Dream Story, Arthur Schnitzler
Dream Story Arthur Schnitzler
Austrian short story writer, playwright, novelist, and autobiographer.
The following entry presents criticism of Schnitzler's novella Traumnovelle (1926; Dream Story). See also Arthur Schnitzler Drama Criticism.
Published in 1926, Traumnovelle (Dream Story) has been described as a tale of one man’s journey through the hidden depths of his own psyche. Set in fin-de-siècle Vienna, Schnitzler’s story exposes the hypocrisies of bourgeois culture by exploring the repressed desires, fantasies, and passions underneath the surface of a seemingly happy marriage. Commentators note that Schnitzler also addresses themes of sexual fantasy, jealousy, obsession, and death. In 1999, Dream Story was adapted for Stanley Kubrick’s film Eyes Wide Shut
Plot and Major Characters
Dream Story is set in early-twentieth-century Vienna. The protagonist of the story, Fridolin, is a successful thirty-five-year-old doctor who lives with his wife Albertina (also translated as Albertine) and their young daughter. One night, Albertina confesses that the previous summer, while they were on vacation in Denmark, she had had a sexual fantasy about a young Danish military officer. Fridolin then admits that during that same vacation he had been attracted to a young girl on the beach. Later that night, Fridolin is called to the deathbed of an important patient. Finding the man dead, he is shocked when the man’s daughter, Marianne, professes her love to him. Restless, Fridolin leaves and begins to walk the streets. Although tempted, he refuses the offer of a young prostitute named Mizzi. He encounters his old friend Nachtigall, who tells Fridolin that he will be playing piano at a secret high-society sex orgy that night. Intrigued, Fridolin procures a mask and costume and follows Nachtigall to the party at a private residence. Fridolin is shocked to find several men in masks and costumes and naked women with only masks engaged in various sexual activities. When a young woman warns him to leave, Fridolin ignores her plea and is soon exposed as an interloper. The woman then announces to the gathering that she will sacrifice herself for Fridolin and he is allowed to leave.
Upon his return home, Albertina awakens and describes a dream she has had: while making love to the Danish officer from her sexual fantasies, she had watched without sympathy as Fridolin was tortured and crucified before her eyes. Fridolin is outraged, as he believes that this proves his wife wants to betray him. He resolves to pursue his own sexual temptations. The next day, Fridolin learns that Nachtigall has been taken away by two mysterious men. He then goes to the costume shop to return his costume and discovers that the shop-owner is prostituting his teenage daughter to various men. He finds his way back to where the orgy had taken place the night before; before he can enter, he is handed a note addressed to him by name that warns him to not pursue the matter. Later, he visits Marianne, but she no longer expresses any interest in him. Fridolin searches for Mizzi, the prostitute, but is unable to find her. He reads that a young woman has been poisoned. Suspecting that she is the woman who sacrificed herself for him, he views the woman’s corpse in the morgue but cannot identify it. Fridolin returns home that night to find his wife asleep, with his mask from the previous night set on the pillow on his side of the bed. When she wakes, Fridolin confesses all of his activities. After listening quietly, Albertina comforts him and they greet the new day with their daughter.
Commentators agree that the dominant thematic concerns of Dream Story are psychological in nature, focusing on the inner desires and fantasies of a married couple. The marital relationship between Fridolin and Albertina addresses themes of fidelity and infidelity, jealousy, and guilt. As the couple confess their sexual fantasies, both cope with feelings of insecurity, betrayal, and resentment. Critics assert that the novella underscores the tensions between duty and desire through both Fridolin and Albertina’s temptation to sacrifice family and marital stability in pursuit of sexual fantasies. Death is also a major theme of Dream Story, as commentators contend that Fridolin’s sexual temptations are juxtaposed with images of death and mortality. Schnitzler also addresses broader issues of social hypocrisy, as the story explores inner psychological yearnings at odds with the values represented by bourgeois marriage and family. Critics also note that Schnitzler effectively blurs the line between reality and fantasy in the story; at the end, Fridolin and Albertina agree that no dream is ever entirely unreal, and that reality does not encompass the entirety of an individual life.
Dream Story is widely considered to be among Schnitzler’s greatest literary achievements. The novella has long been praised as a depiction of the hypocrisies with bourgeois marriage in fin-de-siècle Viennese society. Dream Story has also been viewed as a fictional psychological case study exploring the nature of dreams and the inner workings of passion, desire, and fantasy in the human psyche. Moreover, the novella has been commended for its psychological insight into the nature of dreaming and the unconscious mind and compared to Sigmund Freud’s seminal work of psychoanalytic theory, The Interpretation of Dreams. Some critics have further pointed to the significance of the implication that Fridolin and Albertina are Jewish, asserting that the story addresses the outsider status of Jews in Viennese bourgeois society. Dream Story has enjoyed a resurgence of critical interest with the 1999 release of the film Eyes Wide Shut, which was adapted from Schnitzler’s novella. Recent reviewers have underlined the relevance of the story to today’s readers, some seventy-five years after its initial publication.
Traumnovelle [Rhapsody: A Dream Novel; also translated as Dream Story] 1926
*Viennese Novelettes 1931
†The Little Comedy, and Other Stories 1977
‡Arthur Schnitzler: Plays and Stories 1982
Illusion and Reality: Plays and Stories, 1986
Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas [translated by Margret Schaefer] 2001
Das Abenteuer seines Lebens [The Adventure of His Life] (play) 1891
Anatol [Anatol: A Sequence of Dialogues; also translated as The Affairs of Anatol] (play) 1893
Das Märchen (play) 1893
Liebelei [Light-o'-Love; also translated as Playing with Love; as Love Games; as Flirtations; and as Dalliance] (play) 1895
Freiwild [Free Game] (play) 1897
Das Vermächtnis [The Legacy] (play) 1897
Der grüne Kakadu, Paracelsus, Die Gefährtin: Drei Einakter[The Green Cuckatoo and Other Plays; also translated as The Duke and the Actress] (plays) 1899
Reigen: Zehn Dialoge, geschrieben Winter 1896/97 [Hands Around: A Cycle of Ten Dialogues; also translated as Couples; as Merry-Go-Round; as La Ronde; as...
(The entire section is 480 words.)
SOURCE: Liptzin, Sol. “Dream and Reality.” In Arthur Schnitzler, pp. 244-59. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1932.
[In the following essay/excerpt, Liptzin discusses the ways in which Dream Story blurs the boundaries between truth and fiction, reality and illusion, and waking life and dream life.]
The apparent contradictions often encountered in Schnitzler's works result from his anxiety to view each problem from various angles. As the infinite possibilities encased in every situation are unlocked, the sharp distinctions between truth and fiction, reality and illusion, give way. The world becomes surcharged with magic, and our daily scenes take on a semblance of fairyland. A fragrant mist, a glamorous veil, overhangs all objects. We see of one another only our silhouettes, our shadows.
Schnitzler often expresses the opinion that the illusion conjured up by an artist may contain more truth than actual facts that were or will be. Memory fails us; hope deceives us; mystery envelops us. Every night we descend into a strange realm in which our dreams exercise a more tyrannical sway over us than does all the wealth or logic of dazzling daylight.
In Traumnovelle, Schnitzler depicts dream hours that blend so perfectly with waking hours that the reader is unaware when the former begin and when the latter end. This tale, which appeared in 1926,...
(The entire section is 995 words.)
SOURCE: Spector, Robert Donald. “Observations on Schnitzler's Narrative Techniques in the Short Novel.” In Studies in Arthur Schnitzler, edited by Herbert W. Reichert and Herman Salinger, pp. 109-16. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.
[In the following essay, Spector discusses genre distinctions between the short story and the novella in the five stories by Schnitzler that appear in the volume Viennese Novelettes (1931), including Dream Story.]
While even the best literary critics have been unable to define adequately the short story, novella, and novel, they generally agree about placing individual works within a genre and acknowledge a common ground for certain characteristics. No one was seriously misled when Hemingway's Old Man and the Sea was transplanted from its rather cramped space in Life magazine to the fullness of a Scribners' edition which had the most generous margins in recent book publishing. Moreover, an examination of the effect of Hemingway's work clearly reveals that, for all its prolixity, it is no more than a short story. In the same way, Mann's Death in Venice, Flaubert's A Simple Heart, and Tolstoy's The Death of Iván Ilých are easily recognizable as novellas. Despite their unity, these works have thematic development, character analyses, and varied detail that take them beyond the limits of...
(The entire section is 2666 words.)
SOURCE: Swales, Martin. “Morals and Psycho-Analysis.” In Arthur Schnitzler: A Critical Study, pp. 118-49. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press, 1971.
[In the following essay/excerpt, Swales observes that Dream Story explores the tensions between moral consciousness and human psychology within the context of Freudian psychoanalytic theory.]
Paracelsus is a significant statement of Schnitzler's relationship to psycho-analysis in that it recognizes the value of the insights it gives—and at the same time relativizes that value in terms of a reticent and yet passionate moral intention. The same is true of the work which in my view constitutes Schnitzler's deepest illumination of the problem—Traumnovelle.
Central to Traumnovelle is the dialectical relationship between the actuality of Fridolin's and Albertine's marriage and the possibility of other experiences and adventures within their being.1 The story begins and ends with the reality of their married life together. Yet this reality is threatened by the experiences of two nights. What first begins the process of undermining is the masked ball they have recently attended. Not that anything happened at the time; but the following evening at home is spent reminiscing about the ball. Gradually the possible adventures become larger and more significant in recollection, and husband and...
(The entire section is 4185 words.)
SOURCE: Review of Dream Story, by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by Otto P. Schinnerer. Publishers Weekly 237, no. 12 (23 March 1990): 72.
[In the following review of Dream Story, translated by Otto P. Schinnerer, the reviewer observes that this translation provides a useful introduction to Schnitzler's stories of “haunting erotic fantasy.”]
This reprint of a 1927 American edition [of Dream Story] gives a new generation of English-speaking readers the opportunity to discover the Viennese novelist and dramatist's (1862-1931) haunting erotic fantasy, which blends dreams and reality. Summoned to a patient's bedside, Fridolin, a physician, begins a night-long journey through events in which he is merely an ineffectual observer. Finding his patient dead, Fridolin wanders the streets, is insulted by a student and responds aggressively—in his imagination. He meekly follows a prostitute to her rooms, but is frozen by fear. Entering a bizarre costume party uninvited and arrogantly challenging a guest to a duel, he is saved by an anonymous woman who buys his freedom with her life. Returning home, Fridolin wakes his wife, Albertina, who describes her own adventure, a dream in which the ever-faithful Fridolin is crucified while she laughs at his horrible death. Schnitzler's characters ultimately return from these sleeping and waking “dreams,” but the daily routine in which they take...
(The entire section is 229 words.)
SOURCE: Pekar, Harvey. Review of Dream Story, by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by Otto P. Schinnerer. Review of Contemporary Fiction 10, no. 3 (fall 1990): 207-09.
[In the following review of Dream Story, Pekar contends that the work is an outstanding achievement by a major modernist writer.]
In 1887 Eduard Dujardin wrote the first stream-of-consciousness novel, Les Lauriers sont coupé, and George Moore employed stream-of-consciousness passages in A Mere Accident. Schnitzler followed in 1901 with a stream-of-consciousness novella, Lt. Gustl; [Leutnant Gustl] he was among the first writers to employ the technique but was motivated by somewhat different concerns than Dujardin and Moore. The impressionism of French symbolist poetry was a major influence on Dujardin and Moore, who tried to create similar effects in prose. Schnitzler, an M.D., was less interested in writing prose poetry, but was fascinated with the budding discipline of psychology; he wanted to understand and recreate human thought processes.
Dream Story, dating from 1926, was originally issued by Simon and Schuster in the U.S. as Rhapsody. [Rhapsody: A Dream Novel] This Sun and Moon volume is a reissue of that translation.
As is often the case, Schnitzler focuses here on upper-middle-class Viennese. We meet the protagonist Fridolin and his...
(The entire section is 710 words.)
SOURCE: Cliff, Nigel. “The Liberation of Dreams.” Times of London (19 July 1999): 18.
[In the following essay, Cliff compares the 1999 film Eyes Wide Shut with Schnitzler's Dream Story, on which the film was based.]
Arthur Schnitzler was certainly a greater libertine than Stanley Kubrick, but Eyes Wide Shut, Kubrick's loose adaptation of Schnitzler's 1926 short novel Traumnovella (Dream Story), is the more sexually explicit of the two works. That, though, says more about Kubrick than Schnitzler, who delighted in stamping on the standards of bourgeois morality.
Born in 1862, Schnitzler was best known for his play Reigen, a bawdy sexual merry-go-round filmed as La Ronde and rewritten by David Hare as The Blue Room—which, famously, also starred Nicole Kidman. Like Reigen, Dream Story is set in fin-de-siècle Vienna, its brilliant social whirl masking a degenerate heart.
But the expressionist Dream Story is not concerned—at least not directly—with society, but with the anatomy of a marriage and the psychology of a mind. That mind belongs to a prosperous young doctor called Fridolin. One night Fridolin's wife admits she has dreamt of sleeping with another man. Later, wandering the streets of the city after attending a patient, the distracted Fridolin stumbles into a series...
(The entire section is 407 words.)
SOURCE: Simon, John. “Not with a Bang …” National Review 51, no. 15 (9 August 1999): 54-6.
[In the following review of Eyes Wide Shut, the 1999 film based on Schnitzler's Dream Story, Simon asserts that the film is based on a misinterpretation of the novella.]
If previous ages tended blindly to ignore their geniuses, ours is all too ready to crown as genius the nearest trendy hack. One of the very few masters not fully acknowledged even posthumously is the Viennese playwright-fiction writer Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), most of whose many works are poorly, if at all, translated into English.
Hence it may be unsurprising if, for his last movie, Eyes Wide Shut, Stanley Kubrick, along with his co-scenarist, Frederic Raphael, misread the work it was “inspired by,” Schnitzler's Traumnovelle (Dream Story, 1926). That the director died four days after completing the film, and before putting in his usual last-minute finishing touches, makes the result even more damaging.
In the novella, Fridolin and Albertine are a young couple with a small daughter: he, a successful physician; she, a somewhat bored housewife; both basically happy. At a ball, he briefly flirts with a pair of masked girls; she dances with a stranger, charmed until a lewd remark shocks her. At home, the spouses are more amorous than ever, but then, out of a slight...
(The entire section is 1365 words.)
SOURCE: Bradshaw, Peter. “It Looks Like the Eyes Almost Have It.” Manchester Guardian Weekly (22 September 1999): 16.
[In the following positive review of Eyes Wide Shut, the 1999 film based on Schnitzler's Dream Story, Bradshaw asserts that the film is faithful to Schnitzler's story, except that it loses the important element of the characters' Jewish identity.]
Stanley Kubrick's extraordinary last testament, Eyes Wide Shut, has effortlessly attained one of the criteria of a certain type of classic. It is in a genre, if not a league, of its own, this genre being best described as Manhattan porn gothic. It has left critics uneasily aware of the possibility that it is not a masterpiece, but rather a grotesque, preposterous flop that embarrassingly damages one of the most unimpeachable reputations in cinema.
However, it is the very preposterousness of Eyes Wide Shut that is the key to the achievement it represents: it has a singular excessiveness—at once gamey, florid and enigmatically deadpan—that underpins the rich, sensuous style. From the very first frames, Kubrick's imperious command of his material is evident. It shimmers with weird self-possession; it is radioactive with suppressed pornographic creepiness. And the batsqueak of hysteria and absurdity is essential to this fable of erotic paranoia and erotic discontent within the bourgeois marriage....
(The entire section is 820 words.)
SOURCE: Raphael, Frederic. Introduction to Dream Story, by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by J. M. Q. Davies, pp. v-xvii. New York: Penguin, 1999.
[In the following essay, Raphael discusses Dream Story in terms of its cultural and historical context in fin-de-siècle Vienna, and comments on the implied Jewish identity of the main character.]
By the time Arthur Schnitzler was born in Vienna in 1862, Franz-Josef had been on the throne of Austria-Hungary for ten years. The emperor did not die until 1916. The dual kingdom survived only two more years before being dismantled by the Treaty of Versailles. Although, when he died in 1931, Schnitzler had survived Franz-Josef by fifteen years, his creative life was determined by the protracted twilight of an empire which lost its hegemony, and its nerve, when he was four years old.
In 1866, Bismarck's Prussia destroyed Austro-Hungary's bravely incompetent army at Sadowa. The effect of that defeat on the Viennese psyche cannot be exactly assessed. Austria had already suffered preliminary humiliation by the French, under Louis-Napoleon, but Sadowa confirmed that she would never again be a major player in the world's game. Yet conscious acceptance of Austria's vanished supremacy was repressed by the brilliance and brio of its social and artistic life. Who can be surprised that Adler's ‘discovery’ of the inferiority complex, and of...
(The entire section is 3798 words.)
SOURCE: Review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by Margaret Schaefer. Kirkus Reviews (1 November 2001): 1511.
[In the following review, the anonymous reviewer praises Dream Story for its masterful blend of realism and dream.]
One of the most distinctive and compelling voices of the early modernist movement is heard again in this elegant collection of nine urbane, perversely comic, deeply disturbing stories [Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas]. The Austrian Schnitzler (1862-1931), who is perhaps better known for his equally incisive plays (including The Merry-Go-Round and The Green Cockatoo), was a practicing physician whose austere, clinical studies of sexual obsession and abnormal psychology won the admiration of his countryman Sigmund Freud and compare favorably with the intense, exploratory fiction of Svevo, Musil, Bernanos, and Moravia. Schnitzler's mastery of the technique of interior monologue is brilliantly demonstrated by such deftly structured contes as “The Dead Are Silent” (a chilling glimpse into the mind and heart of a married woman who survives the carriage accident in which her lover dies) and “The Second” (whose narrator's ingenuous celebration of the “code” of dueling in fact reveals the barbarity of that practice). Even better is the title novella, about a young army officer whose lofty...
(The entire section is 366 words.)
SOURCE: Review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by Margret Schaefer. Publishers Weekly 248, no. 46 (12 November 2001): 35.
[In the following review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas, the reviewer commends the volume for its startlingly contemporary stories that address universal themes of sex, love, and death.]
Though set against the backdrop of the fading Hapsburg Empire, Schnitzler's stories [in Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas] are startlingly contemporary in their outlook, and this collection of new translations is sure to win the Austrian author, who died in 1931, new admirers. In nine short stories and novellas, life's universal themes—the craving for erotic fulfillment, the fragility of love, the yearning for wealth and the abruptness of death—are psychologically probed in dreams, inner monologues and revealing plots. Dream Story will already be familiar to many readers: it is the novella upon which Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut was based. In it, a seemingly rock-solid marriage is undermined when a woman confesses a sexual fantasy to her husband, fueling his jealousy and sparking a dangerous flirtation with sensual adventures. Near the end of “A Farewell,” a young man's chilling transformation while viewing his married lover at her deathbed is hauntingly described: “His pain suddenly...
(The entire section is 308 words.)
SOURCE: Lehmann, Chris. “Modern Tales from Old Vienna.” Washington Post Book World (15 January 2002): C3.
[In the following review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas, Lehmann maintains that Dream Story addresses concerns still relevant to today's readers.]
Like his fellow Austrian—and his most influential contemporary admirer—Sigmund Freud, Arthur Schnitzler has become something of a quaint period figure, more frequently cited in the service of summoning the zeitgeist of turn-of-the-century Vienna than actually read. The broad outlines of his life story seem, indeed, to beg for such treatment. As he came of sexual age, for example, he was humiliated, in a scandalous and traumatic breach of high-bourgeois respectability, when his father happened on a diary in which young Arthur recorded the graphic details of his encounters with local prostitutes. Later, as a practicing physician, Schnitzler continued to keep dispassionate, clinical private accounts of his sexual adventures—still, frequently, with Vienna prostitutes—while composing unsettling short stories, plays and novels that ventured deep into the bewildered psyches of his characters and evoked the tightly conjoined forces of social upheaval, moral disorientation and sensual release that now simply go by the name “modernity.”
So completely did the writer fit with his time that Peter Gay, the...
(The entire section is 1237 words.)
SOURCE: Grey, Tobias. “The New Schnitzler.” Times Literary Supplement, (15 February 2002): 23.
[In the following review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas, Grey praises the translation of Dream Story by Margret Schaefer.]
It is hard now to picture the fuss that was made in 1920 when Arthur Schnitzler's libidinous play Reigen (La Ronde) was performed in Berlin for the first time. In an atmosphere of anti-Semitic agitation, riots broke out in the streets denouncing the playwright, and the director and cast were put on trial for obscenity. Schnitzler banned any future production of the play during his lifetime, but its notoriety continued to grow, along with Schnitzler's reputation as a bedroom savant. His fellow Austrian, Karl Kraus, cruelly described him as “standing between those who hold a mirror up to time, and those who hold a bedroom screen up to it; somehow he belongs in the boudoir”. Recent versions of Schnitzler's work, including David Hare's raunchy updating of La Ronde and Stanley Kubrick's sexually graphic adaptation of the short story “Night Games”, Eyes Wide Shut, seem to promote this view of the writer.
This new translation of nine Schnitzler short stories by the American academic Margret Schaefer shows him to be more than a dry observer of sexual mores. These dark, disturbing tales reflect the decadent and...
(The entire section is 546 words.)
SOURCE: Gay, Peter. “Sex and the Single-Minded.” Los Angeles Times Book Review (24 March 2002): R11.
[In the following review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas, Gay discusses the themes of love, sex, and death in the stories, and comments on Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Dream Story in the 1999 film Eyes Wide Shut.]
Arthur Schnitzler is not nearly so familiar to American readers as he should be, and this has led to starkly differing views of his literary stature. In a brief foreword to Night Games [Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas], John Simon places him “in the vicinity of Proust, Joyce, and Chekhov,” while Phyllis Rose, in the New York Times Book Review, dismissed him as “a relatively obscure Austrian writer.”
Indeed, Schnitzler has no Ulysses, no A la recherche du temps perdu, no Cherry Orchard to his credit. He considered himself (as Simon notes) an author of the second rank, and that is the level that is really appropriate to him, even though, in his time and after his death (he was born in Vienna in 1862 and died in Vienna in 1931), Schnitzler was as celebrated as Hugo von Hofmannsthal and more controversial, and enjoyed higher prestige, than Stefan Zweig.
This volume, containing nine Schnitzler stories, can do its bit in whatever revival of Schnitzler among American...
(The entire section is 1037 words.)
SOURCE: Peaco, Ed. Review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas by Arthur Schnitzler, translated by Margret Schaefer. Antioch Review 60, no. 3 (summer 2002): 531.
[In the following review of Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas, Peaco contends that Dream Story is reminiscent of the stories of Franz Kafka.]
Those who read Schnitzler (1862-1931), a Viennese observer of his city's contradictions and decadence, must face the discomfort of learning a great deal about desperate souls. [In Night Games and Other Stories and Novellas a]n adulterous woman leaves the scene of an accident in which her lover dies. A man whose wife has just died finds love letters to her from his best friend, who is about to arrive for the funeral. In the novella Night Games, the rise and fall of a young gambler's fortunes and his increasingly flawed reasoning unfold in obsessive, tortuous detail, such that his demise comes as a relief. It's noteworthy that Schnitzler (an undervalued genius, as John Simon asserts in his foreword to this new translation) is an early practitioner of modernist techniques such as stream of consciousness. But he demonstrates with his potent premises that the most important thing in fiction is the quality of the idea. In Dream Story, the other novella in the collection, a couple exchange small confessions, igniting jealousy and resentment that destroys...
(The entire section is 331 words.)
Allen, Richard H. An Annotated Arthur Schnitzler Bibliography. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966, 151 p.
A bibliography of works by and about Schnitzler, in German, French, and English, from 1879 to 1965.
Berlin, Jeffrey B. An Annotated Arthur Schnitzler Bibliography, 1965-1977. Munchen: W. Fink, 1978, 80 p.
A bibliography of works by and about Schnitzler from 1965 to 1977.
Liptzin, Solomon. Arthur Schnitzler. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1932, 275 p.
An early biography of Schnitzler.
Urbach, Reinhard. Arthur Schnitzler. New York: Ungar, 1973, 202 p.
A biography of Schnitzler, translated from the German by Donald Daviau.
Gay, Peter. Schnitzler's Century: The Making of Middle-Class Culture, 1815-1914. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002, 334 p.
Explores the cultural milieu of the Viennese bourgeois society that was the setting and subject of many of Schnitzler's plays and stories.
Thompson, Bruce. Schnitzler's Vienna: Image of a Society. London: Routledge, 1990.
Explores the cultural and historical context of Schnitzler's plays and stories set in...
(The entire section is 215 words.)