Style and Technique (Masterplots II: Short Story Series, Revised Edition)
More than fifty years after their publication, Hemingway’s short stories still strike the reader as highly experimental. The action and conflicts are usually internal rather than external. The traditional conclusion is abbreviated or eliminated; all authorial intrusion, by which past authors told their readers how to respond, is stripped away. Hemingway instead depends on highly stylized dialogue and carefully selected, realistic detail to produce the correct response to the story. His clean, pure line, his economy and exactness of diction, his rhythms and repetitions are here perfectly matched to the self-effacing, tightly controlled objectivity of his first-person narrator. It is only after the final sentence that the reader realizes that the story must be reassessed as an ironic tour de force. The narrator’s seeming disinterest in the conversation on marriage is really a protective device to keep his emotions under control. The reader sees, however, those images on which the narrator’s mind dwells. Through the train window, he notes a burning farmhouse with many spectators merely watching. He sees the fortifications around Paris, still barren from the recently ended war. He focuses on the remnants of a train wreck—splintered, sagging rail cars pulled off the main line. Each image that catches his attention is, in fact, a metaphor for the state of his marriage. Even his strange, repetitious comparisons reflect his emotional state: He is stupefied, not fully...
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Bibliography (Masterplots II: Short Story Series, Revised Edition)
Benson, Jackson J., ed. New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.
Berman, Ronald. Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and the Twenties. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001.
Bloom, Harold, ed. Ernest Hemingway. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2005.
Burgess, Anthony. Ernest Hemingway. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999.
Flora, Joseph M. Ernest Hemingway: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne, 1989.
Hays, Peter L. Ernest Hemingway. New York: Continuum, 1990.
Hotchner, A. E. Papa Hemingway: A Personal Memoir. New ed. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999.
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. 1985. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999.
Padura Fuentes, Leonardo. Adiós Hemingway. Translated by John King. New York: Canongate, 2005.
Reynolds, Michael. The Young Hemingway. New York: Blackwell, 1986.
Reynolds, Michael. Hemingway: The Paris Years. New York: Blackwell, 1989.
Reynolds, Michael. Hemingway: The Homecoming. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.
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