce in the Nineteenth Century, Clarendon Press, 1986, pp. 188-208.
[In the following excerpt, Russell examines Gore's novels of the 1840s, when she focused on financial issues, and finds her an objective and judicious observer of money in relation to mid-nineteenth-century society.']
Of all nineteenth-century novelists who turned their attention to the City and its doings, [Catherine] Gore was the most faithful to reality, and the best able to solve the problems of presentation caused by the demands of structure, setting, and style. Virtually...
(The entire section is 2900 words.)