Arthur Golding 1536-1606
English translator and essayist.
Arthur Golding produced one of the most significant translations of Ovid's Metamorphoses in English. Also known in his own time as the translator of several Puritan-leaning religious works, including the commentaries and sermons of John Calvin, Golding attempted to render Ovid's bawdy tales as moral exempla for the careful reader. Golding's translation of Ovid remains a work of interest for modern readers in part because it has continued to stand as a fine and accessible translation of the Latin text, but also because it was the most popular Ovidian text of the English Renaissance, providing a source for several playwrights and poets, particularly William Shakespeare.
Arthur Golding was born in 1536, one of seven children of John Golding, an auditor of the Exchequer who had been admitted to the Middle Temple, and Ursula Marston. His birthplace is unknown, but he likely spent his childhood in Belchamp St. Paul's, Essex. He had an older half sister from John Golding's first marriage, Margaret, who married John de Vere, the sixteenth earl of Oxford, in 1548, giving Golding a useful and important social connection throughout his life. He entered Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1552, with the status of “fellow commoner,” a designation conferring significant privileges chiefly for students of wealthy families who paid an extra fee. There exists no record of his activities or studies there, and he left without a degree, likely in response to the Catholic purges of the institution following the accession of Queen Mary. Professors Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were tried and burned during a purge in 1555, an event that inspired Golding's first translation, from Conradus Hubertus's A Briefe Treatise Concerning the Burnynge of Bucer and Phagius, at Cambrydge (1562). To this first publication Golding affixed his own anti-Catholic preface, the first indication of the strong anti-Catholic sentiments that would also mark Golding's later work. In 1562 John de Vere died, and Golding was appointed an executor for his nephew Edward de Vere until he reached the age of majority as the seventeenth earl of Oxford. He dedicated a number of translations to his nephew, exhorting him to study the example of classical heroes in his Histories of Trogus Pompeius (1564) and to maintain his Protestant faith in his preface to John Calvin's Commentaries on the Psalms (1571). In 1565 he published the first portion of his translation of Ovid's Metamorphosis (Golding's spelling), dedicating it to Robert Dudley, the earl of Leicester, who had a reputation as an avid supporter of translators of the classics. The work was immediately well received, and confirmed Golding's place as one of the first translators in England. He completed an edition of all fifteen books of the Latin work in 1567. Among his major translations after the Ovid are his five additional translations of Calvin, including Calvin's well-known Offences (1567), and his sermons on Job (1574), Galatians (1574), Ephesians (1577), and Deuteronomy (1583). The works reflect Golding's puritanical bent, and were an important part of the dissemination of Calvin's ideas to a wider English public. During this time, Golding married Ursula Roydon, and the first of their eight children was born in 1575. In 1575 Golding also inherited his family's estate upon the death of his elder brother. The inheritance was hardly a boon for Golding, who spent the next twenty years embroiled in lawsuits over the estate, which included several large properties. Around 1595, his time among the landed gentry ended with a term in Fleet Prison for debt. His 1595 translation of Jacques Hurault's Politicke, Moral, and Martial Discourses mentions assistance he received from Lord Cobham in his efforts to be released from prison; the work was the last he published in his prolific lifetime. He died in 1606, still plagued by financial troubles, and was buried May 13 at the parish church of Belchamp St. Paul's.
An extremely talented translator, Golding's gift gave him the mixed blessing of being remembered chiefly for the works of other authors. His lasting contribution to literature is primarily his translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, which was widely read and greatly admired in his own time. Golding's translation of Ovid was the only source of the classical text for many Renaissance readers and writers, including William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, and Christopher Marlowe. Unique features of Golding's Metamorphosis include his use of “fourteeners” (a verse form using couplets of seven metrical feet each), his free use of English idiom to capture the spirit of the text, and his attempt to frame the text and its bawdy and violent tales in a moral light. The use of fourteeners allowed Golding a long poetic line in which to translate Ovid's compressed Latin, creating a marked difference in the styles of the poems, but allowing Golding some freedom in descriptive details. At times the length of the lines also encouraged Golding to be somewhat repetitive and to add unnecessary text to fill out the meter, a strategy many modern commentators have found objectionable. The sound of the lines also supports a comic tone, sometimes appropriate to Ovid's wit, though at other times interfering with the meaning of the original. The freedom provided by the use of fourteeners also supported Golding's effort to create a truly English version of the Metamorphoses. Golding often did not attempt to render subtle Latin wordplay into comparable English, nor did he try to capture a Latinate prosody in his lines. Using the fourteeners and heavy Anglo-Saxon language, Golding created a more rustic, less sophisticated Metamorphosis, one that perhaps resonated with English readers in a way that a more precise, less expansive edition could not have. Though Golding made free with Ovid's language, he did not take similar freedoms with his stories. His “Preface to the Reader” of 1567 is careful to inform readers that the stories of his Metamorphosis are offered as moral lessons; “lewd behavior” there may be, but it is usually appropriately punished. Thus Golding the Puritan did not opt to bowdlerize the tales, but instead made every effort to warn his readers of their immorality and explain carefully their proper Christian interpretation. Yet Golding's biographer Louis Thorn Golding suggests that he may not have been fully successful in moving his readers to appreciate Ovid solely in a didactic light. Though the Metamorphosis was a tremendous success, Golding limited his translations primarily to explicitly moral works for the remainder of his career. In particular, Golding is remembered as a translator of Calvin's Offences and his sermons.
Golding's translation of the Metamorphoses went through seven editions before 1612, and remained the standard English version of the text until George Sandys published his translation in 1632. After that, Golding's popularity waned significantly, although in 1904 Golding's Metamorphosis appeared in a new edition by William Henry Denham Rouse. Modern scholars generally appreciated Golding's abilities as a translator. The modernist poet Ezra Pound was effusive in his praise for Golding's Metamorphosis, ranking him with Chaucer and comparing him to Milton in his poetic skill. Golding would likely have been forgotten, however, were it not for his intimate connection with the works of Shakespeare. Although many scholars believe that Shakespeare would have possessed adequate Latin skills to read Ovid in the original, the playwright clearly relied on Golding's translations of Ovid as an important source for his works, especially A Midsummer Night's Dream (1595) and The Tempest. The Pyramus and Thisbe drama staged by Peter Quince, Bottom, and the mechanicals in A Midsummer Night's Dream have drawn particular interest as commentaries on Golding's translation of Ovid: several critics have interpreted the awkward, exaggerated dialogue of “Pyramus and Thisbe” within the play as a parody of Golding's padded and repetitious fourteeners, and some have suggested Golding's admonitory preface as a source for the tone in which they introduce their “tragedy.” This is not to suggest that Shakespeare or his contemporaries would have considered Golding wholly laughable. On the contrary, Shakespeare appears to have borrowed frequently from Golding for a number of his plays, as scholars Anthony Brian Taylor and Jonathan Bate have demonstrated. In both comedies and tragedies, Shakespeare seems to have taken Golding's phrasings and word choices as effective and admirable poetic expressions worthy of appropriation. Later critics in particular have worked to redeem Golding's reputation from an overemphasis on Shakespeare's likely parody of his verse in A Midsummer Night's Dream, stressing Golding's importance in shaping English literature. Sarah Annes Brown and Raphael Lyne are among those who have observed Golding's efforts to translate Ovid not only into the English language, but into an English sensibility. In doing so, Lyne suggests, Golding made Ovid a part of English culture and helped to guide the direction of Renaissance literature and to define English national identity.
A Briefe Treatise Concerning the Burnynge of Bucer and Phagius, at Cambrydge [translator; by Conradus Hubertus] (essay) 1562
The Historie of Leonard Aretine, Concerning the Warres between the Imperialles and the Gothes for the Possession of Italy [translator; by Leonardo Bruni] (history) 1563
Abridgment of the Histories of Trogus Pompeius Collected by Justine [translator; by Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus] (history) 1564
The Eyght Bookes of Caius Julius Caesar Conteyning His Martiall Exploytes in Gallia [translator; from Caesar's Gallic Wars] (history) 1565
The Fyrst Fower Bookes of P. Ovidius Nasos Worke, Intitled Metamorphosis [translator; from Ovid's Metamorphoses] (poetry) 1565
The XV Bookes of P. Ovidius Nasos Worke, Intitled Metamorphosis [translator; from Ovid's Metamorphoses] (poetry) 1567
A Little Booke … Concernynge Offences [translator; from John Calvin's Offences] (essay) 1567
The Psalmes of David and Others. With J. Calvins Commentaries [translator; from John Calvin's Psalms] (psalms) 1571
A Brief Discourse of the Late Murther of Master G. Saunders (nonfiction) 1573
A Catholike Exposition upon the Revelation of Saint John [translator; by Augustine Marlorat] (essay) 1574
(The entire section is 320 words.)
SOURCE: Golding, Louis Thorn. “His Most Famous Works.” In An Elizabethan Puritan, pp. 47-57. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1937.
[In the following essay, Louis Thorn Golding surveys the major works of Golding's career, giving special attention to the Metamorphosis and Golding's treatment of the pagan nature and “immorality” of the work.]
However actively Golding may have been engaged in the affairs of his nephew and niece, he found leisure for classical studies and for translation, of which the latter was from this time onward to be the chief occupation of his life. Notwithstanding he was busy with the interests of the young Veres and the attack upon their legitimacy, in 1563 he published his translation from the Latin of Leonard Aretine's (D Bruni) History of the Wars between the Imperialls and the Gothes for the possession of Italy. This was the first of five classic translations that were to come from his pen in four years and to place him in the front rank of English translators. This work he appropriately dedicated to his host and immediate chief in the affairs of the young Veres, Sir William Cecil.
In the spring of the next year, 1564, he published his translation of Justine's Abridgement of Trogus Pompeius which he dedicated to the young Earl of Oxford, then but fourteen years of age and about to receive a degree from Cambridge University. This history,...
(The entire section is 3147 words.)
SOURCE: Wortham, James. “Arthur Golding and the Translation of Prose.” Huntington Library Quarterly 12, no. 4 (August 1949): 339-67.
[In the following essay, Wortham focuses on Golding's translations of Calvin and his translations of histories, highlighting Golding's place in the history of English translations. Wortham admires Golding as a restrained and accurate translator, and suggests the Calvinist influence on his method of translation.]
Arthur Golding, for some forty years of his life translator to Englishmen, is best known for his version in heptameter couplets of Ovid's Metamorphoses (1565, 1567). Esteemed for its own moderate worth, the translation is perhaps chiefly remembered for the circumstance of Shakespeare's use of it. The main body of Golding's work, however, is an astonishing bulk of prose translations from Latin and French originals.1 Study of it suggests real importance for Golding among the translators who were helping to shape English prose to usefulness and beauty in the sixteenth century.
Golding was a Calvinist who spent most of his time on the translation of writings of contemporary Protestant leaders on the Continent—matter of fresh and vital interest in its time. Works of Calvin form the strong central pillar in Golding's translations; sermon and commentary, they amount in the English editions to some 4,600 pages, mostly folio. All...
(The entire section is 11616 words.)
SOURCE: Willson, Robert F. “Golding's Metamorphoses and Shakespeare's Burlesque Method in A Midsummer Night's Dream.” English Language Notes 7, no. 1 (September 1969): 18-25.
[In the following essay, Willson contends that Shakespeare's “Pyramus and Thisbe” mocks Golding's translation of the Metamorphoses through the play-within-a-play's comic poetry and exaggerated alliteration. In addition, however, Willson sees in those scenes a parody of the ignorance of stage actors.]
Kenneth Muir has argued that Shakespeare's Pyramus and Thisbe play in A Midsummer Night's Dream is a conscious parody of an amateurish poem by physician Thomas Mouffet, Of the Silkwormes and their Flies. Muir thinks Shakespeare may have chosen to ridicule the poem because its author used the Pyramus and Thisbe story only to illustrate how mulberry fruit, the leaves of which form the chief food of silkworms, turned from white to red after being stained by the blood of the lovers. He sees many parallels between the two versions, discovering in Mouffet's bathetic piece unfortunate puns on the word bottom (meaning behind), the names of Moth and Cobweb, and verbal echoes in the words Chink, fell, blade (for sword), and imbrue. He claims further than Shakespeare imitated the poetaster's habit of filling out the line with such words as eke and whereat....
(The entire section is 2608 words.)
SOURCE: Braden, Gordon. “Golding's Ovid.” In The Classics and English Renaissance Poetry: Three Case Studies, pp. 1-54. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.
[In the following excerpt, Braden compares Golding's Metamorphosis to other translations of Ovid's poetry to demonstrate how Golding's version reflects—and does not reflect—his Puritanism, sense of humor, and humanist bent. Braden also addresses Golding's influence as the creator of one of the most-read poems in the English language during the flowering of Renaissance poetry and verse drama.]
Arthur Golding's translation of Ovid's Metamorphosis (as Golding spelled it) was the first complete English version of that poem to be published, and its appearance—four books in 1565, the complete work in 1567—was an important event, a major contribution to what was becoming a systematic, cooperative effort to make the Greek and Roman classics available to a new and wider audience. Golding was immediately hailed as the man
whych Ovid did translate: And by the thondryng of hys verse hath set in chayre of state.(1)
And if Ovid became firmly established for another half-century as one of the most vital classical influences on English literature, Golding seems to have been in great part responsible. Thomas...
(The entire section is 14437 words.)
SOURCE: Taylor, Anthony Brian. “Golding's Ovid, Shakespeare's ‘Small Latin,’ and the Real Object of Mockery in ‘Pyramus and Thisbe.’” Shakespeare Survey 42 (1990): 53-64.
[In the following essay, Taylor argues that although Shakespeare made use of Golding's translation of Ovid, his “Pyramus and Thisbe” in A Midsummer Night's Dream is not a parody of Golding's poetry, but rather a kind of self-mockery poking fun at Shakespeare's own limited facility with Latin.]
In an influential article some years ago on Shakespeare's method in ‘Pyramus and Thisbe’, Kenneth Muir claimed it was the playwright's purpose to mock earlier Elizabethan writers who had treated the story awkwardly and clumsily.1 Muir saw Thomas Mouffet as Shakespeare's main quarry, but prominent among the other writers to whom he referred was Arthur Golding. Since Muir wrote, editors of A Midsummer Night's Dream, sceptical about Mouffet's part in the proceedings, have increasingly tended to read the burlesque as a parody of Golding's translation:2 R. A. Foakes in his New Cambridge edition, for example, is convinced that it is based on ‘the story as told in Golding’,3 and Harold Brooks, the Arden editor of the play, also has no doubt that ‘“Pyramus and Thisbe” is patently from Golding's version in his translation of Ovid's...
(The entire section is 7400 words.)
SOURCE: Brown, Sarah Annes. “Ovid, Golding, and The Tempest.” Translation and Literature1 3 (1994): 3-29.
[In the following essay, Brown discusses how Golding's translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, particularly its strong use of contemporary English idiom, served to make the work more useable and accessible for Shakespeare. Focusing on The Tempest, Brown demonstrates the importance of Golding's Metamorphosis to Shakespeare's understanding and adaptation of Ovid's stories.]
Although the importance of Ovid for Shakespeare has always been recognized, attention has focused until recently on the influence of the Metamorphoses upon early works such as Venus and Adonis.2 Within the last few years, however, the strong Ovidian presence in Shakespeare's Late Plays, in which overt allusions to Ovidian stories give way to a more subtle engagement with the Metamorphoses, has been increasingly acknowledged.3 David Armitage suggests that by this point in Shakespeare's career, ‘myth has become more integral to the poetic fabric of the plays, developing from decorative spangling in the early work to concealed fertile allusion’.4 It may be, indeed, that our thinking needs to be done in a vocabulary quite different from the conventional lexis of ‘allusions’ and ‘sources’: Marion Trousdale has argued in a more...
(The entire section is 10570 words.)
SOURCE: Lyne, Raphael. “Golding's Englished Metamorphoses.” Translation and Literature 5, no. 2 (1996): 183-200.
[In the following essay, Lyne suggests that Golding not only translated the Metamorphoses into the English language, but also appropriated the stories into English culture. Lyne contends that through the translation of Latin text, Renaissance translators such as Golding helped to define English literary identity.]
He begins by metamorphosing Ovid: by turning the sophisticated Roman into a ruddy country gentleman with tremendous gusto … and a gift for energetic doggerel. If the Latin mentions Midas's ‘tiara’, Golding calls it a ‘purple nightcap’. The exotic ‘harpé’ of Perseus, the curved blade so special it had a special name, becomes a good English ‘wood-knife’.1
Golding's Ovid has regularly attracted slightly patronizing affection from twentieth-century critics and editors.2 Gordon Braden, in the best recent study, provides an account of the translation as an Elizabethan Ovid of a particular kind: the product of an intellectual mediocrity with a certain charm, which is characteristically Elizabethan without having much in common with Elizabethan genius.3 Anthony Brian Taylor has uncovered the extensive debts owed to Golding by Shakespeare and others, while being careful to...
(The entire section is 6895 words.)
SOURCE: Lyne, Raphael. “Ovid, Golding, and the ‘Rough Magic’ of The Tempest.” In Shakespeare's Ovid: The Metamorphoses in the Plays and Poems, edited by A. B. Taylor, pp. 150-64. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
[In the following essay, Lyne discusses Shakespeare's use of Ovid in The Tempest, distinguishing between imitation and allusion as modes of adapting his stories. Lyne reads The Tempest as intertextual dialogue, not only between Shakespeare and Ovid, but also including Golding as translator.]
The influence of Ovid on Shakespeare does not end with his last sole-authored play, The Tempest, but it reaches a kind of climax there—and a kind of crisis.1 It is well known that this play includes one of his most sustained passages of close imitation of any author: Prospero's invocation (5.1.33-57) consistently echoes that of Medea in the Metamorphoses (vii.196-209). What is less well known is the way that this passage involves a profound reflection on Shakespeare's debt to his favourite author. This essay considers it as a form of intertextuality, and aims to appreciate the full complexity of Shakespeare's achievement as an imitator. In doing so, it takes account of the study of allusion and intertextuality developed by classical scholars, who work with a body of texts in which authority is predicated to a remarkable extent...
(The entire section is 5394 words.)
Bate, Jonathan. “Tragedy and Metamorphosis.” In Shakespeare and Ovid, pp. 171-214. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Focuses on Shakespeare's use of Ovid's in several tragedies, observing the influence of Golding's translation for particular words and phrases.
Blake, Harriet Manning. “Golding's Ovid in Elizabethan Times.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 14 (1915): 93-95.
Brief article discussing the influence of Golding's Metamorphosis on Renaissance poets including Nashe, Greene, Heywood, and Lyly.
Forey, Madeleine. “‘Bless Thee, Bottom, Bless Thee! Thou Art Translated!’: Ovid, Golding, and A Midsummer Night's Dream.” Modern Language Review 93, no. 2 (April 1998): 321-29.
Considers Golding's moralizing preface to his Metamorphosis as an additional source for A Midsummer Night's Dream; compares the earl of Leicester, as Golding's chosen patron, with the character of Theseus as a patron of the mechanical's play.
Hale, David G. “The Source and Date of Golding's ‘Fabletalke.’” Modern Philology 69, no. 4 (May 1972): 326-27.
Notes the existence of a manuscript of Golding's “Morall Fabletalke,” identifying it as a translation of Arnold Freitag's Mythologia Ethica (1579)....
(The entire section is 373 words.)