Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Arna Wendell Bontemps (bahn-TAHM) began his literary career writing poetry, yet his fame as one of the twentieth century’s most prolific and versatile black writers rests largely on his association with the Harlem Renaissance, on one widely anthologized short story, on his children’s books, and on his novel Black Thunder.
Born in Alexandria, Louisiana, on October 13, 1902, the son of musician, brickmason, and lay minister Paul Bontemps and teacher Marie Pembroke, Arna Bontemps grew up in Los Angeles, California, attending boarding school and earning his B.A. from Pacific Union College (1923) and his M.A. from the University of Chicago (1943). After his mother died when he was twelve, Bontemps lived with his grandmother and her younger brother. His father’s inclination toward fundamentalist Christianity and his disinterest in African American folk heritage contrasted with his granduncle’s affinity for drink, gambling, music, and spontaneity. Bontemps ultimately sided with his granduncle and chose African folk expression, even though his father’s persistent influence left him ambivalent.
In the 1920’s, Bontemps left his Los Angeles post-office job for New York City, where he quickly achieved poetic success. In 1926, he married schoolteacher Alberta Johnson. He acquainted himself with the major figures of the Harlem...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Arna Wendell Bontemps descended from a prosperous, light-complexioned family of “Creoles of Color” (French and African American heritage) in Louisiana; when he was a small child, he and his nuclear family and almost all of his mother’s extended family migrated to California. After his mother’s death, he lived on his grandmother’s farm near Los Angeles until his father sent him away to boarding school to complete his secondary education. As Bontemps was leaving to enroll at Pacific Union College, his father commanded him to renounce his African American past, about which the boy learned a great deal from his Louisiana relatives, who were living in California or were visiting there. His appreciation of his racial past continued to grow.
After receiving his B.A. in English, Bontemps moved to New York, where he became a part of the Harlem Renaissance along with Zora Neale Hurston, Jean Toomer, and Langston Hughes, who became one of Bontemps’s closest friends and his literary collaborator. In New York, Bontemps taught school and married Alberta Johnson in 1926. They had five children.
Bontemps taught for a year at Oakwood Academy in Huntsville, Alabama, and learned about racial oppression through the famous trials of the “Scottsville boys,” which were being held nearby. He escaped to California, where he finished his second novel. Settling in Chicago, Bontemps received a master’s degree in library science from the University of Chicago. He then returned to the South to accept a position as a full professor and head librarian at Fisk University in Nashville, where he remained until 1966 when he was named writer-in-residence at the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. In 1969 he rejoined the Fisk faculty to serve as writer-in-residence. He died in Nashville in 1973.
Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Arna Wendell Bontemps, whose parentage was Louisiana Creole, was born in the front bedroom of his maternal grandfather’s comfortable home at the corner of Ninth and Winn Streets in Alexandria, Louisiana. The house is still standing, though it has been moved; in 1992 it became the site of the Arna Bontemps African American Museum. Bontemps’s father, a skilled stonemason, bricklayer, and former trombonist with a New Orleans marching band, moved with his wife, children, and in-laws to California following a racial incident in Louisiana. The elder Bontemps also served as a Seventh-Day Adventist preacher after he abandoned Catholicism.
Bontemps’s earliest childhood was spent happily in his grandparents’ house in Alexandria. Later, in California, he was greatly influenced by a great-uncle, Uncle Buddy, who came from Alexandria to stay with his relatives in California. Though Uncle Buddy was a down-at-the-heels alcoholic, he nevertheless represented for young Bontemps the essence of Louisiana culture, folklore, and history with his colorful stories and speech. Self-educated, intelligent, and articulate, Uncle Buddy was a good reader and storyteller and awakened in his grandnephew a love of hearing and telling stories and of reading and reciting poetry. Most important, Uncle Buddy reminded young Bontemps of his Louisiana and southern roots, which were later to be a great literary storehouse for the budding author.
Bontemps’s mother died when...
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Arna Bontemps, at age twenty-one, accepted a teaching position in New York City at the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance. Through his poetry, novels, short stories, and essays, he became one of that movement’s defining writers. Bontemps, whose father was a bricklayer and whose mother, a schoolteacher, instilled in him a love of books, was born in Louisiana, but, because of white threats against his family, was reared and educated in California, where he was graduated from Pacific Union College in 1923.
The Bontemps family settled in the Watts section of Los Angeles in 1905. At the time they were the only African American family in the neighborhood. When Bontemps was twelve years old, his mother died, and he was sent to live with relatives in the California countryside. There, by becoming his Uncle Buddy’s “companion and confidant in the corn rows,” Bontemps gained access to a living embodiment of Southern black folk culture. According to Bontemps, Uncle Buddy was an “old derelict” who drank alcohol and loved “dialect stories, preacher stories, ghost stories, slave and master stories. He half-believed in signs and charms and mumbo-jumbo, and he believed whole-heartedly in ghosts.” Concerned at Uncle Buddy’s influence, Bontemps’ father sent his son to a white boarding school, admonishing him, “Now don’t go up there acting...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Poetry: American Poets)
Arna Wendell Bontemps was born in Alexandria, Louisiana, in 1902, to a Roman Catholic brick mason and accomplished trombonist, Paul Bismark Bontemps, and a Methodist schoolteacher, Marie Carolina Pembrooke. His father, who left the Roman Catholic Church to become a lay minister with the Seventh-day Adventists, was a somewhat distant, practical man who hoped his son would join the family trade in building construction and masonry. From the start, however, Bontemps’s mother instilled in him a love of reading and encouraged him to give his imagination free rein. Her free-spirited creativity had a great influence on him.
Bontemps had just turned three when the family moved to the Watts area of California because his father had grown tired of the indignities suffered by blacks in the South. Bontemps’s father had been walking down the sidewalk when a pair of drunken white men grew close; when they hurled an epithet, his father, following convention, had stepped down into the street to avoid a confrontation. The three-year-old Bontemps was too young to understand the full implications of the incident, and when at age twelve, after his mother’s death, he was sent to San Fernando Academy, a mostly white boarding school, he misunderstood his father’s admonition that he not “act all colored” at the school. He saw this warning not as the safety measure it was designed to be, but as an attempt to make him forget his past, to negate everything in him that was black. His father was trying both to protect him and to get him away from the influence of his uncle Buddy, who drank heavily, loved tall tales told in dialect, and believed in ghosts. The young Bontemps, however, admired and enjoyed Uncle Buddy’s energy and good humor, as well as the company of his friends. Physical separation did not remove his uncle from his mind; Bontemps even based the main character of his first novel, God Sends Sunday (1931), on him.
The idea that he was being miseducated, that he was expected to assimilate into white society and to be no different, stayed with Bontemps for many...
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