The Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel
Book in the Bible's Old Testament and the Jewish Tanakh.
The Book of Daniel stands between the books of Ezra and Esther in the portion of the Hebrew Old Testament known as the Hagiographa. Internal evidence suggests it was written during the Maccabean wars, around 167-64 b.c., although some scholars believe it was written in the sixth century b.c., when the events described took place. The book consists of twelve chapters. The first six chapters are mainly historical and the remaining six are mainly prophetic. The historical section treats Daniel's captivity in Babylon under King Nebuchadnezzar and contains narratives on the lives of Daniel and his friends. The prophetic portion is made up of four apocalyptic visions predicting the course of world history. There were five ancient translations of the book, and the Septuagint version contains stories that have not been adopted as canonical in Protestant editions. Stylistically, thematically, and structurally, The Book of Daniel is a complex work, and there has been considerable scholarly controversy surrounding it. Scholars have debated its authorship and its unity as a single work; disputed its historical veracity; denied its status as prophecy; disagreed on its dating; explored the reasons for and the implications of its composition in two different languages; and discussed its classification as apocalyptic literature.
There are two basic views concerning the authorship of The Book of Daniel. Conservative scholars generally hold that the Daniel who figures in the narrative wrote the book that bears his name. If this is the case, then the book would have been written in the sixth century b.c. The early Christian church generally accepted the authorship of Daniel in the sixth century without question, and some contemporary scholars consider the scriptural evidence (Daniel himself claims authorship, and in the New Testament Christ mentions Daniel as the author of the book) sufficient to establish Daniel as having written the book. Others claim that The Book of Daniel was written following the period of Antiochus Epiphanes, many centuries after Daniel's time, during the Maccabean revolt against the Greek occupying forces in 168-64 b.c. The book is considered by these scholars to be pseudepigraphic, that is, written by an anonymous author or authors and attributed to Daniel. At least one commentator has suggested that the authors were in fact Jewish scribes who were employed by the Seleucids in the second century b.c. Evidence in the work to suggest this later date includes the use of Persian and Greek words that would not have been known by sixth-century residents of Babylon; literary style of the Aramaic part of Daniel that was used later than the sixth century b.c.; the use of the word Chaldean to signify a caste of wise men, astrologers, and magicians—a meaning that this term did not generally carry in the sixth century; and a number of historical inaccuracies that would not be expected of someone who was present at the time the events were taking place. Scholars who contend that the work was written by a single author point to the literary and thematic consistency throughout the twelve chapters of the book.
Only the Hebrew and Aramaic sections of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible are recognized by Protestants as sacred and canonical. However, the Vulgate, the Greek translations of The Book of Daniel in the Septuagint and Theodotion, and other ancient and modern versions, contain three important sections. These are the Prayer of Azarias and the Song of the Three Children, usually inserted in chapter 3 with the story of the fiery furnace; the story of Susanna, a faithful Jewish woman accused of adultery, which forms a thirteenth chapter; and the history of the destruction of the Babylonian idol Bel and the dragon that the Babylonians also worshipped, which ends the book as chapter 14.
Plot and Major Characters
The Book of Daniel covers the events in the Hebrew prophet Daniel's life from the third year of the reign of King Jehoiakim in 605 b.c. through the tumultuous Neo-Babylonian era and into the rise of Persia during the reign of Cyrus II, around 534 b.c. The book is divided into two parts. The first part, made up of chapters 1-6, relates a series of narratives in the third person. Chapters 7-12 describe a series of visions, this time in the first person. Chapter 1, which introduces the reader to the principal figures of the work, Daniel and his three fellow captives—Ananias, Misael, and Azarias—can be thought of as a preface to the entire book. The chapter recounts how the four young Jewish nobles obtain a high rank in the court of King Nebuchadnezzar. It is explained that they are given new names by the chief of the Eunuchs: Daniel he calls Belteshazzar, Ananias he calls Shadrach, Misael he calls Meshach, and Azariahs he calls Abenego. Chapter 2 recounts Nebuchadnezzar's dream about a great statue made up of various materials, a dream that only Daniel is able to make Nebuchadnezzar recall and then interpret. In chapter 3, Daniel's friends are cast into the fiery furnace for refusing to bow down to the golden image made by Nebuchadnezzar; they emerge unscathed, leading Nebuchadnezzar to praise their god and advance the fortunes of the three men. Chapter 4 tells of another dream by Nebuchadnezzar in which he is overcome by a mental illness and roams like an animal through the parks surrounding the palace for forty-two months. Daniel interprets the dream, the events of which come to pass a year later. The King is restored to his right mind after forty-two months of living with wild beasts and feeding on grass. At the end of that time, he acknowledges the sovereignty of Daniel's god. The following chapter is about Nebuchadnezzar's son, Belshazzar, after he becomes king. He gives a feast for other nobles as well as his concubines and courtesans and orders that the gold and silver vessels that were stolen by his father from the temple at Jerusalem be used. Suddenly, the fingers of a hand appear and write a message on the wall of the palace. Daniel translates the message to mean that God has brought his kingdom to a close. That night, Belshazzar is killed and Darius the Mede takes over. Thus the Babylonian empire ends and the occupation of the land by the Medes begins. As explained in chapter 6, Darius appoints Daniel as one of three chief ministers in his new kingdom. Several jealous ministers conspire to kill Daniel. They persuade the King to write an edict stating that anyone who petitions any god or human being other than the King during the following thirty days will be thrown into the lions' den. The conspirators catch Daniel praying to his god and present him to the King for execution. Daniel is thrown into a pit of lions but survives. He says that his God had sent an angel to shut the lions' mouths.
The rest of The Book of Daniel deals with Daniel's apocalyptic visions. The first, told in chapter 7, takes place during Belshazzar's reign. It is a dream about four beasts (a lion with eagles' wings, a bear, a leopard with four wings like those of a bird, and a terrible beast with ten horns that later become eight horns). Each of these beasts is supposed to symbolize an earthly kingdom. The second vision, told in chapter 8, also takes place during Belshazzar's reign and is about a powerful ram and a male goat that fight each other. The goat conquers the ram. An angel tells Daniel that the dream is about the end of times, explaining that the two-horned ram represents the Kings of Media and Persia and that the goat represents the Greek kingdom. In chapter 9, which takes place in the first year of Darius's reign, Daniel offers a prayer and confession to God and is visited by the angel Gabriel, who gives him details concerning the Vision of the Seventy Weeks, also about Israel's final days. In the final three chapters, which take place during the third year of the reign of Cyrus, the prophet has a vision of Israel's future, leading to the end of the age some 1,335 days later. He learns that some of the dead will awaken to everlasting life while others will know eternal abhorrence. The vision seems to suggest that after the last days there will be a resurrection of the dead and a judgment and transfer of the resurrected Jews to heaven or hell. In the final verses of the book, Daniel sees a man dressed in linen above the waters of a river who tells him that he should rest and arise again to his destiny at the end of the age.
Biblical scholars, Christian believers, and lay readers take different approaches to The Book of Daniel, so it is difficult to point to particular themes in the work that are considered central by all who analyze it. The primary “messages” of The Book of Daniel according to most Christians is the reassurance of God's people of his sovereignty and his encouragement of faithfulness to him. Throughout the work it is shown that God knows and controls all human events and can reveal them if he so wishes. He saves his people, humbles pagan leaders, and reveals the future. Because his kingdom is eternal, he urges his people to have faith in him. Several stories in The Book of Daniel show how God rescues or rewards those whose faith does not waver.
Most biblical scholars have tended to consider Daniel in its historical context and view the work as one whose general purpose is to comfort the exiled Jewish people who were undergoing the ordeal of a cruel persecution. Although there are disagreements among critics, a widely held belief is that the persecution under question is that of Antiochus Epiphanes in the second century b.c.; the Jews are to be comforted by the revelations about the fate that awaits this tyrant and of the coming of God's eternal kingdom. The stories of the hero Daniel and his friends as they suffer through exile but do not lose faith are thus designed to encourage the same steadfastness in the Jews to whom the book is addressed.
In many regards, The Book of Daniel is a problematic work, and most critics who study the book have tended to concentrate on the mysteries surrounding the work rather than its literary themes and motifs. Most scholars concur that the book exhibits a great deal of literary consistency, particularly in its use of language and images and in the arrangement of its subject matter. However, because the work was composed in different languages and sometimes uses different literary styles, the question of the book's authorship has been an area of intense debate among scholars. The related question of the book's date of composition has also been widely researched and discussed. Other concerns have to do with the work's canonicity and genre. In the Jewish canon, The Book of Daniel is classed with the Writings rather than with the Prophets. This is because Daniel does not play the role of a prophet in the book but is rather a wise man, a diviner, and a counselor to kings. Also, the second half of the book is made up of apocalypses, or revelations about the last days, rather than prophetic oracles of the type found in classical prophecy. Thus the question is how to classify The Book of Daniel—as a prophetic work or a work of apocalyptic literature. Besides discussing the problematic aspects of the work, commentators have also concerned themselves with how to interpret the various visions described in The Book of Daniel, and there has been considerable discussion in particular about the meaning and significance of the Vision of the Seventy Weeks.
The Book of Daniel is one of the most popular books of the Bible because of its highly entertaining stories and dramatic, almost surreal descriptions of the last days; the story of Daniel in the lion's den and the dream of Nebuchadnezzar are known by even the youngest readers in the Western world. Writers from ancient times until the present day who have found inspiration from the work include the historian Flavius Josephus, the scientist Isaac Newton, and the poet William Blake. Because of its complexities, Daniel has also been of particular interest to historians and biblical scholars, who have debated and discussed the problematic aspects of the work and the difficulties faced in interpreting many of its esoteric passages. Modern scholars have tended to focus on the controversy surrounding the authorship and composition of the work. Some have claimed that the work was not written by the Hebrew prophet Daniel at all, while others, notably the critic H. H. Rowley, have rejected that view and provided scriptural and external evidence to argue for the book's unity. Other areas of discussion have included the work's status as apocalyptic literature, its structure, and the implications of its bilingualism. Critics have also discussed the work's literary characteristics, with some insisting that it is a work of fiction and others claiming that there is historical truth to the events described. There is some controversy as to whether or not the work can be rightly regarded as a book of prophecy because many of the predictions it makes may actually have already taken place before the time of writing—that is, if the dating of the book can be taken to be the second century b.c., which is another source of intense debate. The Book of Daniel continues to generate interest, mostly among Christians and biblical scholars, because it offers lessons about God's supremacy and provokes questions about and invites investigation into the complexities of biblical history, composition, and interpretation.
The Book of Daniel (translated by Louis F. Hartman and Alexander A. di Lella) 1978
The Book of Daniel (edited by S. R. Driver) 1900
The Book of Daniel and the Minor Prophets (edited by R. Sinker) 1902
The Book of Daniel (edited by R. H. Charles) 1913
The Book of Daniel (edited by E. R. Doctorow) 1972
The Book of Daniel (translated by André Lacocque and David Pellauer) 1979
The Book of Daniel in the Light of New Findings (edited by A. S. van der Woude 1993
The Book of Daniel (edited by George Wesley Buchanan) 1999
(The entire section is 90 words.)
J. Dyneley Prince (essay date 1899)
SOURCE: Prince, J. Dyneley. The Book of Daniel, Designed Especially for Students of the English Bible, pp. 1-56. London: Williams & Norgate, 1899.
[In the following excerpt, Prince reviews past scholarship on The Book of Daniel, arguing that it is a unified work and rejecting doubts about its authorship by the Hebrew prophet Daniel.]
THE LITERARY UNITY OF THE WORK.
Regarding the literary unity of Daniel, opinions vary. Some critics, owing to the great difference in style between the two divisions of the book, have believed in a separate origin for the first six chapters1. Moreover, the fact that from ii. 4 through...
(The entire section is 5304 words.)
Robert Dick Wilson (essay date 1917)
SOURCE: Wilson, Robert Dick. “The Argument from Silence” and “Was Daniel an Historical Character?” In Studies in the Book of Daniel: A Study of the Historical Questions, pp. 1-23, 24-42. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1917.
[In the following essays, Wilson considers the historicity of the events described in Daniel as well as the factual basis for identifying Daniel himself.]
I shall begin the consideration of the historicity of Daniel and of the Book of Daniel with a discussion of the argument from silence, not merely because of its intrinsic importance, but because of its bearing upon many of the objections made against the existence of...
(The entire section is 12718 words.)
Charles Boutflower (essay date 1923)
SOURCE: Boutflower, Charles. Introduction to In and around the Book of Daniel, pp. 1-12. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1923.
[In the following excerpt, Boutflower considers the problem of the composition date of The Book of Daniel, asserting that the book does offer prophetic descriptions and that it was not written after the events described took place.]
With the spread of learning and the issue from time to time of fresh commentaries on the Book of Daniel, it is now a matter of common knowledge that two very different views are held respecting that Book, which, for the sake of a name, may be styled respectively the orthodox and the...
(The entire section is 5032 words.)
H. H. Rowley (lecture date 1950)
SOURCE: Rowley, H. H. “The Unity of the Book of Daniel.” In The Servant of the Lord and Other Essays on the Old Testament, pp. 249-80. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1965.
[In the following essay (originally delivered as a lecture in 1950), a seminal work of scholarship on The Book of Daniel, Rowley restates the argument for the unity of the book, exploring the weaknesses of the opposing view and focusing his discussion on the canonical parts of the text.]
With imposing unanimity critical scholars seem to be moving away from the once common belief in the unity of the book of Daniel. There are still conservative scholars who maintain the unity of the...
(The entire section is 15925 words.)
E. W. Heaton (essay date 1956)
SOURCE: Heaton, E. W. Introduction to The Book of Daniel : Introduction and Commentary, pp. 17-112. London: SCM Press, 1956.
[In the following excerpt, Heaton discusses the author and hero of The Book of Daniel before commenting on its status as apocalyptic literature and on issues surrounding its composition.]
1 THE BOOK IN BRIEF
The immediate occasion which called forth the Book of Daniel was the persecution of the Jews by the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes, who reigned from 175 to 163 b.c.
The writer, a pious scribe living in the middle of the persecution, is addressing his contemporaries through the medium...
(The entire section is 11843 words.)
Norman W. Porteous (essay date 1965)
SOURCE: Porteous, Norman W. Introduction to Daniel: A Commentary, pp. 13-21. London: SCM Press, 1965.
[In the following essay, Porteous offers an overview of the major scholarly questions about The Book of Daniel, including the issues of its authorship, its classification, and its status as a work of literature.]
The Book of Daniel contains twelve chapters, the first six containing stories about a Jewish captive, Daniel, and his three young compatriots at the court of Nebuchadnezzar and his successors Babylonian, Median and Persian, and the last six containing a series of visions which came to Daniel and were interpreted to him by angelic agency. The...
(The entire section is 4496 words.)
Richard J. Clifford (essay date December 1975)
SOURCE: Clifford, Richard J. “History and Myth in Daniel 10-12.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 220 (December 1975): 23-26.
[In the following essay, Clifford argues that the author of The Book of Daniel selected and structured historical details to present a new interpretation of history and mythical narrative.]
Chapters 10-12 of the book of Daniel, by consensus of modern commentators a single apocalypse parallel to the apocalypses of Daniel 7 and 8, is a unique combination of historical narrative1 and prediction of the future. To be sure, the whole of Dan 11:2b-12:1-3 is, in form, a revelation of...
(The entire section is 3245 words.)
André LaCocque (essay date 1979)
SOURCE: LaCocque, André. The Book of Daniel, translated by David Pellauer, pp. I-XX. Atlanta, Ga.: John Knox Press, 1979.
[In the following essay, LaCocque explores problematic issues relating to The Book of Daniel, discussing its authorship, status as apocalyptic literature, chronology, composition, canonical status, bilingualism, and structure.]
In the wide variety of literature which makes up Scripture, the Book of Daniel occupies a unique place.1 Its twelve chapters—in its present form—are divided into two major parts: the first six are ‘midrashim’ and the last five are ‘apocalypses’, while chapter seven serves as a...
(The entire section is 7670 words.)
John G. Gammie (essay date April 1985)
SOURCE: Gammie, John G. “A Journey through Danielic Spaces: The Book of Daniel in the Theology and Piety of the Christian Community.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 39, no. 2 (April 1985): 144-56.
[In the following excerpt, Gammie examines the ways in which interpretation of The Book of Daniel affected the theology and worldview of Christians from the second century up to the Protestant Reformation.]
Irenaeus (c130-c200), bishop of Lyons, utilized the Book of Daniel extensively in his treatise, “Against Heresies,” to expound his doctrine of Christ, the Bible, and the millenium. The stone not hewn...
(The entire section is 5553 words.)
P. R. Davies (essay date 1985)
SOURCE: Davies, P. R. “Preview.” In Daniel, pp. 11-19. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT Press, 1985.
[In the following excerpt, Davies examines the dual character of The Book of Daniel, explaining that each of the two halves contains two types of stories, some that appeal to laypeople and others to scholars; that they communicate different ideas in different forms relating to different periods of time; and that they use two different languages.]
Daniel is a very curious book in many respects. From almost every standpoint it presents a dual character: it contains two kinds of material, apparently intended originally for two different...
(The entire section is 3109 words.)
P. R. Davies (essay date 1985)
SOURCE: Davies, P. R. “The Languages of the Book.” In Daniel, pp. 35-39. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT Press, 1985.
[In the following excerpt, Davies surveys the various scholarly positions on the bilingualism of The Book of Daniel and attempts to date the work on the basis of the languages it uses.]
THE BILINGUAL PROBLEM
The presence, and the distribution, of the two languages in Daniel may be in the end inexplicable. But it has generally been thought to have a bearing on the literary history or structure of the book. The evaluation of this phenomenon depends on whether or not the literary unity of Daniel is taken for granted....
(The entire section is 1818 words.)
Shemaryahu Talmon (essay date 1987)
SOURCE: Talmon, Shemaryahu. “Daniel.” In The Literary Guide to the Bible, edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode, pp. 343-55. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1987.
[In the following essay, Talmon argues that, because of its historical inaccuracies, The Book of Daniel should be regarded as a fictional work, and proceeds to explore the book's style, imagery, phraseology, motifs, literary allusions, and plot.]
The linguistic and literary diversity of Daniel reveals a composite structure. The opening and concluding parts (1:1-2:4a and 8-12), in Hebrew, frame a portion in Aramaic which is itself a composite...
(The entire section is 6201 words.)
André LaCocque (essay date 1988)
SOURCE: LaCocque, André. “Daniel as a Work of Literature.” In Daniel in His Time, pp. 59-81. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
[In the following essay, LaCocque analyzes various interpretations of the structure, motifs, and allusions in The Book of Daniel, pointing out where he agrees and disagrees with other scholars of the work.]
The question of the origin of the materials used by the author is a complex one because these materials differ greatly in nature. Once again a preliminary distinction must be made between chapters 1-6 (Daniel A) and chapters 7-12 (Daniel B). The early chapters...
(The entire section is 11118 words.)
Paul L. Redditt (essay date July 1998)
SOURCE: Redditt, Paul L. “Daniel 11 and the Sociohistorical Setting of the Book of Daniel.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 60, no. 3 (July 1998): 236-49.
[In the following essay, Redditt argues that The Book of Daniel was written by a group of Jewish courtier-scribes who were employed by the Seleucids.]
One of the issues in the study of the Book of Daniel is the book's origin. Where, and within what group, did it arise? The questions are not new, of course, though the pursuit of an answer has taken new twists in the last couple of decades. Scholars rightly warn that the book may have arisen in a group otherwise unknown to modern...
(The entire section is 5358 words.)
Paul L. Redditt (essay date April 2000)
SOURCE: Redditt, Paul L. “Daniel 9: Its Structure and Meaning.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62, no. 2 (April 2000): 236-49.
[In the following essay, Redditt offers a close reading of the ninth chapter of The Book of Daniel, arguing that the early verses of the chapter reflect the historical situation of the writers; that the middle portion of the chapter explains why Israel had not yet turned to God, as had been prophesied in the Book of Jeremiah; and that the latter part of the chapter offers a timetable for the deliverance of Jerusalem.]
The eponymous hero in Daniel 9 ponders the devastation of Jerusalem, consults certain...
(The entire section is 6553 words.)
Anderson, Robert A. Signs and Wonders: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1984, 159 p.
Commentary on The Book of Daniel that attempts to present a more positive attitude towards Judaism and Jewish practices.
Beale, G. K. The Use ofDaniel in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature and in the Revelation of St. John. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1984, 443 p.
Explores the use of The Book of Daniel in Jewish apocalyptic literature, including the Qumran, comparing it with its use in the Book of Revelation.
(The entire section is 686 words.)