Jonson, Ben (Literary Criticism (1400-1800))
Ben Jonson 1572(?)–1637
English dramatist, poet, masque writer, and critic
The following entry contains critical essays published from 1959 through 1989. For further information on Jonson, see LC, Vol. 6.
Ben Jonson is among the best-known writers and theorists of English Renaissance literature, second in reputation only to Shakespeare. A prolific dramatist and a man of letters highly learned in the classics, he profoundly influenced the Augustan age through his emphasis on the precepts of Horace, Aristotle, and other classical Greek and Latin thinkers. While he is now remembered primarily for his satirical comedies, he also distinguished himself as a poet, preeminent writer of masques, erudite defender of his work, and the originator of English literary criticism. Jonson's professional reputation is often obscured by that of the man himself: bold, independent and aggressive. He fashioned for himself an image as the sole arbiter of taste, standing for erudition and the supremacy of classical models against what he perceived as the general populace's ignorant preference for the sensational. While his direct influence can be seen in each genre he undertook, his ultimate legacy is considered to be his literary craftsmanship, his strong sense of artistic form and control, and his role in bringing, as Alexander Pope noted, "critical learning into vogue."
Jonson was born in London shortly after the death of his father, a minister who claimed descent from the Scottish gentry. Despite a poor upbringing, he was educated at Westminster School under the renowned antiquary William Camden. He apparently left his schooling unwillingly to work with his stepfather as a bricklayer. He then served as a volunteer in the Low Countries in the Dutch war against Spain, and the story is told that he defeated a challenger in single combat between the opposing armies, stripping his vanquished opponent of his arms in the classical fashion. Returning to England by 1592, Jonson married Anne Lewis in 1594. Although the union was unhappy, it produced several children, all of whom Jonson outlived. In the years following his marriage, he became an actor and also wrote numerous "get-penny" entertainments—financially motivated and quickly composed plays. He also provided respected emendations and additions to Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy
(1592). By 1597 he was writing for Philip Henslowe's theatrical company. That year, Henslowe employed Jonson to finish Thomas Nashe's satire The Isle of Dogs (now lost), but the play was suppressed for alleged seditious content and Jonson was jailed for a short time. In 1598 the earliest of his extant works, Every Man in His Humour, was produced by the Lord Chamberlain's Men with William Shakespeare—who became close friends with Jonson—in the cast. That same year, Jonson fell into further trouble after killing actor Gabriel Spencer in a duel, narrowly escaping the gallows by claiming benefit of clergy (meaning he was shown leniency for proving that he was literate and educated). While incarcerated at Newgate prison, Jonson converted to Catholicism.
Shortly thereafter, writing for the Children of the Queen's Chapel, Jonson became embroiled in a public feud with playwrights John Marston and Thomas Dekker. In Cynthia's Revells and Poetaster (both 1601), Jonson portrayed himself as the impartial, well-informed judge of art and society and wrote unflattering portraits of the two dramatists. Marston and Dekker counterattacked with a satiric portrayal of Jonson in the play Satiromastix; or, The Untrussing of the Humorous Poet (1602). Interestingly, scholars speculate that the dispute, which became known as the "War of the Theatres," was mutually contrived in order to further the authors' careers. In any event, Jonson later reconciled with Marston, and collaborated with him and George Chapman in writing Eastward Ho! (1605). A joke at the King's expense in this play landed him once again, along with his co-authors, in prison. Once freed, however, Jonson entered a period of good fortune and productivity. He had many friends at court, and James I valued his learning highly. His abilities thus did not go unrecognized, and he was frequently called upon to write his popular, elegant masques, such as The Masque of Blacknesse (1605). During this period, Jonson also produced his most successful comedies, beginning in 1606 with Volpone and following with The Silent Woman (1609), The Alchemist (1610), and Bartholomew Fayre (1614). Jonson's remaining tragedies, Sejanus His Fall (1603) and Catiline His Conspiracy (1611), though monuments to his scholarship, were not well received due to their rigid imitation of classical tragic forms and their pedantic tone.
In 1616 Jonson published his Workes, becoming the first English writer to dignify his dramas by terming them "works," and for this perceived presumption he was soundly ridiculed. In that year Jonson assumed the responsibilities and privileges of Poet Laureate, though without formal appointment. From 1616 to 1625 he primarily wrote masques for presentation at court. He had already collaborated with poet, architect, and stage designer Inigo Jones one several court masques, and the two continued their joint efforts, establishing the reign of James I as the period of the consummate masque. For his achievements, the University of Oxford honored him in 1619 with a master of arts degree.
Misfortune, however, marked Jonson's later years. A fire destroyed his library in 1623, and when James I died in 1625, Jonson lost much of his influence at court, though he was named City Chronologer in 1628. Later that year, he suffered the first of several strokes which left him bedridden. Jonson produced four plays during the reign of Charles I, and was eventually granted a new pension in 1634. None of these later plays was successful. The rest of his life, spent in retirement, he filled primarily with study and writing; at his death, on August 6, 1637, two unfinished plays were discovered among his mass of papers and manuscripts. Jonson left a financially depleted estate, but was nevertheless buried with honor in Westminster Abbey.
Jonson's earliest comedies, such as Every Man in His Humour, derive from Roman comedy in form and structure and are noteworthy as models of the comedy of "humours," in which each character represents a type dominated by a particular obsession. Although Jonson was not the first to employ the comedy of humours, his use of the form in Every Man in His Humour and Every Man out of His Humour is considered exemplary, and such characterization continued to be a feature of his work. Of particular significance in appraisals of Jonson are the four comical satires produced between 1606 and 1614: Volpone, The Silent Woman, The Alchemist, and Bartholomew Fayre. Each exposes some aberration of human appetite through comic exaggeration and periodic moralisms while evincing Jonson's interest in the variety of life and in the villain as a cunning, imaginative artist. Volpone, his most famous and most frequently staged work, is also his harshest attack on human vice, specifically targetting greed. Like The Silent Woman and The Alchemist, it mixes didactic intent with scenes of tightly constructed comic counterpoise. The last of Jonson's great dramas is the panoramic Bartholomew Fayre. Softening the didacticism that characterized his earlier work, Jonson expressed the classical moralist's views of wisdom and folly through a multiplicity of layered, interrelated plots in a colorfully portrayed and loosely structured form. All four comedies exhibit careful planning executed with classical precision, a command of low speech and colloquial usage, and a movement toward more realistic, three-dimensional character depiction.
Critics note that Jonson's later plays, beginning with The Divell is an Asse in 1616, betray the dramatist's diminishing artistry. These later dramas were dismissed by John Dryden, who undertook the first extensive analysis of Jonson, as mere "dotages." While generously likening him to Vergil and calling him "the most learned and judicious writer which any theatre ever had," Dryden's comments also signaled the start of a decline in Jonson's reputation, for his observations included a comparison of Jonson and Shakespeare, one which nodded admiringly toward Jonson, but bowed adoringly before Shakespeare. This telling comparison colored Jonson's reputation for more than two hundred years, fueled by such nineteenth-century Romantic critics as Samual Taylor Coleridge (1818), and William Hazlitt (1819), who found Jonson lacking in imagination, delicacy, and soul. His "greatest defect," according to George Saintsbury, was the "want of passion." "Yet," he conceded, "his merits are extraordinary." Most nineteenth-century critics agreed with the assessment of John Addington Symonds that the "higher gifts of poetry, with which Shakespeare—'nature's child'—was so richly endowed, are almost absolutely wanting in Ben Jonson."
T.S. Eliot, writing in 1919, focused attention on Jonson's reputation as "the most deadly kind that can be compelled upon the memory of a great poet. To be universally accepted; to be damned by the praise that quenches all desire to read the book; to be afflicted by the imputation of the virtues which excite the least pleasure; and to be read only by historians and antiquaries—this is the most perfect conspiracy of approval." With this began a reevaluation of Jonson, whose reputation has benefitted from modernist reaction against Romanticist sensibility, and who began to be appreciated on his own terms. English critic L.C. Knights, in 1937, considered Jonson "a very great poet"; and while Edmund Wilson, in 1948, still found none of Shakespeare's "immense range" in Jonson, he thought him "a great man of letters" and acknowledged his influence on writers as diverse as Milton, Congreve, Swift, and Huxley. Recent scholarship has sought to place Jonson in the theatrical and political milieu of London, addressing his relationship with his audience and the monarchy. This focus on historical context has also produced an emphasis on the former bricklayer's "self-fashioning" into dramatist, critic, and finally the first Poet Laureate. Many critics now regard him as a fore-runner in the seventeenth-century movement toward classicism, and his plays are often admired for their accurate depictions of the men and women of his day, their mastery of form, and their successful blend of the serious and the comic, the topical and the timeless.
The Case is Alterd (drama) 1598
Every Man in His Humor (drama) 1598; also published as Every Man in His Humour, 1616
The Comicall Satyre of Every Man out of His Humor (drama) 1599; also published asEvery Man out of His Humour, 1920
Cynthias Revels; or, The Fountain of Self-Love (drama) 1601
Poetaster; or, The Arraignment (drama) 1601
Sejanus His Fall (drama) 1603
Eastward Ho! [with George Chapman and John Marston] (drama) 1605
Masque of Blackness (masque) 1605
Hymanaei (masque) 1606
Volpone; or, The Foxe (drama) 1606
Masque of Beauty (masque) 1608
Epicoene; or, The Silent Woman (drama) 1609
Masque of Queenes (masque) 1609
The Alchemist (drama) 1610
Catiline His Conspiracy (drama) 1611
Oberon, the Fairy Prince (masque) 1611
Bartholomew Fayre (drama) 1614
The Divell is an Asse; or, The Cheater Cheated (drama) 1616
The Golden Age Restored (masque) 1616
The Workes of Benjamin Jonson (dramas and poetry) 1616
Pleasure Reconcild to Vertue (masque)...
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SOURCE: "The Satirist in the Theater: Comicall Satyre," in The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance, Yale University Press, 1959, pp. 156-91.
[In the following excerpt, Kernan focuses on Jonson's "comicall satyres," showing how the satirical and ironic modes are played out in the theme of alchemy and in the gulf between Renaissance aspiration and human limitation. Jonson, Kernan contends, "set the pattern for comical satire for a generation to come."]
Ben Jonson … was concerned with the moral and sanative purpose of satire, not just with exciting theater, and in his three plays which he called "Comicall Satyres," Every Man Out of His Humor (1599), Cynthia's Revels (1600), and Poetaster (1601) he attempted to limit the satirist to his proper place in satiric drama. Or, put in another way, he tried in these plays to solve the recurrent problem of formal satire, a problem intensified by the shift to the theater: how to manage the unruly satirist needed for the castigation of the fools. Each of these plays has elaborate prologues, inductions, epilogues, and scenes where Jonson or one of his characters discusses with a great deal of care the problems of satire. [In Poetaster] He accuses the other authors of dramatic satire of being no more than,
Fellowes of practis'd and most laxative tongues,
Whose empty and eager...
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SOURCE: "Clues to Just Judgment: I," in Vision and Judgment in Ben Jonson's Drama, Yale University Press, 1968, pp. 95-125.
[In the essay below, Jackson explores the relation between dramatic art and moral judgment in Jonson's plays. Jackson focuses on the theme of nobility and the recurrence of money symbolism to reveal the rhetorical character of Jonson's dramaturgy.]
Justum judicium judicate.
He only judges right, who weighs, compares, And, in the sternest sentence which his voice Pronounces, ne'er abandons charity.
Wordsworth, Ecclesiastical Sonnets, II.I
The "critical sense of life," [Rhys, Ben Jonson] which Jonson followed further than any other impulse or talent, led him to pass judgment upon the company on stage as well as that in the pit; but his main object was to equip the men and women within the circle of his theater to judge of those within the circle of his play, and then to extend that understanding to the circle of his readers, the hoped-for purchasers of the 1616 Folio. But how was Jonson to make certain of securing the audience's understanding, of transmitting his perception of Truth to the minds of his spectators and readers? How ensure that the picture he drew would be durable, lastingly...
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SOURCE: "Ben Jonson and the Centered Self," in Modern Critical View: Ben Jonson, edited by Harold Bloom, Chelsea House Publishers, 1987, pp. 89-110.
[In the following essay, Greene claims that all of Jonson 's work is organized around two images: the circle, which implies harmony and equilibrium, and a center, which suggests the ruler or solitary independence. Greene traces how the use of these symbols differs in the masques, poems, and plays.]
"Deest quod duceret orbem" reads the motto of Ben Jonson's famous impresa with the broken compass. After the fashion of imprese, it contains a kind of transparent enigma, to be solved in this case by the reading of its author's canon. For the orbis—circle, sphere, symbol of harmony and perfection—becomes familiar to the student of Jonson as one of his great unifying images. In a sense, almost everything Jonson wrote attempts in one way or another to complete the broken circle, or expose the ugliness of its incompletion. We have had a study of the circle in the European imagination [George Poulet's Les Métamorphoses du cercle], and another of the circle in seventeenth-century England [Marjorie Nicholson's The Breaking of the Circle], both valuable explorations of this image's evocative range. But as both studies teach us, even geometric images can be plastic—must be so, insofar as they are...
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SOURCE: "The Comical Satires," in Ben Jonson, Dramatist, Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 58-91.
[In the following essay, Barton explores the links between real life and dramatic representation in Jonson's comical satires, suggesting that Jonson's satirical works were influenced by his stormy relationship with Marston, and noting the dangers of Jonson's efforts to satirize members of his own audience.]
Almost twenty years after the War of the Theatres, or Poetomachia, was over, and Jonson, Marston and Dekker had long since restored amicable relations, Drummond recorded Jonson's statement that the quarrels began when 'Marston represented him in the stage'. Three of Marston's surviving plays contain characters who have certain affinities with Jonson: Histriomastix (1598/9), Jack Drum's Entertainment (1600) and What You Will (1601). The scholar Chrisogonus in Histriomastix was clearly intended by Marston as the hero of the play. Brabant Senior, on the other hand, in Jack Drum's Entertainment, is a figure of fun. Lampatho Doria and Quadratus in What You Will receive mixed and ambiguous treatment, but the comedy itself is too late to qualify as the opening salvo in the altercation. Either Chrisogonus or Brabant Senior might, although for very different reasons, have occasioned the original offence. Marston, unlike Dekker in Satiromastix, is non-committal...
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SOURCE: "The Plays," in Ben Jonson and the Poetics of Patronage, Bucknell University Press, 1989, pp. 246-68.
[In the following essay, Evans examines the impact of patronage on Jonson's dramatic work, detecting in the plays Jonson's strategic self-advertisement and dramatic self-portraiture, as well as evidence of Jacobean London's system of power, hierarchy, and social advancement.]
Patronage was obviously an important influence on Jonson's poems and masques, but its impact on his drama is less immediately clear. Many of his poems are addressed explicitly to patrons, while his masques were sponsored by the court and were performed for its recreation. The plays, however—especially the great comedies on which his reputation depends—seem more distanced from any open concern with patronage. The fact that they are plays is partly responsible: in them Jonson speaks less clearly in his own voice, and the audience he addresses seems broader than the single patrons of the poems or the select groups privileged to witness the masques. Some of the early plays, in which his motives of self-promotion seem most distinct, can seem somewhat tiresome and stale. They too obviously advertise their author. But Jonson never ceased using his plays for self-promotion; he simply learned to use them more subtly and effectively. The influence of patronage on his drama is not confined to such early plays as Cynthia's...
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SOURCE: "Facts of the Matter: Satiric and Ideal Economies in the Jonsonian Imagination," in Ben Jonson's 1616 Folio, edited by Jennifer Brady and W. H. Herendeen, University of Delaware Press, 1991, pp. 64-86.
[In the following essay, Maus explores the relationship between genre and economics in Jonson's work, suggesting that the "satiric economy" of the plays is absent from the allegorical masques and the idealistic poems of praise.]
For those of you who are interested in getting ahead, I have one suggestion: have a father who owns the business and have him die.
In tragedy, characters die; in comedy, they do not. Though Jonson observes this generic rule scrupulously—Puntarvolo's dog, in Every Man Out Of His Humour, is his only real casualty—death nonetheless looms unusually large as a plot device in many of his comedies. In Volpone most of the characters are waiting for the hero to become a corpse, and he seems to comply at the beginning of the fifth act. The Alchemist is set in plague-ridden London, in a house that the master has vacated after the death of his wife—a bereavement that allows him to marry the desirable Dame Pliant, herself recently widowed, at the end of the play. In Epicoene Truewit suggests a plan to extract Dau-phine's inheritance from his uncle Morose:...
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SOURCE: "Neoclassicim and the Scientific Frame of Mind: Ben Jonson and Mystick Symboles," in Renaissance Magic and the Return of the Golden Age: The Occult Tradition and Marlowe, Jonson, and Shakespeare, University of Nebraska Press, 1989, pp. 156-73.
[In the following essay, Mebane explores an apparent contradiction between Jonson's conservative neoclassicism, as outlined in Discoveries, and his frequent use of "occult philosophy, " allegory, and symbolism in the masques. Mebane sees Jonson negotiating between prior occult traditions and the growing restraint and rationalism of Baconian science.]
Ben Jonson's neoclassicism is grounded firmly upon the moderate Christian humanism which was cultivated in England by scholars and educators such as Thomas More, Erasmus, Roger Ascham, John Cheke, and William Camden. Jonson's art is typical of this tradition in that he is concerned primarily with social and ethical problems, and his sense of civic duty and propriety is derived in large part from those Roman authors—especially Horace, Virgil, Seneca, and Cicero—whom he deeply revered. There is considerable justification for Frances Yates's use of the phrase "Latin humanism" to refer to this educational and literary movement, which is concerned with human beings as social creatures, not as magnificent demigods or magicians. While the Latin humanists were more concerned with the development of the...
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Kay, W. David. Ben Jonson: A Literary Life. Houndsmills: Macmillan, 1995, 237 p.
Biographical study of Jonson which stresses his complexity. Includes a brief bibliographical commentary.
Riggs, David. Ben Jonson: A Life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989, 399 p.
Biography which finds in Jonson a contrasting but ultimately complementary mix of "reckless selfassertion" and "rationalistic self-limitation."
Brock, D. Heyward. A Ben Jonson Companion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983, 307 p.
Alphabetical concordance to Jonson, including major works, characters, themes, contemporaries, and notable Jonson critics.
Bryant, J. A., Jr. The Compassionate Satirist: Ben Jonson and His Imperfect World. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1972, 195 p.
Focuses on the major plays, addressing Jonson's attitudes toward his characters.
Cave, Richard Allen. Ben Jonson. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991, 184 p.
Introductory monograph which focuses on the major plays.
Gibbons, Brian. Jacobean...
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