Buoyancy (Encyclopedia of Science)
Buoyancy is the tendency of an object to float in a fluid, such as air or water. The principle of buoyancy was first discovered by Greek mathematician Archimedes (c. 28712 B.C.) and is therefore often called Archimedes' Principle. Legend has it that Archimedes was working on a problem given to him by the king of ancient Syracuse, Hieron II. The king had paid a goldsmith to make him a new crown but suspected that some metal other than gold had been used in the crown. He asked Archimedes to find out if his suspicions were correctut without destroying the crown.
One day, perhaps while pondering the problem, Archimedes stepped into his bath and noticed the overflow of water. He suddenly realized that the volume of water that had flowed out of the bath had to be equal to the volume of his own body that was immersed. His problem was solved. Later historians claim that Archimedes was so excited with his discovery that he ran naked through the streets of Syracuse shouting "Eureka!" ("I've found it!").
Archimedes began performing experiments with objects in liquids. He immersed the crown and measured the amount of water it displaced. Then he immersed an equal weight of gold in the
(The entire section is 701 words.)
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