Bliss Carman 1861-1929
(Also wrote under the pseudonym Louis Norman) Canadian poet, essayist, and editor.
Carman was at one time Canada's most acclaimed poet, and he remains a central figure in Canadian letters. He was known as a regionalist poet of the Canadian Maritime, and at its best his poetry evokes a strong sense of mood and atmosphere through vivid descriptions of Canada's natural landscape. Although Carman's verse is now considered uneven in merit, his work is acknowledged as formative in developing a Canadian national literature. His most celebrated works are the volumes Low Tide on Grand Pré: A Book of Lyrics (1893) and the Vagabondia series (1894-1912; written with Richard Hovey).
William Bliss Carman was born in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, on April 15, 1861. He was descended on both sides from American loyalists to the British crown who had fled to Canada during the American Revolution. Carman was educated by a private tutor and, later, in a private school. He graduated from the University of New Brunswick with a B.A. in 1881. From 1882 to 1883 he attended Oxford University and Edinburgh University, and received an M.A. from the University of New Brunswick in 1884. From 1886 to 1888 he attended Harvard University, where he studied with the great philosophers William James and George Santayana. At Harvard he also met Richard Hovey, an American poet who styled himself after Oscar Wilde. Hovey became Carman's closest male friend and literary collaborator. In 1890 Carman moved to New York City, where he became associated with the bohemian lifestyle. Throughout the rest of his life he lived mostly in New England, making frequent returns to Canada. During the next twenty years (from 1890 to 1909), he worked as an editor and staff writer for various magazines and journals, including the Independent, Current Literature, Cosmopolitan, Atlantic Monthly, Transcript, Literary World, and Gentleman's Journal. In 1897 he met Mary Perry King, a married woman with whom he maintained a close relationship throughout the rest of his life, living either near the home of Mrs. and Mr. King or in a house located on their property. Through this close association with Mrs. King, Carman was influenced by the doctrine of unitrinianism, which subscribed to an ideal of harmony between the body, the mind, and the soul. He and Mrs. King also collaborated on several volumes of essays. In 1906 Carman received a LL.D. from the University of New Brunswick. During the course of his life Carman traveled widely, and he often wrote poetry about the locations he encountered, such as Italy and India. Carman never married. He died June 8, 1929, in New Canaan, Connecticut.
Carman was one of four influential Canadian poets of the late nineteenth century—known collectively as the Confederation group, or the Maple Tree school of poetry—who helped establish a tradition of Canadian literature in the formative years of the nation. Canada became a confederacy in 1867, and these poets, all born in the early 1860s, helped to inspire a sense of Canadian national identity. Carman was widely recognized as a regionalist poet of the Canadian Maritimes, and his poems often celebrate a strong sense of place through the evocation of specific details of Canada's natural landscape, including such recurring images as the maple tree, which populates much of the Canadian wilderness, and the sea. His earliest volume of poetry, Low Tide on Grand Pré, celebrates the Maritime region in which he grew up, and Ballads of Lost Haven: A Book of the Sea (1897) includes meditations on the sea in Carman's characteristic lyrical verse style. Later, Carman successfully embodied a hybrid identity as a Canadian-American poet, in that he also became a regionalist poet of the New England area of the United States. Like the other poets of the Confederation group, Carman was strongly influenced by the Romantic Movement in English poetry, as well as the transcendentalism of such American writers as Ralph Waldo Emerson (who was a distant relative of Carman on his mother's side). The influence of the Romantic poets, such as William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and John Keats, is evident in the mood of Carman's poetry, which is often lyrical and melancholy, yet infused with a sense of optimism inspired by the presence of nature. By the Aurelian Wall, and Other Elegies (1898) includes elegies on Keats and Shelley, as well as on William Blake and Robert Louis Stevenson. In Sappho: One Hundred Lyrics (1904), Carman adapts one-hundred poems by the ancient female poet Sappho to his own romantic, lyrical style. Carman's transcendentalism is conveyed by the visionary qualities of his poetry, which express a sense of wonder at the mystical elements of the natural world. The Vagabondia series was among Carman's most popular works, appealing to readers as a celebration of bohemian free-spiritedness in a light-hearted, sometimes humorous, easily accessible verse. It consists of three volumes of poetry, written in collaboration with Richard Hovey: Songs from Vagabondia (1894), More Songs from Vagabondia (1896), and Last Songs from Vagabondia (1900). A fourth Vagabondia volume, Echoes from Vagabondia (1912), was published after Hovey's death in 1900. Carman's essay collections, in which he put forth philosophical musings on art, literature, nature, and humanity, include The Kinship of Nature (1903), The Friendship of Art (1904), and The Poetry of Life (1905). The essay collection, The Making of Personality (1908), written with Mary Perry King, expresses many of the precepts of unitrinianism. In all, Carman wrote some thirty volumes of poetry and prose during the course of a literary career lasting more than thirty-five years.
During his lifetime Carman was one of Canada's most celebrated and most popular poets. In 1928, one year before his death, he received the distinction of being named poet laureate by the Canadian Parliament. Since then, his work has come under closer scrutiny, and he now is considered only a minor poet in his own right, who nonetheless exerted a profound influence on Canadian literature of the twentieth century. Low Tide on Grand Pré, is considered Carman's best collection, and its title poem remains his most acclaimed work in verse. Reviewing Low Tide in 1893, Arthur Symons asserted, “Mr. Carman writes blithely, and with the ease of the true artist.” He hailed the “sense of comradeship with nature, a joyous companionship in little homely things, with, at the same time, a delicate consciousness of the mystery which lies about the deeper reaches of such communion, [that is] the very key-note of Mr. Carman's work.” The Vagabondia series, consisting of four volumes, is regarded among Carman's most original works. In an 1895 review Symons described Songs from Vagabondia as “a book which is at once a tramp's diary and the dream of a poet,” which is “full of the rapture of the open air and the open road, of the wayside tavern bench, the April weather, and the ‘manly love of comrades.’” Symons continued, “the charm and interest of the book consist in the real, frank jollity of mood and manner, the gipsy freedom, the intimate natural happiness, of these marching, drinking, fighting, and loving songs.”
Critics now generally agree, however, that Carman's literary output demonstrates little if any development during the course of his prolific thirty-five-year career. While some point to occasional moments of brilliance among his many poems—Desmond Pacey, for example, declared “Low Tide on Grande Pré” “the most nearly perfect single poem to come out of Canada”—others regard his work as largely unoriginal and monotonous in tone. Many concur, however, that Carman's greatest strength as a poet lay in his ability to create a sense of mood and atmosphere, and to evoke a strong sense of place through vivid descriptions of the landscape of the Canadian Maritime region and parts of New England. Pacey asserted that Carman “is a master of mood and music,” observing that at his best, “he achieves a melodic beauty equaled by no other Canadian poet, and he knew better than any other how to employ the distinctive features of his native environment to effect a compelling atmosphere.” However, to many readers, Carman's poems and essays now seem dated and unremarkable. Pacey noted that “Carman's name is seldom heard outside Canada, and even here he is either given grudging and defensive praise or contemptuously dismissed as the facile and vulgar exponent of a cheap and shallow romanticism.” All, however, concur that Carman remains a prominent figure in the Canadian literary tradition, whose work was invaluable in establishing a distinct identity for Canadian letters and has continued to influence Canadian poets throughout the twentieth century. Pacey stated that “the huge reputation which Carman enjoyed at the first of this century was undoubtedly inflated”; nonetheless, he observed, “[if] there are any ‘masters’ of Canadian poetry, Carman is of their company.”
Low Tide on Grand Pré: A Book of Lyrics 1893
Songs from Vagabondia [with Richard Hovey] 1894
Behind the Arras: A Book of the Unseen 1895
More Songs from Vagabondia [with Richard Hovey] 1896
Ballads of Lost Haven: A Book of the Sea 1897
By the Aurelian Wall, and Other Elegies 1898
Last Songs from Vagabondia [with Richard Hovey] (poetry) 1900
Ballads and Lyrics 1902
The Pipes of Pan [5 volumes] 1902-1905
From the Book of Myths [Vol. 1 of The Pipes of Pan] 1902
From the Green Book of Bards [Vol. 2 of The Pipes of Pan] 1903
Songs from a Northern Garden [Vol. 3 of The Pipes of Pan] 1904
Songs of the Sea Children [Vol. 4 of The Pipes of Pan] 1904
Sappho: One Hundred Lyrics 1904
From the Book of Valentines [Vol. 5 of The Pipes of Pan] 1905
The Rough Rider, and Other Poems 1909
Echoes from Vagabondia 1912
April Airs: A Book of New England Lyrics 1916
Later Poems 1921
Far Horizons 1925
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SOURCE: “Arthur Symons' Reviews of Bliss Carman,” in Canadian Poetry, Vol. 37, Winter, 1995, pp. 100-13.
[In the following essays, originally printed in the journal Athenaeum in 1894, 1895, and 1897, Symons reviews Carman's Low Tide on Grand Pré, Songs from Vagabondia, Behind the Arras, and More Songs from Vagabondia. For an introduction to these reviews, please refer to Tracy Ware's essay (1995), below.]
REVIEW OF LOW TIDE ON GRAND PRé: A BOOK OF LYRICS (FROM ATHENAEUM, APRIL 14, 1894)
Mr. Bliss Carman is a young Canadian poet whose work has been more or less known, both in America and here, for some time past, but only in a scattered form. This little book of 120 pages (issued, we regret to say, with a caprice of folding which renders its pages both uncomfortable to the hand and hideous to the eye) is the first book which he has published, and he has exercised a wise restraint in “bringing together between the same covers only those pieces of work which happened to be in the same key, rather than publishing a larger book of more uncertain aim.”1 The whole book is an expression of passionate delight in the beauty of the outward world, in the joy of life, the joy and wonder of earth. It is intensely human because it deals with certain vague ardours, vivid longings after the indefinite in nature, which are among the fancies...
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SOURCE: “Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal,” in Northern Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, February-March, 1950, pp. 2-10.
[In the following essay, Pacey asserts that, while Carman's body of poetry is mostly unoriginal and of negligible quality, several of his early poems exhibit a fine mastery of mood and atmosphere. Pacey concludes that, while Carman was no great poet, he deserves recognition for such exceptional early poems as “Low Tide on Grand Pré.”]
An interesting study could be made of the curve of Bliss Carman's reputation. At the height of his fame, in the first two decades of this century, he enjoyed a status higher than that ever accorded another Canadian poet. All the leading magazines, on both sides of the Atlantic, were eager to print his verse; he was generously represented in “The Oxford Book of English Verse” and acted as editor of “The Oxford Book of American Verse”; his poems were brought out in luxuriously bound and printed volumes which found ready buyers at high prices; and in scholarly circles his work was taken so seriously that an American student at a French university devoted a doctoral dissertation to it.
Today, of course, all that is changed. Carman's name is seldom heard outside of Canada, and even here he is either given grudging and defensive praise or contemptuously dismissed as the facile and vulgar exponent of a cheap and shallow romanticism. To what...
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SOURCE: “Bliss Carman,” in Ten Canadian Poets: A Group of Biographical and Critical Essays, Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1958, pp. 85-113.
[In the following excerpt, Pacey provides an overview of Carman's major volumes of poetry, assessing their strengths and weaknesses. He concludes that, while Carman's body of work is mostly flawed and unremarkable, some of his poetry demonstrates a mastery of mood and atmosphere, and is notable for its celebration of the Canadian Maritime region.]
The poetry of Bliss Carman offers some unusual difficulties to the critic. Its mere volume is one difficulty: a detailed poem-by-poem analysis would take an enormous amount of space. As I have said elsewhere, the first task of a critic of Carman is to perform a surgical operation, to cut away the mass of inferior work. But this operation is a far from simple one. One might be tempted to discard all the poetry written after 1905, for the great bulk of the later work is negligible. This, however, is not practicable, for it would involve the loss of a few of his better poems, especially the unrhymed sonnets of Sanctuary (1929). One cannot safely ignore any of his books, for scattered through all of them are good poems or at least good lines. Another difficulty is the fact that Carman's peculiar method of publication precludes a strictly chronological approach to his poetry. He did not publish his poems in book form in...
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SOURCE: “Performance,” in Bliss Carman, New York: Twayne, 1966, pp. 40-89.
[In the following essay, Stephens discusses poems from Carman's Low Tide on Grand Pré, the Vagabondia series, By the Aurelian Wall, the Pipes of Pan series, and the Sappho lyrics, evaluating Carman's strengths and weaknesses as a poet. Stephens concludes that, while Carman's poetry lacks “depth,” he is undoubtedly a master at evoking a sense of place through vivid descriptions of landscape.]
Bliss Carman himself was able to recognize the value and quality of his own work. In a letter to his sister, written in 1892, after a few broadsheets of his poems had been printed privately and a few verses had been published, a year before his first volume of poems came out, he said:
Old Nature lies out there in the sun, all so beautiful and fair; and poetry is what she would say if she could speak. No, we are all only poor children, mortal children; and with great difficulty we try to make ourselves understood to one another. Yet we cannot. No heart can speak to any other heart; but every heart has its own sorrow and joy alone—quite alone. But poets, real poets, are those who come nearest to being able to speak. … Now … may I ever be preserved from a false estimate of my little verses. They are too sorry and doleful and too intimately private to be great...
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SOURCE: “Passionate Beauty: Carman's Sappho Poems,” in Canadian Poetry, Vol. 27, Fall, 1990, pp. 40-45.
[In the following essay, Nelson-McDermott reevaluates Carman's collection, Sappho Poems. He explains that previous critics have tended to discuss the Sappho poems in terms of Carman's “feminine” sensibilities; by contrast, Nelson-McDermott closely examines “Lyric LIV,” from Sappho Poems, in terms of its aesthetic qualities as a poem.]
D.M.R. Bentley opens his “Preface: Minor Poets of a Superior Order” with a passage from Wallace Stevens:
At the library yesterday, I skipped through a half-dozen little volumes of poetry by Bliss Carman. I felt the need for poetry—of hearing again about April and frogs and marsh-noises and the “honey-colored moon”—of seeing—“oleanders /Glimmer in the moonlight.” You remember the fragments of Sappho. Carman has taken these fragments and imagined the whole of the poem of which each was a part. The result, in some instances, is immensely pleasant—although distinctly not Sapphic. Sappho's passion came from her heart. Carman's from a sense of warm beauty.
Carman himself, in A Vision of Sappho, refers to these poems as “a sheer invention” (5); it thus comes as no surprise that Sappho: One Hundred...
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SOURCE: “Bliss Carman's ‘Low Tides,’” in Canadian Literature, Vol. 129, Summer, 1991, pp. 130-33.
[In the following essay, Vincent compares Carman's well-known poem “Low Tide on Grand Pré” (1893) with an earlier version of the same poem, titled “Low Tide on Avon” (1886).]
The publication of “Low Tide on Grand-Pré” in the Atlantic Monthly of March 1887 has been generally recognized by literary critics as the first significant milestone in Bliss Carman's development as a poet. It reflects an increased confidence in craftsmanship, a deeper maturity in poetic voice, and a greater clarity of poetic vision and direction. Carman himself acknowledged the importance of the poem by placing it first among the poems in his first volume of verse and by entitling that volume Low Tide on Grand-Pré (New York, 1893). Later, and with the benefit of hindsight, in a letter to H.D.C. Lee (29 September 1911), he expressed the view that he “did not write any poetry of any consequence” before the period in which he wrote “Low Tide.”1 As the importance of Carman's position in Canadian literature has become clearer, there has been a growing recognition of the significance of the poem in Canadian literary history generally. Today, few would dispute the view that it is a central work of Canadian poetry. And so, the existence of an early (if inferior) draft or...
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SOURCE: An introduction to “Arthur Symons' Reviews of Bliss Carman” in Canadian Poetry, Vol. 37, Winter, 1995, pp. 100-102.
[Tracy Ware provides an “Introduction,” written in 1995, to a series of reprints of reviews (please see Arthur Symons' reviews [1894, 1895, and 1897], above) of Carman's volumes Low Tide on Grand Pré, Songs from Vagabondia, Behind the Arras, and More Songs from Vagabondia. Ware explains that Symons “played a key role” in establishing Carman's early reputation as a poet.]
In the summer of 1890, Arthur Symons wrote Bliss Carman his appreciation of the latter's poems: “There is something delightfully fresh in them—a lyric April. I hope you will soon collect them into a book, & give one the opportunity of reading more of you.” Later that year, Symons repeated his praise: “When are you going to publish a volume? I want the pleasure of reviewing it.”1 Symons not only reviewed Carman's first volume, Low Tide on Grand Pré: A Book of Lyrics, after it appeared in 1893, but he also reviewed Carman's next three books: Songs from Vagabondia (1894, with Richard Hovey), Behind the Arras: A Book of the Unseen (1895), and More Songs from Vagabondia (1896, with Hovey).2 All of these reviews appeared unsigned in the Athenaeum, which Hugo McPherson calls...
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Carman, Bliss. Letters of Bliss Carman. Edited by H. Pearson-Gundy. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1981, 388 pp.
A selection of the personal correspondences of Carman from throughout his life.
Miller, Muriel. Bliss Carman: Quest and Revolt. St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada: Jefferson Press, 1985, 304 pp.
Covers Carman's early years in New Brunswick, his education and his search for recognition in the United States.
Stephens, Donald. Bliss Carman. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1966, 144 pp.
The classic biography of Carman. Stephens admits that he does not consider Carman a great poet, but acknowledges his profound influence on Canadian national literature.
Elderkin, Susan Huntley. “Tracking the Vagabond.” Essays on Canadian Writing 50 (Fall, 1993): pp. 247-55.
A review of Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal (1990), edited by Gerald Lynch.
Lynch, Gerald, editor. Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990, 208 pp.
A collection of critical essays on Carman, from the perspective of a century after his initial publications.
Pell, Barbara. “Canon or Not?” Canadian Literature 135 (Winter, 1992):...
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