Cary, Elizabeth Tanfield, Viscountess Falkland
Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, Viscountess Falkland 1585/6–1639
English dramatist, translator, and biographer.
Elizabeth Tanfield Cary was the first woman to publish a full-length original play in English, The Tragedie of Mariam, Faire Queene of Jewry (1613). Considered her most important work, the play was widely circulated during her lifetime, and may have influenced such works as Othello and The Second Maiden's Tragedy. Although few of the works Cary is purported to have written still exist, modern critics have found in Cary a unique response to Renaissance England informed by her lifelong struggle against religious, political, and domestic tyranny.
According to The Lady Falkland, Her Life (1861), a biography of Cary commonly attributed to one of her daughters, Elizabeth Tanfield was born in 1585 or 1586 to Elizabeth Symondes and her husband Lawrence Tanfield, a successful Oxford lawyer and later Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. At a young age, the precocious child taught herself French, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Hebrew, and Transylvanian, and translated Seneca's Epistles and Ortelius' Le Miroir du Monde. Her rebellious view of Protestantism began during her youth; at the age of twelve she allegedly found internal contradictions in Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion.
When she was sixteen, Elizabeth Tanfield married Sir Henry Cary, a knight's son and member of the Privy Council. Cary was ten years her senior, and some critics contend that their marriage was socially motivated: Cary's title raised the Tanfields from the upper middle class to the gentry and the Tanfield fortune raised Cary from the gentry to the peerage. Immediately following the marriage, Henry Cary served in military expeditions abroad while Elizabeth lived with her mother-in-law. Forcefully deprived of books by her mother-in-law, Elizabeth began writing recreationally; she completed several works during this period, including two plays, a life of Tamburlaine, and The Tragedie of Mariam.
In approximately 1607, Henry Cary returned from his military service abroad. He and his wife began living together for the first time and Elizabeth eventually gave birth to eleven surviving children. In 1620, Henry Cary was named viscount of Falkland and shortly afterward was appointed Lord Chief Deputy of Ireland. In order to finance the move to Dublin so that her husband could
assume his post, Elizabeth Cary mortgaged her jointure, which caused her father to disinherit her in favor of her son Lucius. Cary's marriage began to disintegrate shortly thereafter. While her husband tried to force Anglican rule on a large population of Irish Catholics, Elizabeth Cary's Catholic sympathies became more pronounced and she flaunted Protestant authority. When her conversion to Catholicism, which had taken place secretly in 1604, became public in 1626, Henry feared she would damage his career as a courtier and he abandoned her, taking custody of their children and stripping her of their wealth. Cary lived in semi-starvation and eventually appealed for an allowance before the Privy Council in 1627. Although the Council instructed Henry to give her 500 pounds per annum, seven months later he still had not complied with the order.
Still, Cary continued writing, including verse lives of Mary Magdalene, Agnes Martyr, and St. Elizabeth of Portugal; hymns to the Virgin Mary; The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II (1680); and translations of Cardinal du Perron. Published in France in 1630, Cary's translation of The Reply of the Most Illustrious Cardinall of Perron, to the Answeare of the Most Excellent King of Great Britaine was smuggled into England but was suppressed by Archbishop Abbot and ordered to be publicly burned. Cary was jailed by Charles I in hopes that she would recant, but after her imprisonment she kidnapped her two youngest sons, Patrick and Henry, and, defying the Star Chamber, smuggled them to the continent. By the time of her death, six of her children had converted to Catholicism and were living in France. Toward the end of her life, Cary began translating the writings of Blosius, some of which may be extant in manuscript. She died of lung disease in 1639 and was buried in the chapel of Queen Henrietta Maria.
Cary is primarily recognized for her drama The Tragedie of Mariam, Faire Queene of Jewry. A Senecan tragedy that draws on Josephus' Antiquities, The Tragedie of Mariam depicts the relationship between King Herod and his wife Mariam. In the play, Mariam reacts to a rumor that her husband has been executed: while she regrets his death, she rejoices in her newfound freedom from tyranny. Later in the play, however, Herod returns and is convinced by his sister Salome that Mariam had been unfaithful. In a fit of anger, Herod has her executed, only to regret his action and lament Mariam's death. The Tragedie of Mariam circulated in manuscript form for years and, although the play was never performed onstage, many leading literary figures of the time were aware of its publication. Despite the popularity of The Tragedie of Mariam, only two of Cary's other writings survive: a translation of Jacques Davy du Perron's The Reply of the Most Illustrious Cardinal) of Perron, to the Answeare of the Most Excellent King of Great Britaine, a defense of Catholicism and criticism of Anglicanism; and the drama/ biography of Edward II and his wife Queen Isabel, The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II.
Cary's contemporaries held her in high regard and dedicated several works to her: England's Helicon, John Marston's Works, Michael Drayton's England's Heroicall Epistles, and the sixth book of Richard Belling's continuation of Sidney's Arcadia. In addition, Cary is the subject of verses by William Basse and John Davies of Hereford. Although Cary scholarship waned somewhat following her death, recent manuscript discoveries and feminist critical perspectives have revived an interest in Elizabeth Cary, and she is now considered an important figure in the history of women's literature.
The Tradegie of Mariam, Faire Queene of Jewry (drama) 1613
The Reply of the Most Illustrious Cardinall of Perron, to the Answeare of the Most Excellent King of Great Britaine [translator] (letter) 1630
*The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II (drama/biography) 1680
*Written in 1627; survives in two versions, both published in 1680 and originally attributed to Lord Falkland.
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Cary and Tyranny, Domestic and Religious," in Silent But for the Word: Tudor Women as Patrons, Translators, and Writers of Religious Works, edited by Margaret Patterson Hannay, The Kent State University Press, 1985, pp. 225-37.
[In the following excerpt, Fischer argues that Cary's writings, in particular The Tragedie of Mariam, confront the political and domestic hardships that she suffered as a repercussion of her conversion to Catholicism.]
Lady Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, Viscountess Falkland (1585-1639), was the chiefly self-educated daughter and heiress of a genteel Renaissance family. She has been remembered primarily for her Catholic polemics, manifested most boldly in a translation, published in Douay in 1630, of Cardinal Perron's answer to criticism of his works by James I; for her temerity and conviction Lady Cary found her book confiscated and publicly burned. This was not, moreover, her first receipt of closed-minded and tyrannical oppression: if the Renaissance changed women, it may have been … to a dual dependence on favor from husband and ruler. Indeed, Lady Cary's life speaks as a series of conflicts between the ideal and the real: personally, religiously, politically, and artistically. Her biographers have not been blind to this conflict and the way Lady Cary met it. Lady Georgiana Fullerton [in Life of Elizabeth, Lady Falkland, 1585-1639, 1883]...
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SOURCE: "Style and Gender in Elizabeth Cary's Edward II," in The Renaissance Englishwoman in Print: Counterbalancing the Canon, edited by Anne M. Haselkorn and Betty S. Travitsky, Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1990, pp. 137-53.
[In the following essay, Krontiris considers possible autobiographical elements in The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II and compares the work with The Tragedie of Mariam, outlining Cary's maturation as a writer. She also examines "the possible influence of religion in [Cary's] development."]
Elizabeth Cary, Lady Falkland, has been known primarily as the author of Mariam, a closet drama she wrote at the age of sixteen or seventeen. But it is now apparent that this is not her only surviving dramatic work. Some twenty-three years after her first published play, Mariam, and during a solitary confinement that followed her secret conversion to Catholicism, Cary wrote History of … King Edward II, which appears to be an unfinished play or a biography influenced by drama. The work, which attests to Lady Falkland's development as a woman writer and dramatist, survives in two versions, both printed in 1680 by different printers. The longer of the two, published in a folio volume, seems to be closer to the form of a play. It contains several speeches and is written predominantly in blank verse; it is also clearer,...
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SOURCE: "Running On with Almost Public Voice: The Case of 'E.C.'," in Traditions and the Talents of Women, edited by Florence Howe, University of Illinois Press, 1991, pp. 37-67.
[An American educator and critic, Ferguson has written and co-written a number of studies of Renaissance literature, including Trials of Desire: Renaissance Defenses of Poetry (1983) and Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe (1986). In the following essay, Ferguson assesses "the feminist political significance" of The Tragedie of Mariam and explores the work's "extremely ambivalent ideological statement about women as male 'property.'"]
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Fullerton, Georgianna Charlotte. Life of Elizabeth, Lady Falkland 1585-1639. London: Burns and Oates, 1883.
Extensive biography of Cary that reprints several of her letters and other pertinent documents.
Murdock, Kenneth. The Sun at Noon: Three Biographical Sketches. New York: Macmillan, 1939, 327 p.
The most complete and widely read twentieth-century portrayal of Elizabeth Cary. The book also contains biographies of Lucius Cary and John Wilmot.
Simpson, Richard, ed. The Lady Falkland, Her Life from a ms. in the Imperial Archives at Lisle. London: Catholic Publishing and Bookselling Co., 1861.
The first full-length study of Elizabeth Cary's life, probably written from 1643 to 1649 by one of her daughters.
Beilin, Elaine V. "The Making of a Female Hero: Joanna Lumley and Elizabeth Cary." In Redeeming Eve: Women Writers in the English Renaissance, pp. 151-176. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Focuses on autobiographical elements of Cary's The Tragedie of Mariam, drawing extensively on the biography The Lady Falkland, Her Life.
Brashear, Lucy. "A...
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