Caetano Becomes Premier of Portugal (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: Caetano becomes premier of Portugal after being appointed by President Américo Tomás to succeed António de Oliveira Salazar’s forty-year conservative regime.
Summary of Event
Marcelo José de Neves Alves Caetano was born in Lisbon on August 17, 1906, into a middle-class family. He attended law school at the University of Lisbon. While there he became involved with the right-wing group, the Integralists, whose ultraconservative views were based on the monarchy and the theories of the French writer Charles Maurras. Caetano obtained his law degree in 1927, and became a legal consultant to the finance ministry and a protégé of Finance Minister António de Oliveira Salazar.
In 1933, Caetano became an assistant professor of social science and administrative law at the University of Lisbon School of Law. Caetano helped write the 1933 constitution for Salazar’s fascist new state. Salazar’s Portugal consisted of balancing power within the country among the military, landowners, business and commerce, colonial interests, and the Catholic Church. No criticism or discussion was allowed outside this intimate circle of Salazar supporters. All political parties were banned, and Salazar’s leadership consisted of a small, informal ruling political and commercial elite. The philosophical tenets of the Salazarist regime were authoritarian government, patriotic unity, Christian morality, and the...
(The entire section is 1482 words.)
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