The Boxer Rebellion Fails to Remove Foreign Control in China (Great Events from History II: Human Rights Series)
Article abstract: The Boxer Rebellion marked the final attempt of the Chinese of the Ch’ing Dynasty to throw off the yoke of foreign imperialism.
Summary of Event
After the First Opium War (1839-1842) with Great Britain, China was continually subjected to foreign pressure. The Treaty of Nanking (1842), following the First Opium War, and the Tientsin Treaty (1858) and Peking Convention (1860), following the Second Opium War, allowed a system of foreign enclaves, the Treaty Ports, to be set up in dozens of Chinese cities. Foreign diplomats, not Chinese officials, controlled trade, administration, the collection of customs revenues, and the dispensing of justice in the Treaty Ports. By the late 1890’s, this practice of extraterritoriality had been extended to cover all foreigners, and even Chinese subjects who had converted to Christianity were exempt from the power of Chinese courts.
Starting with the cession of Hong Kong to the British in 1842, the Ch’ing (Manchu) Dynasty had been forced to surrender territory and sovereignty as a result of war or threat. Russia exerted pressure in Manchuria and Central Asia; France seized control of Indochina in 1884; and a newly modernized Japan humiliated China in a war over influence in Korea in 1894-1895 and took Taiwan as a prize. In the wake of the Korean defeat, the older treaty powers redoubled their efforts, and new players, especially Germany, entered the...
(The entire section is 2181 words.)
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