The Catcher in the Rye heralds the America of the 1950s: the Eisenhower-Nixon administrations, the McCarthy investigations, the men in the grey flannel suits. It was a world of economic expansion and social complacency. The young, blacks, and women had little power, yet the voice of protest was muted. It seemed that things would go on in the same way for a long time.
This is the society in which Holden Caulfield lives. Speaking for many of his generation, he rails at the phoniness of his world but feels incapable of effecting any meaningful change. He cannot even connect with another individual. His instinct is to cut and run. In vivid and concrete detail, The Catcher in the Rye thus anticipates the major catchwords of the 1950s: alienation, the silent generation, the lonely crowd. Although the novel has been criticized for not dealing with specific social issues, time has shown that it caught the peculiar social malaise of the 1950s with remarkable accuracy.
The most obvious theme of The Catcher in the Rye is the conflict between the individual and society. Holden abhors the phoniness of his world. An idealist, he wants people to meet on a purely human basis, an I-thou relationship; but this son of a wealthy corporation lawyer is sensitive to the barriers erected between individuals and classes by the bourgeois materialism of midcentury America. Genuine communication remains problematical. The novel suggests the rich ambiguities latent in this theme. Is something wrong with the individual because of his inability to adjust to his society? Or is something wrong with a society that alienates such an individual? Must Holden choose between the extremes of conformity and dropping out, or is there a possibility of improving the society?
The novel also has a more "philosophical" theme. Holden struggles not only with society but also against Time, the bringer of old age, decay, and death. During puberty, Holden learns that Time is the great destroyer when his beloved younger brother, Allie, dies of leukemia. Consequently, Holden wants to stop time. He loves the Museum of Natural History because "everything stayed right where it was. Nobody'd move." Holden wants to be "the catcher in the rye," to catch the kids before they fall over the cliff into the phony adult world of time and death. But his young sister, Phoebe, teaches him a better way. First, she reminds him that the line...
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