Caddo tribal group (American Indians Ready Reference)
The Caddo Nation historically included the Hasinai, Kadohadacho, and Natchitoche alliances of peoples. It existed for centuries before the modern era in what is now the northwest portion of Louisiana, east Texas, southwest Arkansas, and southeastern Oklahoma. In this region of river valleys and upland forests, the Caddo hunted and cultivated the rich fauna and flora in a sustainable manner. They hunted deer, peccary, and bear as well as small game animals. Long expeditions were sent out on the Southern Plains to hunt buffalo and antelope in the spring and the fall. In early spring, migrations south to the Gulf Coast were made to feast on turtles, sea bird eggs, and early spring fruit. Vegetables, fruit, and berries were cultivated in riverine areas in great variety, including amaranth, blackberries, and potatoes.
With the introduction of bows and arrows, hunting became more efficient. Agricultural innovations made it possible to sustain larger populations. Especially important was the introduction of corn and pumpkin. The Caddo planted and harvested two varieties of corn, one smaller and early maturing, the other larger and more abundant. Intensive agricultural methods provided a reasonable harvest yet did not deplete the soil, especially when the corn was grown with beans. Corn and pumpkin were preserved through drying and roasting methods. Food surpluses strengthened the place of the Caddo Nation in relation to other peoples. Food was preserved and...
(The entire section is 2954 words.)
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