Babylon Revisited F. Scott Fitzgerald
"Babylon Revisited" F. Scott Fitzgerald
The following entry presents criticism of Fitzgerald's short story "Babylon Revisited." See also, F. Scott Fitzgerald Criticism.
"Babylon Revisited" is Fitzgerald's most anthologized short story and is considered by many to be his best. First published in 1931 in the Saturday Evening Post, it reappeared with revisions in the 1935 collection Taps at Reveille. Fitzgerald wrote "Babylon Revisited" during a time of emotional and economic crisis. Like most of his work, the story reflects his own personal experience and his relationship with his wife Zelda; its tone is thoughtful and retrospective, and it is sadder than earlier stories he had written for the Post.
Plot and Major Characters
"Babylon Revisited" is set against the backdrop of expatriate Europe during the 1930s and recounts the story of Charlie Wales, a onetime wealthy playboy of 1920s Paris whose excesses contributed to the death of his wife, Helen, and led to his stay in a sanitarium for alcoholism. During Charlie's recovery, his daughter Honoria was placed under the custodianship of his sister-in-law and her husband—Marion and Lincoln Peters. Since then, Charlie has reestablished himself as a successful businessman in Prague. As the story opens, he has returned to Paris to reclaim his daughter but must first prove to Marion that he has reformed. The Peterses have never been as wealthy as Charlie and Helen were, and Marion is envious and resentful of Charlie's past extravagances. This, coupled with her bitterness at Charlie's part in her sister's death, makes Marion suspicious of Charlie's reformation, and she agrees only reluctantly to return Honoria to him. Her suspicions are apparently confirmed when Lorraine and Duncan, two unrepentant friends from Charlie's past, drunkenly descend upon Charlie while he is at the Peterses' house. Marion is shocked, and changes her mind about relinquishing Honoria. The story ends as Charlie resolves to try later to regain his daughter, believing that "they couldn't make him pay forever," and that "Helen wouldn't have wanted him to be so alone."
Major ThemesCritics have identified several major themes in "Babylon Revisited," some of which are centered upon time and its shaping of individual destiny. Joan Turner, for example, has asserted that one of the story's themes is that "the past cannot be escaped." Similarly, Carlos Baker has remarked that no matter how sincere Charlie is in his attempt at reformation, he is "defeated by a past that he can never shed." Ronald J. Gervais viewed the story as a lament for the past and its pleasures, as well as regret for mistakes made. Numerous critics have focused on guilt in the story: James M. Harrison and Seymour L. Gross, for example, have debated whether Charlie genuinely wants to change his ways or is still attracted to his former life. Finally, while Rose Adrienne Gallo considered guilt and retribution as significant concerns in the story, she also described the pernicious influence of money as an important theme—both in its ability to waste lives, as it has with Charlie, and to foster envy and resentment, as it has in Marion Peters.
"Babylon Revisited" has been generally well-received since its publication and is now considered a masterpiece. Nevertheless, critics have pointed out inconsistencies in the plot—for example, the apparently illogical route that Charlie takes from the Ritz Bar to the Peterses, and several inaccurate references to the passage of time. For all its inconsistencies, however, most critics agree that this wistful story displays Fitzgerald's writing at its best, with its close attention to imagery and sensitive choice of words.
SOURCE: "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in The Explicator, Vol. 16, No. 4, January, 1958, pp. 1, 3.
[In the following essay, Harrison asserts that although Charlie Wales has begun to mature, he is still drawn to his former life.]
The usual interpretation of F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited" has been summarized by Ray B. West (The Short Story in America, 1952). Charlie Wales, returning to Paris, "accidentally becomes involved with some of his old friends; and despite his present dislike of the old life—his knowledge that . . . it was something he had to escape if possible, not recover—he appears to have succumbed and thus loses, once and for all, the hope of regaining his child. The pathos in 'Babylon Revisited' is deepend and enriched by Charlie Wales's recognition that he is, in part at least, merely reaping the harvest of his earlier years. . . . [He is] doomed because he still carries the burden of his early irresponsibility, even in the years of maturity and knowledge."
According to this interpretation the effect is, as West suggests, pathetic rather than tragic. Charlie has matured; he is reliable, sober, patient, tolerant, kind, devoted to his daughter. He is defeated by accident, and by past mistakes over which he no longer has any control. If this interpretation is sound, complaints that the story is sentimental have a certain validity.
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SOURCE: "A Prince in Babylon," in Fitzgerald Newsletter, No. 19, Fall, 1962, pp. 1-3.
[In the following essay, Hagopian examines what he describes as religious, Dantesque elements in the story.]
Despite the obvious symbolism of the title, critics have not generally observed that F's [Fitzgerald's] "Babylon Revisited" is a religious story—more exactly a Catholic, Dantesque story. Not only does it evoke the mood of paralysis and defeat of the Waste Land generation following the stock market crash of 1929, but it renders with understanding and compassion the purgatorial suffering of a man for whom repentance and social readjustment alone are not enough to redeem his past. Nevertheless, as the symbolism and dramatic action both suggest, eventual redemption is probable.
F [Fitzgerald] was born into a Catholic family and had a Catholic upbringing; and his most important short story, like his most important novel GG, [The Great Gatsby] is an evocation of purgatorial suffering in the Dante-Eliot sense. Charlie Wales repents his former sins in Babylon, but it takes more than simple repentance for him to win his Honoria. He is still afflicted with the sins of pride ("he wondered if he couldn't do something to get Lincoln out of his rut at the bank") and anger ("He thought rather angrily that this was just money"). But he knows that one needn't "pay forever," though one must first...
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SOURCE: "A Note on Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in American Literature, Vol. 35, No. 2, May, 1963, pp. 236-39.
[In the following essay, Griffith accounts for the inconsistencies in the route Charlie takes from the Ritz Bar to the home of Lincoln and Marion Peters.]
Although "Babylon Revisited" is probably the most anthologized and analyzed of Fitzgerald's short stories, neither editor nor critic has noted the strange route taken by Charlie Wales from the Ritz Bar to Lincoln Peters's home in the Rue Palatine. In the opening scene Charlie discusses former days with Alix, the barman at the Ritz, and departs to visit his daughter at the Peters's home on the Left Bank. Leaving the bar, located in the Place Vendôme (on the Right Bank), he obviously walks north on the Rue de la Paix to the Place de l'Opera, where five streets intersect, including the Boulevard des Capucines and the Avenue de l'Opera. "At the corner of the Boulevard des Capucines he took a taxi."
Clearly this cab went southwest (to Charlie's left, since he was walking north) to the Place de la Madeleine, where it turned south onto the Rue Royale and into the Place de la Concorde, for we are told in the next sentence: "The Place de la Concorde moved by in pink majesty; they crossed the logical Seine, and Charlie felt the sudden provincial quality of the Left Bank." They must have crossed the river at the Pont de la...
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SOURCE: "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in College English, Vol. 25, No. 2, November, 1963, pp. 128-35.
[In the following essay, Gross refutes James M. Harrison's argument that Charlie is still drawn to his former Life.]
Thus, though we cannot make our sun Stand still, yet we will make him run.
In the little hours of the night every move from place to place was an enormous human jump, an increase of paying for the privilege of slower and slower motion.
The two epigraphs which introduce this essay define, in one sense, the polar limits of Fitzgerald's life. His frenetic attempts, almost heroic in their intensity and pathetic in their ultimate ineffectiveness, to stay ahead of "Time's winged chariot" (though he was afraid the race was lost at thirty) are too well known, have been too fully documented, to need much elaboration here. "I wanted to enjoy, to be prodigal and openhearted, to miss nothing." What Fitzgerald wanted, finally, was to fill each moment of life so full of living that time would stand still for him. This was the way to "beat" time—to run a dead heat with the galloping stallions of mortality. It is one of Fitzgerald's accomplishments that he can still make us...
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SOURCE: "The Wounds of Charlie Wales in Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 2, No. 1, Fall, 1964, pp. 86-7.
[In the following essay, Osborne examines the symbolic meaning of the name "Charlie Wales."]
Not only does the title of F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story "Babylon Revisited" invite symbolic interpretation, but scattered throughout the story are street names or place names like Rue Saint-Honoré, the Poet's Cave, the Café of Heaven, and the Café of Hell that seem also to have obvious symbolic overtones. In the names of the characters, too, critics have found symbolic significance. James Frakes and Isadore Traschen point out [in Short Fiction: A Critical Collection, 1959] that the name of Charlie Wales's daughter Honoria "suggests an allegorical play on redeeming [Charlie's] honor." Richard Griffith sees the name Lincoln Peters as being one which "suggests democracy and rock-like stability" [American Literature, Vol. XXXIV, May 1963]. To my knowledge, no one has investigated the name of the protagonist, Charlie Wales, to determine whether it too might yield associations consistent with the symbolical overtones with which Fitzgerald has charged his story.
The NED offers several relevant meanings for wale as a noun: (7) "the mark or ridge raised on the flesh by the blow of a rod, lash, or the...
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SOURCE: "Time and Structure in Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in Modern Fiction Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter 1964-65, pp. 386-88.
[In the following essay, Staley demonstrates how Charlie's past and present interact to influence his future.]
Kant wrote that time is the most characteristic mode of our experience, and, as Hans Myerhoff has pointed out, "It is more general than space, because it applies to the inner world of impressions, emotions and ideas for which no spatial order can be given." Modern fiction is preoccupied with the concept of time; Bergson's concept of la duree realle and Proust's la memoire involontaire have of course, exerted a large influence on fiction; in fact their indirect influence has been enormous. Modern writers since Bergson and Proust have become increasingly aware of the implications of time in the structure of their fiction. F. Scott Fitzgerald was particularly preoccupied with the forces of time. His personal life, together with his reading, gave him a profound sense of the importance of time with regard to self.
Fitzgerald felt the ravages of time especially in his own life, and a great deal of his fiction touches on this theme. He was less inward in his treatment of time than either Joyce or Thomas Wolfe, but there is in his fiction a sense of the unity of past and present; the past is irrevocable because it brings about the...
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SOURCE: "'Babylon Revisited': A Story of the Exile's Return," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 2, No. 3, Spring, 1965, pp. 270-77.
[In the following essay, Male contends that Charlie Wales has not reformed because he is still torn between his former life and his present one.]
F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited," although widely reprinted, has not produced many commentaries. James Frake and Isadore Traschen give a brief explication in their text on short fiction [Short Fiction, 1959], Arthur Mizener refers to the story a number of times in his biography [The Far Side of Paradise, 1949], and Seymour Gross has recently offered a full-length analysis [in "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," College English, Vol. XXV, November 1963]. But compared to, say, "Rappaccini's Daughter," or "The Turn of the Screw," or "The Bear," Fitzgerald's story seems to have provoked almost no concern—mainly, I suppose, because its meaning is clear. It has some symbols, but they are not mysterious; some ambiguity, but it is not hidden; considerable irony, but it is readily discernible. It strikes us, in short, as an example of the really excellent story that is widely read and reread, usually with considerable appreciation and understanding. This paper asks, in effect, whether it is possible to write profitably about a story that everybody already understands, or nearly understands.
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SOURCE: "'Babylon Revisited': A Psychological Note on F. Scott Fitzgerald," in Literature and Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1968, pp. 27-9.
[In the following essay, Edenbaum contends that, through an inconsistency in the plot, Fitzgerald reveals that he identifies with Charlie Wales.]
F. Scott Fitzgerald's story "Babylon Revisited" concerns the return of Charlie Wales one-and-a-half years later to the Babylon that was—the Paris of 1929—in an attempt to retrieve what he can from the two lost years of drunken revelry that had culminated in the death of his wife, his own incarceration in a sanitarium, and the legal signing over of his daughter, Honoria, to his sister-in-law, Marion Peters. All he can hope to retrieve—other than ambivalent memories: "We were a sort of royalty"; "it was a nightmare"—is Honoria. And that possibility is destroyed, at least temporarily, when his old friends, Duncan Schaeffer and Lorraine Quarries, appear like "sudden ghosts out of the past" at the Peters' apartment, drunk. Marion's refusal of Charlie's request for possession of Honoria follows inevitably.
Arthur Mizener, in "A Handbook of Analyses . . ." accompanying his college-text collection Modern Short Stories, makes the following comments upon the unexpected appearance of Charlie Wales' friends:
We notice how unobtrusively [Fitzgerald] omits any...
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SOURCE: "Guilt and Retribution in 'Babylon Revisited'," in Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1973, edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli and C. E. Frazer Clark, Jr., Microcard Editions Books, 1974, pp. 155-64.
[In the following essay, Toor argues that Charlie Wales is trapped between self-justification and self-recrimination.]
Roy R. Male's perceptive article on "Babylon Revisited" goes far in clearing up many of the unresolved problems that have recently been discussed in relation to the story ["'Babylon Revisited': The Story of the Exile's Return," Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 2, 1965]. Male has pointed out, as James Harrison had shown in an earlier note, that Charlie Wales is in a sense responsible for the appearance of Duncan and Lorraine at the Peters' house at precisely the wrong moment [Harrison, "Fitzgerald's "'Babylon Revisited'," Explicator, Vol. 16, January 1958]. Male has further called into serious question the general interpretation of the story, most specifically Seymour Gross' contention that Charlie has been renovated and that the punishment he suffers is brought upon him from external sources. Gross says [in "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," College English, Vol. XXV, November 1963]: "That moral renovation may not be enough is the injustice that lies at the center of the story." Both Male and Harrison point out that had Charlie not given the bartender the Peters' address at...
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SOURCE: "Fable to Fantasy: The Short Fiction," in F. Scott Fitzgerald, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1978, pp. 82-105
[In the following excerpt, Gallo describes the destructive power of money as an important theme in the story.]
In "Babylon Revisited" (December 1930; Post February 21, 1931; Taps at Reveille 1935), Fitzgerald draws on a biblical source for his title. The inhabitants of the Old Testament city of Babylon were notorious for their licentiousness. Many of the Jews—held captive in Babylon for seventy years—were seduced by the sinful allure of Babylon, and turned from the observance of the Mosaic law to the worship of Babylonian idols.
The setting of "Babylon Revisited" is Paris (considered by Fitzgerald a modern Babylon in those days of unrestrained revelry just before the American stock market crash in 1929).
Using a frame device, Fitzgerald begins and ends the story in the Ritz bar—a popular haunt of wealthy Americans before the crash. Charlie Wales, one of its former habitués, has returned to Paris to visit his daughter, Honoria, who is living with her aunt and uncle, Marion and Lincoln Peters.
As the story unfolds it is revealed that Charlie Wales had left Paris, nearly two years before, after the death of his wife Helen. Reduced to poverty by the stock-market crash, and sick from excessive drinking, Charlie...
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SOURCE: "'Babylon Revisited': Chronology and Characters," in Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1978, edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli and Richard Layman, Gale Research Company, 1979, pp. 155-60.
[In the following essay, Twitchell refutes the argument that Charlie Wales is unreformed.]
In recent years there has been a small critical hubbub over the completeness of Charlie Wales's reformation in Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited." On the surface it does seem that Charlie has converted from wine, women, and song to one midday drink, devotion to his daughter, and serious introspection. But recently critics have questioned Charlie's conversion by pointing to a crucial scene overlooked by earlier commentators. Lorraine Quarries and Duncan Schaeffer arrive at the Peterses' apartment because Charlie has consciously or unconsciously pointed the way by leaving his address with the bartender at the Ritz. Their appearance and subsequent rowdy behavior so upset Charlie's sister-in-law that she refuses Charlie the one thing he so desperately wants—the custody of his daughter Honoria. But that may be what Charlie has wanted all along—or so these commentators contend.
First James Harrison (1958), then Roy R. Male (1965), then Robert I. Edenbaum (1968), and most recently David Toor (1973) have made Charlie's leaving of the Peterses' address a crux in interpretation, for without it Duncan and Lorraine would...
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SOURCE: "The Snow of Twenty-Nine: 'Babylon Revisited' as Ubi Sunt Lament," in College Literature, Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter, 1980, pp. 47-52.
[In the following essay, Gervais contends that "Babylon Revisited" falls within the tradition of dirges for the past and compares it to François Villon's "Ballade of Dead Ladies."]
One of the enduring themes of literature is the transitory nature of man's life, of love and beauty, of happiness. In works of this sort, an important part is sometimes played by the ubi sunt device, which takes its name from the first two words of the Latin sentence, Ubi sunt qui ante nos fuerunt? ("Where are they who were before us?"), that began numerous medieval poems. In asking the question, the writer evokes for a moment the splendor of life, symbolized by famous persons of the past, and then, by his inevitably grim answer, condemns it to death. The tone of such works will vary from the austerely admonitory to the hauntingly sad, depending on how the writer asks his question and phrases his answer: whether he sides with death or with life or tries to balance delicately between them. In the following Anglo-Saxon poem, the anonymous poet sees only that the life which was so vividly there is suddenly gone, "in a twinkling of an ye."
Where beeth they biforen us weren,...
Houndes ledden and hawkes beren,
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SOURCE: "The Flawed Text of 'Babylon Revisited': A Challenge to Editors, a Warning to Readers," in Studies in Short Fiction, Summer, 1981, pp. 315-18.
[In the following essay, Murphy and Slattery argue that a paragraph should be deleted from the "authorized" version of "Babylon Revisited" to reflect Fitzgerald's final intentions for the story.]
No one—not even F. Scott Fitzgerald himself—has ever seen "Babylon Revisited" printed in the final form intended by its author. The reason is astonishingly simple: when the "authorized" version (an extensive revision of the original 1931 Saturday Evening Post story) was printed by Scribners in Taps at Reveille, it contained a monumental editorial error, and, as far as we can determine, that error has been preserved, unremarked, in all subsequent collections and anthologies.
The error occurs early in the story, at the point where Charlie Wales leaves the Ritz Bar. We have lettered the paragraphs for easy reference.
- Outside, the fire-red, gas-blue, ghost-green signs shone smokily through the tranquil rain. It was late afternoon and the streets were in movement; the bistros gleamed. At the corner of the Boulevard des Capucines he took a taxi. The Place de la Concorde moved by in pink majesty; they crossed the logical Seine, and Charlie felt the sudden provincial quality of the left bank.
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SOURCE: "Howells's 'A Circle in the Water' and Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in Studies in Short Fiction, Summer, 1982, pp. 261-67.
[In the following essay, Nettels discusses the many similarities shared by "Babylon Revisited" and a story by Howells, concluding that although the plots are alike, the perspectives on life expressed in each story are strikingly different.]
William Dean Howells was not one of F. Scott Fitzgerald's literary heroes. Fitzgerald once included Howells along with such figures as Taft, McKinley, Bryan, Carnegie, and Rockefeller in a list of prominent men of the recent past in whom "a little boy could find little that was inspiring . . . Not one of them sounded any high note of heroism, no clear and distinct call to something beyond life" ["Wait till You Have Children of Your Own!" F. Scott Fitzgerald in His Own Time, ed. by Matthew J. Bruccoli and Jackson Bryer, 1971]. When his editor at Scribner's, Maxwell Perkins, asked him to soften an impious reference to God in The Beautiful and Damned, Fitzgerald accused Perkins of trying to bind him to the genteel and conventional, identified himself with Mark Twain, whose work, he said, exhibited a similar irreverence, and reminded Perkins that Van Wyck Brooks, in The Ordeal of Mark Twain, criticized Clemens for "allowing many of his statements to be toned down at the request of Wm. Dean Howells or Mrs. Clemens"...
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SOURCE: "When the Story Ends: 'Babylon Revisited'," in The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, edited by Jackson R. Bryer, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 269-77.
[In the following essay, Baker analyzes images of freedom and imprisonment in "Babylon Revisited."]
A kind of change came in my fate,
My keepers grew compassionate,
I know not what had made them so.
They were inured to sights of woe.
And so it was:—my broken chain
With links unfastened did remain
And it was liberty to stride
Along my cell from side to side.
—Byron, "The Prisoner of Chillon"
Fitzgerald once called "Babylon Revisited" a magnificent short story (Letters). The adjective still holds. It is probably his best. Written in December, 1930, it was first published February 21, 1931, in the Saturday Evening Post, whose editors must have recognized its superior qualities, well above the norm of the stories from his pen that this magazine had been publishing for the past ten years. Collected in Taps at Reveille in 1935, it stood proudly at the end of the volume, a memorable example of well-made short fiction.
The epigraph from Byron bears upon the story for many reasons, not least because "The Prisoner of Chillon" was the first poem that...
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SOURCE: "Paradise Lost: 'The Last of the Belles' and The Last Time I Saw Paris," in Fiction, Film, and F. Scott Fitzgerald, Loyola University Press, 1986, pp. 47-61.
[In the following excerpt, Phillips compares "Babylon Revisited" with a screenplay that Fitzgerald adapted from the story and with a film that was loosely based on the story. Phillips remarks that the quality of the story suffers with each successive adaptation.]
"Babylon Revisited": The Short Story
The last time that a Fitzgerald short story was made into a full-length movie for theatrical release, rather than dramatized for television, was in 1954 when MGM produced the movie version of "Babylon Revisited," which was entitled The Last Time I Saw Paris. Even though this film was produced long before the teleplay of "The Last of the Belles" . . . , the short story on which The Last Time I Saw Paris is based takes place during the depression rather than during the earlier Jazz Age, the setting of most of the Fitzgerald stories that have been adapted to either the big screen or the little screen.
In contrast to the telefilm of "The Last of the Belles," the plot of "Babylon Revisited" was expanded to make a feature-length film by the more conventional method of creating additional episodes for the movie version which were not in the original short story. But The Last Time I Saw...
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SOURCE: "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in The Explicator, Vol. 48, No. 4, Summer, 1990, pp. 282-83.
[In the following essay, Turner demonstrates that frequent references to time in "Babylon Revisited" support a theme important to the story.]
F. Scott Fitzgerald uses many references to time in his short story "Babylon Revisited." His almost constant use of words relating to time helps reinforce one of the main themes of the story: the past cannot be escaped.
Hours and minutes are noted during the narrative present of the story. In the opening, Charlie Wales tells the bartender that he is in Paris for "four or five days" to see his daughter. It is also mentioned that it is "late afternoon" when Charlie leaves the bar. Throughout the story the current time is cited, even down to the exact hour in some cases. For example, when Charlie first sees Honoria at the Peterses', it is said that the "cheer of six o'clock" is in the room. The next day the reader learns that it is at "noon" that he eats with Honoria. The marking of the passage of time in the narrative present helps to show that while Charlie is trying to make up for his lost time with Honoria time is rapidly slipping away. Just as Charlie is aware of time passing, so is the reader.
Although Charlie is aware of lost time, he has great hopes for the future. He has dreams of being with Honoria, and the dreams are...
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SOURCE: "Fitzgerald's 'Babylon Revisited'," in The Explicator, Vol. 53, No. 3, Spring, 1995, pp. 176-77.
[In the following essay, Eby focuses on Fitzgerald's use of double entendre to convey the themes of the story.]
"Babylon Revisited" is by any reckoning the most frequently anthologized and widely read of F. Scott Fitzgerald's short stories. It opens and closes (appropriately) in the Ritz bar in Paris, where Paul, the manager, and Charles Wales reflect on the changes wrought by the stock market crash of 1929 and the economic depression that followed. But the two men are locked in two wholly discrete dimensions. Paul conceives the crash and the depression purely in economic terms, while Charles is haunted by the dissipated lifestyle of the boom years that ended with his wife's death, his daughter Honoria's adoption by his sister-in-law, and his own stint in a sanitarium for alcoholics. Their brief verbal exchane exists on two parallel planes:
"I heard that you lost a lot in the crash." [Paul]
"I did," and he [Charles] added grimly, "but I lost everything I wanted in the boom."
"Something like that."
The lines are deceptively simple but they convey a wealth of implication. Paul's idea of losing a lot in the crash means loss of money....
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Lindfors, Bernth. "Paris Revisited." Fitzgerald Newsletter, No. 16 (Winter 1962): 77-8.
Illustrates the inconsistencies in Charlie's first taxi ride.
Lueders, Edward. "Revisiting Babylon: Fitzgerald and the 1920's." Western Humanities Review 29, No. 3 (Summer 1975): 285-91.
Uses the symbolism of Fitzgerald's title "Babylon Revisited" to reexamine the 1920s.
Petry, Alice Hall. Fitzgerald's Craft of Short Fiction: The Collected Stories 1920-1935. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1989, 235 p.
Contains scattered references to characters and themes in "Babylon Revisited."
Additional coverage of Fitzgerald's life and career is contained in the following sources published by The Gale Group: Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Vol. 24; Authors in the News, Vol. 1; Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography, 1917-1929; Contemporary Authors, Vols. 110, 123; Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vols. 4, 9, 86; Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series, Vols. 1, 15, 16; Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook, Vols. 81, 96; Discovering Authors; Discovering Authors: British; Discovering Authors: Canadian; Discovering Authors: Most-Studied Authors Module; Discovering...
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