Battle of Mohács (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: The Battle of Mohács destroys the medieval unified Hungarian nation, establishes the Ottomans as a major power in Europe, and opens Hungary to Habsburg and Ottoman domination.
Summary of Event
On April 23, 1526, Süleyman I began marching westward from Belgrade to invade Hungary with almost one hundred thousand men. Professional soldiers—janissaries (infantry) and sipahis (cavalry)—composed about half of his total force. The remainder consisted of irregular infantry (azabs) and cavalry (akinjis) to be recompensed by the spoils of war. Artillery consisted of between 150 and 200 guns. He was well prepared, having constructed bridges across the Danubian tributaries Sava and Drava in advance. In contrast, the Hungarian border fortresses were inadequately manned and in a poor state of maintenance. The king’s professional army had been disbanded and many of the king’s vassals had allowed their forces to decline. As a consequence, the border fortresses and troops were unable to effectively delay Ottoman advance until the king’s men, feudal levies, and allies could be fully mobilized. Furthermore, King Louis II did not command the wholehearted support of his people. He was married to the Archduke Ferdinand’s sister, Maria, and he and his nobles made up a Catholic party supporting the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Charles, however, was embroiled in Protestant-Catholic...
(The entire section is 1377 words.)
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Battle of Mohács (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Type of action: Ground battle in the Hungarian-Turkish Wars. Result: Decisive military battle that crushed Hungarian resistance and established Ottoman domination over central Europe.
Süleyman I led 100,000 soldiers on a second campaign into Hungary on April 23, 1526, having captured Belgrade on a previous expedition into the country. Hampered by torrential rains and hailstorms, Ottoman forces finally crossed the River Sava, a tributary of the Danube, on a bridge built by advance troops. Most of the Hungarian forces had retreated but a few remained in the fortress of Peterwardein. Süleyman’s grand vizier, İbrahim Paşa, captured the city, beheading five hundred Hungarian soldiers and selling the inhabitants into slavery.
Crossing the Drava River on a pontoon bridge, Süleyman expected to engage the Hungarians but found no resistance because of internal rivalries and their inability to coordinate supplies. Süleyman advanced his troops to the plain of Mohács, where they encountered the Hungarian king Louis II and four thousand of his troops. By the time of the battle, approximately 25,000 reinforcements had arrived from various groups, including the Poles, Germans, and Bohemians. Most of the Hungarian commanders urged a retreat to Buda, allowing time for additional troops to join the main force and lengthening the Ottoman lines of communication and supply in the process. A group of Magyar nobles demanded...
(The entire section is 585 words.)