Critical Context

As a young man, and at that time still a convinced Communist, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn outlined a vastly ambitious project: a multivolume novel centered on the Revolution of 1917. He never lost sight of that goal. By the time he actually began the project, in the 1960’s, his historical perspective had changed radically, but the basic conception of the work had not. The Red Wheel, as it came to be called, would re-create the period from the beginning of World War I to the Revolution; “its main dramatis persona,” Solzhenitsyn has said in an interview, “is Russia as a whole.”

August 1914, the first “knot” of The Red Wheel, was initially published in 1971. Following his exile to the West in 1974, Solzhenitsyn enjoyed access to historical materials which had not been available to him in the Soviet Union. As a result, he published a greatly expanded version of August 1914 in 1983. The revised version introduces a new historical theme: the assassination, in 1911, of prime minister Pyotr Stolypin, whose views Solzhenitsyn much admires and whose death, he believes, significantly diminished Russia’s hopes for peaceful development.

Solzhenitsyn’s achievement in August 1914 should be seen in the context of a well-established tradition in Russian literature, where the historical novel is a respected genre; among Solzhenitsyn’s distinguished predecessors are Tolstoy and Boris Pasternak, whose...

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