The Austrian Ausgleich (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: The Austrian Ausgleich creates a dual monarchy within the former Austrian empire, with almost all internal functions run separately in each half of the new Austro-Hungarian empire.
Summary of Event
The Austrian empire, as the Habsburg realms had been officially known since 1804, consisted of several sets of crownlands, many ethnically heterogenous and all with a rich, distinct historic tradition. Brought together under the Habsburg scepter chiefly by judicious royal marriages between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, these kingdoms and principalities and their eleven nationalities, including Germans, Magyars in Hungary, and various Slavic peoples among others, composed a genuinely multiethnic realm. Internal peace was largely assured as long as its ethnic groups remained nationalistically quiescent.
Yet with the national awakenings in the nineteenth century, the domestic tranquillity of the Habsburg monarchy became gravely jeopardized. Revolution swept across the Austrian empire in 1848 as various nationalities made vociferous demands for autonomy within, if not complete independence of, the venerable citadel of Austria. The most serious challenge to Habsburg authority was the revolt of the Magyars seeking the virtual independence of Hungary and culminating in the declaration of a Hungarian Republic under the charismatic leadership of Louis Kossuth. The Hungarian Revolution was the...
(The entire section is 1298 words.)
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