Haydon, Benjamin Robert
Benjamin Robert Haydon 1786-1846
English autobiographer, essayist, critic, and diarist.
Aspiring to achieve greatness as a historical painter, Haydon never attained the success he envisioned. Instead, the tumultuous figure is remembered more for his autobiographical writings, which reveal his flair for romanticized and exalted language; his tremendous ambition and pride; his disputes—both public and private—with his many “adversaries,” including London's Royal Academy; and his never-ending anxiety over his professional failures and financial troubles. Not considered a major writer during his lifetime, Haydon attracted attention as a literary figure after his death with the publication of the three-volume Life of Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter, from His Autobiography and Journals (1853), which was printed at the request of his wife. A highly abridged version of his personal writings, the Life exhibited such literary merit that it has been reissued in modified forms several times since its original publication.
Haydon was born in Plymouth in January of 1786 to Benjamin Robert Haydon, a bookseller and printer, and Sarah Cobley Haydon. At age six he began drawing, and by age eighteen, certain of his love for art, he left his father's business and enrolled at the Royal Academy. Though beset in childhood with an eye disease that permanently damaged his vision, Haydon was driven by an intense determination to succeed. He found inspiration in famed English portrait painter Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses on Art (1769-91) and hoped to paint in the mode of the great Renaissance painters Raphael and Michelangelo. Devoted to what he referred to as the masters's “high art,” he wished to replicate their reverence for religion, their precision of form, their sense of patriotism, and their emotional expressiveness—qualities he vehemently set in contrast to the work of the “carrot painters,” those artists whose still lifes, portraits, and small-scale landscapes were so loved by the uninformed public. Arriving at the Royal Academy in 1804, Haydon achieved success with his first commissioned work, The Assassination of Dentatus (1808), which in 1810 won a premium for historical painting from the British Institution for the Promotion of the Fine Arts. This also marked the beginning of a lifelong conflict with the Royal Academy, triggered by a dispute over the display of the painting in the Academy. Some of Haydon's other early works—The Judgment of Solomon (1814) and Christ's Entry into Jerusalem (1820)—garnered high prices, and for a short time he was even called by some critics England's finest historical painter. Haydon quickly accumulated massive amounts of debt, however, as he spared no expense with materials and models while spending enormous amounts of time on the massive works. He temporarily maintained solvency only through the generosity of friends and by borrowing money. These continued financial difficulties would contribute significantly to his downfall.
During this same time the Elgin marbles, a collection of ancient Greek sculptures and inscriptions, was brought to England from Athens by Lord Elgin, who hoped that they would be purchased by the English government. Haydon, who had first seen the marbles in 1808, quickly became a proponent of the purchase and became embroiled in an intense public dispute with connoisseur Richard Payne Knight, director of the British Gallery, who claimed the marbles were inauthentic and inartistic. Haydon attacked the detractors in his first publication, The Judgment of Connoisseurs upon Works of Art Compared with That of Professional Men (1816), which brought about widespread notoriety for the author. Haydon became further incensed at the fact that, even though his name had been submitted as a “friendly witness,” he was never called by Parliament to testify as to the artistic value of the marbles. Haydon's public status reached its height when he was awarded an honorary membership in the Russian Imperial Academy. Around this time Haydon's friends included the Hunt brothers (John, Leigh, and Robert), Charles Lamb, John Keats, and William Wordsworth, the latter two sharing Haydon's ambitious artistic goals. Keats and Wordsworth, in fact, both wrote sonnets to their friend.
Haydon's quarrel with the Royal Academy extended to the areas of art instruction for the public and governmental funding for artists, causes that he returned to repeatedly over the course of his life. He claimed that the Royal Academy had “subtly and insidiously abandoned its most sacred obligation, that of providing sufficient art instruction for the people.” Thus, he established a private school of his own, which operated from 1815-23, and opened the doors to artisans, mechanics, and traditional artists. Haydon's mantra was that design was crucial to any aesthetic undertaking, and his school focused heavily in this area. “My object,” he stated, “was to make design as cheap as ABC, that the merest door-painter might paint the human figure.”
A year after his success with Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, Haydon married the widow Mary Cawrse Hyman. She already had two children, and four more were born in subsequent years. Mounting debts only increased, and a series of imprisonments resulted for Haydon, who could no longer escape the money lenders and creditors. By 1824 Haydon was forced by his legal adviser to submit to a new methodology: the artist had to start painting portraits and could not work on the massive canvasses he had previously desired. In effect, Haydon became one of the detested “carrot painters.” For the next several years he painted portraits, including an 1842 portrait of Wordsworth and Mock Election, completed during one of his many stays in debtor's prison. He busied himself with trying to convince the government to subsidize historical painters and also began a career as a public lecturer, speaking in London, Edinburgh, and the northern cities, particularly Liverpool. Though popular and enjoyable as a lecturer, Haydon was never able to break from poverty. In early 1846, he arranged another exhibition of his works, featuring two final paintings entitled The Banishment of Aristides and The Burning of Rome by Nero. The showing was a complete failure. Impoverished and despondent, Haydon attempted to set his affairs in order. Overwhelmed, he shot and stabbed himself in the throat. The medical examiner listed “insanity” as the cause of death.
Haydon began writing his autobiography in 1841, writing for two years and stopping his chronicle at 1820. His journals fill in the years both before and after that period. Totaling twenty-six folio volumes, his highly dramatic journal entries begin in 1808 and are filled with letters and documents, sketches, gossip about contemporaries, literary criticism, talk of English politics, his views on debtors' laws, newspaper cuttings, his anguish over his constant financial woes, and descriptions of his paintings. Writings in both his autobiography and journal reflect his grandiose ideas about his own artistic talent and his aspirations to elevate the artistic preferences of the general marketplace and his almost desperate desire to see his own country achieve the same respect in painting as it had in poetry. Reflecting, too, his emotional intensity, his writings continually emphasize the “ceaseless oppositions” that he felt characterized his entire life, highlighted by his feeling that the London art establishment never accorded him the honor and respect he deserved and the subsequent resentment and bitterness he fostered throughout his career. Conversely, his jottings also exhibit his knack for simplicity and humor, evidenced in particular in the anecdotes of his friendships with Wordsworth and Keats, the former whom he admired for his skill at using the written word to convey emotions, and the latter for whom he felt a devoted kinship. Both of these writers, in Haydon's estimation, would forego life if their lofty artistic goals were not reached. In addition, the journals reveal Haydon's great admiration for Dante, Milton, Shakespeare, and Homer, and allusions to these literary giants fill his writings. Religion is also a major component of the works; at one point, Haydon, an orthodox Christian, claimed that, except for religion, “I should have gone mad.”
From the start, Haydon was criticized for his lack of judgment where his own artwork was concerned; in fact, Haydon was criticized for extolling his own artwork in such publications as Annals of the Fine Arts and The Examiner (these pieces were often published anonymously). As early as 1926, English novelist and critic Aldous Huxley claimed that Haydon “had absolutely no artistic talent” and that he had missed his true calling as a romantic novelist, citing his keen powers of observation, his comic style, his strength in storytelling, and his verbal dexterity. Biographer Eric George, too, declared that “Haydon chose to be a painter, but it is through the pen and not the brush that he is most likely to be remembered.” Critics have stressed that Haydon's writings contain characteristics of the Romantic writers and that he possessed an extraordinary gift for drama. One of the areas of interest to scholars is the fact that even though Haydon professed that he was bound to tell the truth, almost all his writings are colored by his distorted and grandiose view of himself and of his work. Haydon's endless self-analysis and indulgence in obsessive melancholy, both evident in his writings, have also inspired critics to speculate on his motives for penning his life story.
The Judgment of Connoisseurs upon Works of Art Compared with That of Professional Men; in Reference More Particularly to the Elgin Marbles (criticism) 1816
New Churches Considered with Respect to the Opportunities They Afford for the Encouragement of Painting (essay) 1818
Description of Mr. Haydon's Picture of Christ's Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem, Now Exhibiting (prose) 1820
A Descriptive Catalogue of Mr. Haydon's Great Picture of the Raising of Lazarus, Now Exhibiting at the Egyptian Hall (prose) 1823
Explanation of the Picture of Chairing the Members, a Scene in the Mock Election, Which Took Place at the King's Bench Prison, July, 1827 (prose) 1828
Some Enquiry into the Causes Which Have Obstructed the Advance of Historical Painting for the Last Seventy Years in England (essay) 1829
Painting, and the Fine Arts: Being the Articles Under These Heads Contributed to the Seventh Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica [with William Hazlitt] (essays) 1838
Thoughts on the Relative Value of Fresco and Oil Painting, As Applied to the Architectural Decorations of the Houses of Parliament (essay) 1842
Lectures on Painting and Design. 2 vols. (lectures) 1844, 1846
Life of Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter, from His...
(The entire section is 297 words.)
SOURCE: Huxley, Aldous. Introduction to The Autobiography and Memoirs of Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786-1846), by Benjamin Robert Haydon, edited by Tom Taylor. Vol. 1, pp. v-xix. London: Peter Davies, 1926.
[In the following excerpt from his introduction to the 1926 edition of Haydon's Autobiography, Huxley insists that Haydon wasted his creative energy on painting when it was as a writer—in particular as a romantic novelist—that Haydon's true talent lay.]
Haydon was something more than a bad and deservedly unsuccessful painter. He was a great personality to begin with. And in the second place he was, as I like to think, a born writer who wasted his life making absurd pictures when he might have been making excellent books. One book, however, he did contrive to make. The Autobiography reveals his powers. Reading it, one realises the enormity of that initial mistake which sent him from his father's bookshop to the Academy schools. As a romantic novelist what might he not have achieved? Sadly one speculates.
There were times when Haydon himself seems to have speculated even as we do. “The truth is,” he remarks near the end of his life, “I am fonder of books than of anything else on earth. I consider myself, and ever shall, a man of great powers, excited to an art which limits their exercise. In politics, law, or literature they would have had a full and glorious...
(The entire section is 1239 words.)
SOURCE: Olney, Clarke. “John Keats and Benjamin Robert Haydon.” PMLA 49, no. 1 (March 1934): 258-75.
[In the following essay, Olney discusses Haydon's influence on the young John Keats during the mid-1810s, when the two men shared an intense devotion to art. Haydon encouraged Keats to undertake themes considered by Olney to be more “grand” and “powerful” than the poet's earlier subjects.]
The friendship between John Keats and Benjamin Robert Haydon is one chapter in the life of the poet which has never been satisfactorily written. A biography, like a novel, must needs have a villain; and in Haydon, Keats's biographers have one ready made. He was an egoist, a fanatic, and—worst of all—a failure; and surely, one is likely to think, whenever Haydon and Keats disagreed, Keats must have been right.1 The fact is that Keats and Haydon were intimate friends during the greater part of Keats's active creative life, and that each held the other, as an artist, in the highest regard. The purpose of the present study is to examine in some detail the course of this friendship and tentatively evaluate the importance of the influence of the painter on the poet.2
At the time Keats met Haydon, late in 1816, the painter had been for some years a friend and intimate of Leigh Hunt who had an undoubted genius for friendship—and extraordinarily good judgment in the choice...
(The entire section is 8575 words.)
SOURCE: Lang, Varley. “Benjamin Robert Haydon.” Philological Quarterly 26, no. 3 (July 1947): 235-47.
[In the following essay, Lang portrays Haydon as a reformer in the field of the arts, focusing in particular on the painter's lobbying for increased public support of the arts and his belief that all English manufacturers and artisans should combine excellent workmanship with high artistic skill. In addition, Lang compares Haydon's ideas with those of later English art reformers, including Matthew Arnold, William Morris, and John Ruskin.]
Whenever reforms in English art of the nineteenth century are mentioned, whether they concern standards of beauty in things of utility, or the social and economic influence upon art in handicrafts and manufactures, or the national, moral, and spiritual implications of art, one thinks immediately of Morris, of Ruskin, and of Arnold. It is usually taken for granted that the suggestions for improvement in the arts and in the attitudes of people toward the arts were either original with them or were first warmly and powerfully encouraged by them. But Benjamin Robert Haydon, before any of the latter reformers had ever uttered a word on art, had fought most of his life for, and given powerful expression to, the ideas which they were later to defend and promulgate. Haydon was not a great artist, but he was a first class fightin' man; because he thought he was right, he...
(The entire section is 5988 words.)
SOURCE: George, Eric. “Haydon on Haydon.” In The Life and Death of Benjamin Robert Haydon, Historical Painter: 1786-1846. 1948. Reprint, with additions by Dorothy George, pp. 374-84. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
[In the following essay, George, using as his source W. B. Pope's Diary of Benjamin Robert Haydon (1960-63), the first publication of the full text of Haydon's Journals, focuses on Haydon's entries describing his “darker side”—the anguish over his own sanity, and those feelings of anxiety and despondency that plagued the artist throughout his entire career.]
Painters & Poets are liable to the erruptions of different feelings
Does Haydon's darker side, the hypochondria and the fits of despair, editorially muted by Taylor, affect the question of his sanity? He brooded on insanity as he brooded on suicide, expected Leigh Hunt to die insane, feared the same fate for Frank, and thought Frank's instability inherited from himself. Hypochondria, like suicide, he attributed to indigestion. ‘What machines we are. Digestion is the great cause of every virtue & every vice …’,1 he wrote in June 1845. A few months earlier he had prayed; ‘Spare me, O God from a failing brain.’2 The preservation of his sanity he ascribed to marriage and to his religion, and the...
(The entire section is 4737 words.)
SOURCE: Kearney, Colbert. “B. R. Haydon and The Examiner.” Keats-Shelley Journal 27 (1978): 108-29.
[In the following essay, Kearney attempts to prove that Haydon was the author of several anonymous letters and articles published in the Hunts' paper The Examiner during the early 1800s, using entries in Haydon's Diary to validate his argument and maintaining that the published pieces attest to the close relationship between Haydon and the Hunts during that time.]
Writing in The British Press for 3 July 1823, “An Observer” claimed that Haydon the historical painter—then in the King's Bench Prison for debt—had written critiques of his own work in The Examiner and in the Annals of the Fine Arts. Haydon complained of this to the editor of the Annals, James Elmes, who replied in a letter that was clearly intended to be shown to anybody who doubted Haydon's denial of the original charge:
I have no hesitation to avow that, during the five years that the Annals of the Fine Arts were published, of which I was sole editor and part proprietor, no criticisms or praises on your own works, or on those of others that were printed, were written by you, or even seen by you, till in print.
(Without looking further than Haydon's Autobiography, this can be shown to be a lie.)...
(The entire section is 8671 words.)
SOURCE: Porter, Roger J. “‘In me the solitary sublimity’: Posturing and the Collapse of Romantic Will in Benjamin Robert Haydon.” In The Culture of Autobiography: Constructions of Self-Representation, edited by Robert Folkenflik, pp. 168-87. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1993.
[In the following essay, Porter attempts to pinpoint the reason why Haydon felt the intense need to chronicle his life in his autobiography and in his journals.]
On June 22, 1846, moments before he committed a kind of double suicide by shooting himself and slashing his throat, Benjamin Robert Haydon, historical painter, would-be savior of British art, and friend to both generations of romantic writers, wrote the final words in the diary he had kept for 38 of his 60 years: “‘Stretch me no longer on this tough World’—Lear.”1 With a symmetrical gesture he could hardly have been conscious of making, Haydon was closing a parenthesis of allusion around his life. In 1808, at the beginning of what he envisioned—no less than did his companion Keats—as a grand and illustrious calling, Haydon noted in the first entry of his journal that he stood upon the cliffs of Dover where “Lear defied the storm” (1:3) and when a storm actually broke over the coast Haydon fancied himself as the great white-haired king blasted by nature and fiendish daughters; he was moved to reread the play, and...
(The entire section is 8462 words.)
Barlow, P. J. “Benjamin Robert Haydon and the Radicals.” The Burlington Magazine 99, no. 654 (September 1957): 311-12.
Records Haydon's unsuccessful attempt to paint the May 1832 scene at Newhall Hill in which the Birmingham Political Union gathered to celebrate the success of Reform.
Brooks, E. L. “An Unidentified Article by Benjamin Robert Haydon.” Keats-Shelley Journal 6 (1957): 9-12.
Proposes that Haydon was the source of an article in John Scott's A Visit to Paris in 1814 (1815), in which the author reported on his reactions to a visit to the Louvre.
Cummings, Frederick. “B. R. Haydon and His School.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtald Institutes 26 (1963): 367-80.
Describes the contributions to nineteenth-century art and art education of Haydon's private school (1815-23), discussing Haydon's teaching method, his artistic theory, his curriculum, and two of his most notable students, Sir Edwin Landseer and Sir Charles Lock Eastlake.
Davis, Norma S. “Wordsworth, Haydon and Beaumont: A Change in the Role of Artistic Patronage.” Charles Lamb Bulletin 55 (July 1986): 210-24.
Examines the differences in attitude toward Sir George Howland Beaumont shown by William Wordsworth and Haydon, who were both recipients of...
(The entire section is 442 words.)