Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea c. 330-379
(Also known as St. Basil and Basil the Great.) Greek patriarch and theologian.
Revered as a saint in both the Eastern and Western Christian churches, Basil possessed an extraordinary range of natural talents and an indomitable spirit, all of which he devoted to the cause of unifying the fourth-century church in Asia Minor. As Bishop of Caesarea, he demonstrated a remarkable ability for administration, establishing a monastic tradition that survives to the present as well as developing a program of social assistance to the lay community that became a model for the early church. An ardent proponent of Nicene orthodoxy, Basil was in the forefront of the struggle against Arianism, working closely with the other Cappadocian fathers—his friend Gregory of Nazianzus and his brother Gregory of Nyssa—to establish a doctrine of the Trinity that would be accepted by all Christians. His writings on the Holy Spirit are among his most important contributions to the theology of the church. Together with Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom, Basil is regarded as one of the three supreme figures of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Biographical InformationBasil was born in Caesarea (in modern Turkey) around 330 into a family noted for its Christian piety. His father was a wealthy landowner and a teacher. Basil's grandmother, known as Macrina the Elder, and his mother, Emmelia, were members of the nobility and extremely devout; by precept and example, these women wielded a strong influence on Basil and his nine siblings. After receiving his early education at the family's home near Neocaesarea, Basil studied in Caesarea (c. 345-47), Constantinople (c. 348-50), and Athens (c. 350-55). In school at Caesarea he met Gregory of Nazianzus, and they became lifelong friends and confidants. Basil returned home around 355 and spent a brief period as a teacher, but within a year or so his sister Macrina had persuaded him to abandon this profession and convert to monasticism. In 356-57, after being baptized into the Christian faith, he toured monastic settlements in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia, then retired to relative seclusion on his family's lands at Annesi in Pontus, where he established, with his brother Gregory of Nyssa, a monastic community. Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, ordained Basil as a priest in 364, and from 365 until 370, Basil divided his time between scholarly and administrative work. In 368 a disastrous famine struck Caesarea, and he spearheaded efforts to relieve the residents, selling off part of his inheritance to cover the cost of assisting them.
When Eusebius died in 370, Basil became Bishop of Caesarea and henceforth worked tirelessly to rid the church of heterodoxies and end the factionalism that threatened its survival. He openly defied the Arian emperor Valens and other powerful opponents, established important connections with Western bishops, and consolidated his authority in the East by appointing orthodox adherents to important positions in his diocese. During this period he also supervised the foundation of a new town in a suburb of Caesarea, where a church, a hospital, and guest quarters for travelers ministered to the needs of his communicants. Basil died on January 1, 379, at the age of forty-nine. Two years after his death, the Council of Constantinople proclaimed the con-substantiality of the Trinity, thus bringing to a close a period of vehement sectarianism and, in effect, validating Basil's long struggle against Arianism.
The chronology of composition dates provided here generally follows that of Prudentius Maran, an early eighteenth-century French scholar, and the editor—with Julien Gamier—of Basil's complete works; it also takes into account adjusted dates proposed by twentieth-century commentators.
The collected letters of Basil, perhaps his most famous literary effort, number more than 360, yielding a wealth of information about his career and about social, cultural, and economic life in Cappadocia in the mid-fourth century. (They have not been arranged in chronological order, and the authenticity of a few of them is doubtful; the collection also contains epistles by some of his correspondents.) Written over the period c. 356-78, the letters are addressed to persons of every rank and stature: congregants, monks, and students as well as provincial governors, Eastern and Western bishops, military officers, and magistrates. They treat a broad range of topics—from theological controversies and ecclesiastical politics to education and the proper commemoration of saints and martyrs. The style of the letters is vigorous and frequently colloquial, though Basil's deft use of classical allusions demonstrates his wit and learning. As many commentators have pointed out, the tone of the letters varies; it is civil and kindly in those to friends and other persons who shared his views, but often harsh and critical in epistles to people who differed with him.
Basil's ascetical treatises, written and revised over an extended period (c. 361 to 376), constitute a second significant corpus. These treatises include the Morals and Obligations, an anthology of more than 1,500 verses from the New Testament intended to serve as a practical and spiritual guide to all Christians—lay persons as well as monks. This work was originally prefaced by Basil's essay "On the Judgment of God," in which he attacks factionalism within the church; he subsequently added a second preface, entitled "On the Faith," that constitutes a concise statement of his religious beliefs. Basil's recommendations for the regulation of monastic communities were compiled in a work known as the "great" Asceticon; this includes the so-called Short and Long Rules, and a series of questions and answers known as the Examination of the Brothers. Basil advocates here a life devoted to God through service to other members of the community as well as to the poor and the sick, and he sets forth times for liturgical prayers, manual labor, and contemplation. Although it requires obedience, the Asceticon does not encourage either extreme austerity or self-denial. Basil's Rules had a profound influence on St. Benedict (c. 480-547), the patriarch of Western monasticism.
Basil's doctrinal writings comprise a third category of his literary heritage. Of these, Against Eunomius (c. 364) and On the Holy Spirit (c. 375-76) are generally considered the most important. Written to defend orthodoxy against Eunomius's advocacy of extreme Arianism—the belief that God was of a different, higher order of existence than Christ, and that the Holy Spirit was not divine—Against Eunomius consists of five books, of which the first three are by Basil and the last two by another author, perhaps Didymus of Alexandria. Here Basil asserts the homoousianism (one substance) of the Son and the Holy Spirit with the Father, thus contributing significantly to the defense of orthodox Christianity. He continued to avow Trinitarianism in On the Holy Spirit. Though he does not affirm the equal divinity of the Holy Spirit in this work, he posits an innovative, extra-scriptural authority in support of his argument, claiming that the consubstantiality of the Trinity is traditionally part of the esoteric instruction given to baptized communicants.
Basil's sermons form a fourth subdivision of his work. Among the ones that survive are some delivered while he was a priest; others are from his tenure as Bishop of Caesarea. They deal with a variety of subjects—including personal morality and the veneration of relics—and were generally addressed to converts who were undergoing indoctrination before becoming full members of the church. Among the most famous of these sermons are the nine Homilies on the Six Days of Creation (c. 378), in which Basil draws on both Scripture and the scientific writings of Aristotle and the Stoics, though he places much greater reliance on biblical truth and revelation than on natural philosophy. He depicts the universe as a hierarchy whose parts are bound together in harmonious sympathy, and he discusses the order of elements, time and motion, and both the temporal and non-temporal worlds. This series of sermons has traditionally been much admired for its rhetorical grace.
Another of Basil's treatises that was highly regarded for many centuries is the "Address to Young Men on the Profitable Use of Pagan Literature" (perhaps c. 364, though some modern scholars have suggested that it was written in the last years of his life). Here he recommends that before embarking on the much more significant study of Scripture, students should read selectively from the classics of Greek literature in order to develop their intellects—as indeed he himself had done. A further example of his instructional work is the Philokalia, a collection of passages from Origen's theological writings that Basil compiled with his friend Gregory of Nazianzus while they were in seclusion at Annesi (c. 358-61) but that remained unpublished until after his death.
Basil and his writings have had an indelible influence on Christian thought and practice. In addition, his ascetic treatises formed the basis of Eastern monasticism and profoundly affected the development of religious communities in Western Europe. Scholars have long been grateful for the evidence, in both his formal and informal compositions, of doctrinal controversies and ecclesiastical disputes in the fourth-century church. In the 1800s, commentators called attention to the rich and lively narrative of his era that Basil provided in his voluminous correspondence, and many of them rated these letters as his most important literary work. Throughout the twentieth century, critics have shown keen interest in what his writings reveal about Basil's many-sided role as Bishop of Caesarea: administering the organization of an extensive diocese; overseeing the foundation of charitable institutions; supervising the instruction of members of his congregation; counseling people in distress; dealing with secular authorities; resolving political issues within the church; and, above all, championing the principle of religious orthodoxy. Over the past few decades, commentators have become increasingly concerned with Basil's indebtedness to Greek culture and learning. They have looked closely at his letters, the Homilies on Creation, and the "Address to Young Men," attempting to determine the extent to which he employed classical authors in his own writings; several have concluded that despite his official, rather disdainful attitude toward Hellenic philosophers, he relied heavily on their work. Indeed, some late twentieth-century scholars have sharply criticized what they see as Basil's condescending attitude toward pagan writers in the "Address to Young Men." Basil's various compositions on the Trinity have also become a critical focal point in recent decades. Many commentators judge On the Holy Spirit to be Basil's most significant doctrinal treatise, especially in terms of the line of argument he developed there. Most recently, scholars have turned to an examination of Basil's concept of what it means to be a Christian and a member of the church. They have found that love of God and all humanity, the limitations of human understanding, and the need for steadfast faith are basic, recurring themes that appear throughout his pastoral, ascetic, and doctrinal compositions.
Epistolae [Letters] (correspondence) c. 356-78
Philokalia (anthology of Origen's writings, compiled with Gregory of Nazianzus) c. 358-61
"De judicio Dei" ["On the Judgment of God"] (essay) c. 361-75
Moralia [Morals and Obligations] (ascetic treatise) c. 361-76
Regulae brevius tractatae [Short Rules] (ascetic treatise) c. 361-76
Regulae fusius tractatae [Long Rules] (ascetic treatise) c. 361-76
Homiliae variae [Diverse Homilies] (sermons) c. 364-78
"Ad adulescentes de legendis libris Gentilium" ["Address to Young Men on the Profitable Use of Pagan Literature"] (essay) c. 364
Contra Eunomium [Against Eunomius] (theological treatise) c. 364
Interrogationes fratrum [Examination of the Brothers] (ascetic treatise) c. 365-69
Homiliae in psalmos [Homilies on the Psalms] (sermons) c. 368-77
"De fide" ["On the Faith"] (essay) c. 375-76
De spiritu sancto [On the Holy Spirit] (theological treatise) c. 375-76
Hexaemeron homiliae [Homilies on the Six Days of Creation] (sermons) c. 378
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Principal English Translations
*Letters and Select Works of St. Basil (translated by Blomfield Jackson) 1895
**"Address to Young Men on the Right Use of Greek Literature" (Frederick Morgan Padelford) 1902
Ascetic Works of St. Basil (W. K. L. Clarke) 1925
***St. Basil's Letters 4 vols. (Roy J. Deferrari) 1926-34
Ascetical Works (Monica Wagner) 1950
Letters (Agnes Clare Way) 1951-55
Exigetic Homilies (Agnes Clare Way) 1963
Saint Basil on the Value of Greek Literature (Nigel G. Wilson) 1975
*Includes On the Holy Spirit, the Hexaemeron, and the Letters.
**Vol. XV of Yale Studies in English, Essays on the Study and Use of Poetry by Plutarch and Basil the Great, edited by Albert S. Cook.
***Vol. 4 also contains "Address to Young Men on Reading Greek Literature," translated by R. J. Deferrari and M. R. P. McGuire.
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SOURCE: "The Letters and Times of Basil of Caesarea, ART. IV," The North American Review, Vol. XC, No. 187, January-April, 1860, pp. 365-95.
[In the following, essay, the reviewer characterizes the collected letters of Basil as the most authentic surviving account of the late fourth-century Eastern church. The critic also discusses important aspects of Basil's life, including the period of his seclusion in Pontus and his tenure as Bishop of Caesarea. The abbreviation "Ep." used throughout stands for "epistle."]
The elder Pitt is said, in the later years of his life, to have deplored his elevation to the peerage, since he perceived that it had withdrawn him from the sphere of popular sympathy and affection, and thus forfeited the great element of his political and social power. The good and eminent men of early Christian times have had equal reason to lament that accession of historical dignity which has been attended with a like forfeiture of real and living power in the Church. The canonization which has made them titular "fathers" and "saints," while it has exalted them to a niche in the history of the Church, where they have been objects of distant and awful veneration, we had almost said of worship, has effectually eliminated them from all living contact with the heart, the memory, the thought and life of the Church.
It has fared especially hard with Basil in this particular. Though...
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SOURCE: "Basilius of Caesareia" in A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Vol. I, A-D, Little Brown, and Company, 1877, pp. 282-97.
[In the excerpt reprinted below, Venables provides a detailed narrative of Basil's life and career, highlighting the tactics Basil employed to gain the episcopate of Caesarea, consolidate his power and authority, and defend the orthodox faith against a variety of challenges. The abbreviations "Ep." and De Sp. Sancto used throughout stand for "epistle" and De Spiritu Sancto, respectively.]
Basilius, bishop of Caesareia in Cappadocia, commonly called Basil the Great, the strenuous champion of orthodoxy in the East, the restorer of union to the divided Oriental Church, and the promoter of unity between the East and the West, was born at Caesareia (originally called Mazaca), the capital of Cappadocia, towards the end of the year 329. His parents were members of noble and wealthy families, and were Christians by descent. His grandparents on both sides had suffered during the Maximinian persecution. His maternal grandfather was deprived of his property and life. Macrina, his grandmother on his father's side, and her husband, were compelled by the severity of the persecution to leave their home in Pontus, of which country they were natives, and to take refuge among the woods and mountains of that province, where they are reported to have passed seven years (Greg. Naz....
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SOURCE: "Life in the Days of St. Basil the Great" in Pauline and Other Studies in Early Christian History, Hodder and Stoughton, 1906, pp. 369-406.
[In the essay reprinted below—a revised version of a book review first published in the mid-1890s—Ramsay focuses on Basil's letters, finding in their style the same contradiction that biographers have discerned in Basil's character: even-handedness and civility toward his friends, yet misleading hyperbole and bitterness toward his critics. Ramsay also points out that the writings of the Cappadocian fathers provide a wealth of detail about social, cultural, and economic life during the late Roman Empire.]
The publication of three volumes of selections from the works of the great Cappadocian Fathers of the fourth century1 may well attract notice even in this busy time; and the careful and excellent scholarship displayed by the translators and editors thoroughly deserves more generous recognition than it has yet received. The work has been well done; it was well worth doing; and it was by no means easy to do. Gregory of Nyssa is a really difficult author. The style of Basil is, like his own character, direct, vigorous, and much too intense to become so complicated as that of his brother. But even Basil presents numerous difficulties to the comprehension of his readers; and the scholar, who studies an author of this period, with few...
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SOURCE: "The Classics and the Greek Writers of the Early Church: Saint Basil," The Classical Journal, Vol. XIII, No. 8, May, 1918, pp. 579-91.
[In the following excerpt, originally delivered as a lecture in 1917, Deferrari calls attention to Hellenistic influences in Basil's writings, particularly his "Address to Young Men," the Hexaemeron, the Homilies on the Psalms, and his letters. In the critic's judgment, these works demonstrate the value that Basil placed on classical learning as well as his indebtedness to Aristotle, Plutarch, and—most particularly—Plato.]
The purpose of this paper1 is to serve as a reminder of the close bond which exists between the masters of classical literature and many of the early Christian writers and to emphasize the great value in studying at least certain of the church authors for the acquirement of the fullest understanding of the great minds of antiquity. At the same time we would warn against an over-accentuation of classical elements in the products of later periods and the consequent lack of appreciation of the true value and place of the post-classical in the history of civilization.
St. Basil the Great, of Caesarea, is an excellent example of the Christian Father, a study of whom is very compensating to the classicist. He lived in a period (the fourth century) when the elements of Christianity and pagan...
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SOURCE: "Christian Society" in The Life and Times of St. Basil the Great as Revealed in His Works, The Catholic University of America Press, 1939, pp. 137-65.
[In the essay reprinted here, Fox surveys the customs and practices of the Caesarean church during Basil's episcopate. Using information derived from his letters, she discusses Basil's innovative establishment of charitable institutions, his veneration of martyrs and their relics, and his relations with congregants as well as clergy.]
A Bishop and His Congregation
Numerous references reveal the informality that existed between St. Basil and the vast congregation that filled the great church of Caesarea, and also the intimate union that was established between the pastor and his flock. St. Basil tells us that his congregation at Caesarea included, besides the rich, artisans and workmen, some of whom were scarcely able to eke out an existence by their daily labor.1 It was for these working men and women standing around him in crowds that he often shortened his discourses in order not to keep them too long from their work.2 Sometimes, however, fearing lest "many of the congregation, when dismissed, would at once resort to the gambling table," St. Basil prolonged his sermons purposely to detain his people longer in church.3 He tells us that he preached at Mass on Sundays and on...
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SOURCE: "The Cappadocians" in The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy, edited by A. H. Armstrong, Cambridge University Press, 1967, pp. 432-39.
[In the excerpt below, Sheldon-Williams explicates the Hexaemeron, noting that Basil views the universe as a hierarchy whose parts are bound together in harmonious sympathy. The critic maintains that Basil's conception of creation, time and motion, and material elements is derived from the writings of Greek natural philosophers such as Aristotle and the Stoics, as well as from scripture.]
The Cappadocians inherited the Alexandrian Gnosis through Origen, though each departed from the position of their master, St Basil most of all. He was more interested in the moral and pastoral than in the philosophical implications of the Faith, distrusted allegory,1 and clung to the literal interpretation of Scripture, to which the pagan learning was to supply rational corroboration as required rather than combine with it to form a synthesis. Therefore, as was to be the case with the Aristotelian Christians,2 he made greater use of the physics of the pagans than of their metaphysics, and in his Homilies on the Hexaëmeron,3 intended as a scientific defence of the Mosaic account of creation, he drew chiefly on the current cosmology, meteorology, botany, astronomy and natural history.4...
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SOURCE: "Basil the Great" in Ethical Patterns in Early Christian Thought," Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp. 84-113.
[In the essay reprinted below, Osborn examines Basil's views on the moral and ethical obligations of a Christian. Drawing especially on the Moralia and the Longer and Shorter Rules, the critic contends that Basil's guidelines for devoting one's life to the glory of God were intended for the laity as well as for members of the monastic community, even though Basil believed that only an ascetic could achieve perfect righteousness.]
Basil was born in Caesarea of Cappadocia about 330 of rich but honest parents.1 His father was a teacher of rhetoric, a lawyer and a wealthy land-owner. One of his grandfathers had died a martyr. The piety and devotion of Basil's mother was reflected in her children, three of whom became bishops, one a nun and another a monk. Three of these children were canonised. After careful training at home, he studied rhetoric and philosophy in Caesarea and Constantinople. In 351 he went to Athens where for five years he took advantage of its rich intellectual life. He returned to Caesarea as a professor of rhetoric for two years, and then turned from the bright prospects of his academic future, was baptised and entered a life of religious discipline. After visiting Egypt and Syria to observe the monks, he selected a quiet country retreat,...
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SOURCE: "The Church in the Life and Works of Basil of Caesarea" in The Church and the Charisma of Leadership in Basil of Caesarea, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1979, pp. 1-201.
[In the following excerpt, Fedwick explains Basil's concept of the church as a community of believers drawn together by love of God and each other, and spiritually secluded from those who reject the teachings of Christ. The critic traces the expressions of this idea in Basil's ascetic writings, in the treatises Against Eunomius and On the Holy Spirit, and in several of the homilies.]
The term by which Basil of Caesarea most commonly addresses the communities of Christians is "church," "churches of God."1 Obviously referred to are not simply liturgical gatherings but established bodies of Christians living in a locality.2 It would be inappropriate to ask whether Basil employs the term [Ekhanoia] with reference to the universal or local church. Throughout his writings the bishop of Caesarea shows no awareness of such a distinction as every local body is for him but the manifestation of a universal reality—the reality of being reached and grasped at a certain point of time by the saving action of God the Father acting for man's sake through the Son in the Holy Spirit.3 The church is the body of Christ and the fellowship of the Spirit.4 As the work...
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SOURCE: "Basil on the World Stage" in Basil of Caesarea, University of California Press, 1994, pp. 270-317, 365-87.
[In the essay reprinted below, Rousseau describes Basil's efforts to mediate ecclesiastical schisms and doctrinal disputes beyond the boundaries of the see of Caesarea. The critic contends that Basil's attempts to construct a cadre of like-minded bishops who would support the cause of orthodoxy were frequently motivated as much by collegiality and personal vindication as by theological ideology.]
'Lifting his head high and casting the eye of his soul in every direction, he obtained a mental vision of the whole world through which the word of salvation had been spread'.1 So Gregory of Nazianzus described his friend. 'A trumpet penetrating the immensity of space, or a voice of God encompassing the world, or a universal earthquake resulting from some new wonder or miracle, his voice and mind were all of these'.2 Praise, indeed; and so it may have seemed in later years, with Basil's old enemies in retreat. But just what broader significance did he acquire during his struggles on behalf of orthodoxy? For he knew well enough that success would depend on carrying to the furthest possible limits the battle against error: 'Who will allow me to step upon the stage of the wide world? Who will give me a voice clear and penetrating like a trumpet?'.3
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Amand de Mendieta, Emanuel. "The Pair 'Kerygma' and 'Dogma' in the Theological Thought of St. Basil of Caesarea." Journal of Theological Studies n.s. XVI, No. 1 (April 1965): 129-42.
Analyzes Basil's idiosyncratic use of the term "dogma" in On the Holy Spirit. Amand de Mendieta maintains that here the word connotes a liturgical tradition known only to baptized communicants; thus Basil claims that although the church did not publicly affirm the full divinity of the Holy Spirit, this concept was an integral part of its instruction or "dogma."
Bamberger, John Eudes… The Psychic Dynamisms in the Ascetical Theology of St. Basil." Orientalia Christiana Periodica XXXIV, No. 2 (1968): 233-51.
Evaluates the evidence of Basil's understanding of human psychology as revealed in his mystical writings and, particularly, in his monastic Rules. Bamberger argues that Basil had keen insight into the role of the unconscious in an individual's emotional and spiritual development.
Bonis, Constantine G. "The Problem Concerning Faith and Knowledge, or Reason and Revelation, as Expounded in the Letters of St. Basil the Great to Amphilochius of Iconium." Greek Orthodox Theological Review V, No. 1 (Summer 1959): 27-44.
Focuses on Basil's discussion of the relation between epistemology and orthodox theology in "Letters 233, 234, and 235." Bonis sees this...
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