Andrew Marvell 1621–1678
English poet and satirist.
The following entry presents criticism of Marvell's "Cromwell Poems."
One of the last of the seventeenth-century metaphysical poets, Marvell is noted for his intellectual, allusive poetry, rich in metaphor. His work incorporates many of the elements associated with the metaphysical school: the tension of opposing values, metaphorical complexities, logical and linguistic subtleties, and un-expected twists of thought and argument. Although in the past his work has been considered of minor stature next to the artistic genius of John Donne, the most renowned of the metaphysical poets, Marvell has come to be viewed as an important poet in his own right. The poems generally thought to be his best, including "To His Coy Mistress" and "The Garden," are characterized by an ambiguous complexity and a thematic irresolution which critics believe both define his talent and account for his appeal. In the latter half of the twentieth century, critics have paid increasing attention to Marvell's Cromwell poems, particularly "An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland."
The son of an Anglican clergyman and his wife, Marvell was born in Winestead-in-Holderness, Yorkshire. He received his early education at nearby Hull Grammar School, and later attended Trinity College at Cambridge University, where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1638 or 1639 and remained until 1640. He spent approximately four years traveling the European continent, and was not in England when the English Civil War erupted in 1642. Scholars suspect that up until this time Marvell's sympathies were with the Royalists. There is no evidence that he had transferred his allegiance to the Puritans until writing "An Horatian Ode" in 1650. After this time, Marvell became increasingly involved in politics and the Parliamentary cause. He became tutor to the daughter of Sir Thomas Fairfax, former commander-in-chief of the Parliamentarian forces. Marvell wrote the bulk of the lyric poetry on which his reputation rests during this period. Later, Marvell became tutor to Cromwell's charge William Dutton.
Through the influence of his friend John Milton, the Latin secretary, Marvell was appointed Assistant Latin Secretary. In 1659 he took a seat in Parliament as a representative for Hull, at which time he shifted from writing poetry to political satire and polemics. A conscientious statesman, Marvell channeled his energy and talent into his political career, serving in Parliament until his death. Although rumors persist that his death was the result of poisoning by his political enemies, it is generally accepted that Marvell died of an accidental overdose of medicinal opiates.
Traditionally, Marvell's work has been divided into four classifications—religious poetry, love poetry, pastoral poetry, and political poetry. In the twentieth century, however, commentators have argued that these distinctions are valid only superficially; though Marvell may have made use of these established poetic conventions, his poetry cannot be so neatly categorized or explained. In one of Marvell's most famous poems, "To His Coy Mistress," the narrator implores a woman to become his lover, arguing that the transience of life and the inevitability of death necessitate their immediate enjoyment of sensual pleasure. Many critics believe that complexities and ambiguities within the poem undermine the ostensible message; the suspicion of narrative irony and the curiously inappropriate imagery of the poem cast doubt on its true meaning. The concepts of ambiguity and duality have become recognized as central to the understanding of Marvell's work. In such overtly religious poems as "A Dialogue between the Resolved Soul and Created Pleasure" and "A Dialogue between the Soul and the Body," Marvell directly addressed the theme of the duality of spirituality and temporality. As their titles indicate, both of these poems are discussions between the body and its pleasures on the one hand and the soul and its spirituality on the other.
Issues of ambiguity and conflict are also inherent in Marvell's Cromwell poems, a series of poems written about and dedicated to Oliver Cromwell. "An Horatian Ode" chronicles the demise of Charles I and Cromwell's rise to power. However, unlike other poems dedicated to Cromwell in this era, "Ode" is neither completely critical of Charles nor totally admiring of Cromwell. In fact, some scholars contend that Cromwell is depicted as a necessary evil. Other critics suggest that subtle hints in the poem indicate the poet's belief that Cromwell's base of power, founded as it was on usurpation and bloodshed, may have been inevitable but can hardly be praiseworthy. Marvell's tone becomes more complimentary through the years as noted in The First Anniversary of the Government under His Highness the Lord Protector and "A Poem upon the Death of His Late Highness the Lord Protector." "Upon Appleton House," which is also usually grouped with the political poems, outwardly appears to praise the retirement of Marvell's benefactor Fairfax from the political arena. The extent to which this praise may be regarded as sincere has long been a critical stumbling block, as the rest of the poem seems to endorse action and movement. Marvell dealt again with the tension between retirement and action in "The Garden," which, like many of Marvell's best poems, presents a critical enigma. Garden imagery, which recurs throughout Marvell's poetry, represents a tranquil and idyllic retreat, a sanctuary in which one can address one's spiritual concerns. In "The Garden," Marvell explores the individual's spiritual journey; however, the validity of the narrator's pastoral retreat as a refuge from earthly cares and passions is compromised by Marvell's description of the garden itself, which is couched in lush, sensual language and imagery.
The history of Marvell's critical reception is one of shifting focus and sharp reversal. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Marvell's reputation was that of a major statesman but a minor poet. He was lauded as an upright politician, and his name became synonymous with disinterested patriotism. His poetry, when it was considered at all, was judged to be admirable but of secondary importance to his public career. In the twentieth century, Marvell's lyric poetry has come to be seen in an entirely new light, largely due to a pivotal essay by T. S. Eliot in 1921. Eliot emphasized for the first time Marvell's metaphysical wit, the recognition of which has both enlarged and redefined subsequent critical thought. Poems once considered simple and straightforward have been reinterpreted in light of their evident ambiguities. Many critics believe that the ambiguities are far more than clever devices and that Marvell's recurring themes exemplify the nature of ambiguity itself. Indeed, such critics claim that underlying all of Marvell's poetry is a unifying and omnipresent concern with a central ambiguity, the tension and duality of opposites, and that this is most often and most successfully expressed through his treatment of the duality of the body and the soul, the temporal and the divine. The dualities of mind and emotion, action and contemplation, and conventionality and nonconformity are secondary, yet related, thematic oppositions that commentators have also observed in Marvell's poetry. All these tensions, critics have noted, place the poems in a fundamentally spiritual or moral context, as each involves opposing human attributes or choices. Likewise, such political poems as "An Horatian Ode" and "Upon Appleton House" have prompted much critical debate due to their ambiguity. As Raman Selden writes, "Marvell's 'Horatian Ode' has proved to be perhaps the most controversial of all seventeenth-century lyric poems." He goes on to say that "most critics … have treated the 'Ode' either as historical document or as autonomous artifact, and have been unable to discover a mode of interpretation which both restores its historical uniqueness and preserves its poetic integrity." The same statement could be mode of the critical response to the other Cromwell poems. However, of the political poems, "An Horatian Ode" has sparked the most controversy. Most critics interpret the poem as a gauge of Marvell's political stand and the degree of support he espoused for the Royalists and Puritans. Some scholars, however, have moved beyond this debate to question Marvell's contradictory tone and to explore how and why he creates contrasts in the poem. R. H. Syfret argues that the tone reflects the uncertainty of the age while Michael Wilding argues that Marvell wanted the reader to find the poem ambiguous and detached in order to sway the reader towards the side of the revolution. Critics agree that both the contradictory tension and thus the quality are abated in the subsequent Cromwell poems.
*"An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland" (poem) 1650
The First Anniversary of the Government under His Highness the Lord Protector (poetry) 1655
†"A Poem upon the Death of His Late Highness the Lord Protector" (poem) 1658
The Rehearsall Transpros'd (satire) 1672
The Rehearsall Transpros 'd: The Second Part (satire) 1673
An Account of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England (satire) 1677
Miscellaneous Poems (poetry) 1681
The Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Andrew Marvell. 4 vols. (poetry and verse) 1872-75
The Poems and Letters of Andrew Marvell. 2 vols. (poetry and letters) 1927
* 1650 refers to the poem's date of composition.
†Also known as "A Poem upon the Death of O. C," this poem was composed in 1658 but not published in its entirety until 1776.
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SOURCE: "Andrew Marvell's Cromwell Poems," in Bucknell Review, Vol. VII, No. 1, May, 1956, pp. 41-70.
[In the following essay on "Horatian Ode" and "The First Anniversary of the Government Under O.C.," Carens reconsiders Marvell's contradictory depiction of Cromwell.]
Though Andrew Marvell's Horatian Ode has often been commented upon, two later poems in honor of Oliver Cromwell have received little attention. It is not surprising that A Poem Upon the Death of O. C. has been largely ignored, for it is overlong and without real unity. Lines such as these are, of course, splendid:
Unfortunately, however, this is one of the few sections of the poem that deeply engages our feelings; and, if we remember these lines, we also remember the artificiality of the conceit—a real example of metaphysical excess—by which Marvell attempts to relate the death of the Protector to that of his favorite daughter. Moreover, since Marvell has failed to unite the two views of Cromwell, public and private, the poem is patchy. With the exception then of a number of fine lines, the poem is not comparable to Marvell's best work and does not seem to reward close analysis. This is not the case, however, with the other panegyric, The First Anniversary of the Government Under O. C.
As late as 1648 (if An Elegy Upon the Death of My Lord...
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SOURCE: "Cromwell as Machiavellian Prince in Marvell's An Horatian Ode," in Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. XXI, No. 1, January-March, 1960, pp. 1-17.
[In the essay below, Mazzeo compares "An Horatian Ode" to Machiavelli's The Prince, arguing that the authors of both works are insightful on the subject of political leadership.]
First I ought to say that this essay will not be a study of the history of Marvell's political opinions, nor will I attempt to find more consistency in them than they will bear. His elegy on Lord Francis Villiers, the poem to Lovelace, the poems on the death of Hastings and on the death of Tom May, all furnish evidence of Royalist sentiment. The three poems on Cromwell furnish equal evidence of Puritan sentiment. Even if all the problems of dating and attribution of Marvell's poetic corpus could be solved, we would still be faced with understanding the transformations of an almost frighteningly complex mind, one that, as we know from his poetry, is capable of holding in consciousness simultaneously both the playful and serious implications of an analogy, and of surveying experience from multiple perspectives without trying to reduce them to one another. He is a master of the representation of those ranges of experience which are heterogeneous, of a poetry of transformations, each metamorphosis corresponding to a transformation of consciousness. I suspect that even if...
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SOURCE: "The Actor and the Man of Action: Marveil's Horatian Ode," in The Critical Survey, Vol. 3, No. 3, Winter, 1967, pp. 145-50.
[In the essay below, Stead discusses the confusion which has surrounded the meaning of Marvell's "Horatian Ode."]
It is difficult to recover one's first impression of the Ode but probably for most readers the following description would cover it: The poem celebrates Cromwell's victory in Ireland and looks forward to future greatness for England, but in passing pays a beautiful tribute to the dignity of Charles, whose death was the necessary and unfortunate precursor of the present happy state of affairs.
Very quickly, however, as we give more attention to the poem, we discover an undertone qualifying this first impression. The tribute to Charles remains static; but Charles is not the subject of the poem. Cromwell is its subject, and Cromwell alters as our focus narrows on him. He has ruined 'the great Work of time'. He is 'Fate' over-ruling 'Justice' and 'the antient Rights'. His government is 'the forced Pow'r', achieved by the destruction of the 'helpless Right' of Charles. There can be no reasonable argument which denies that these aspects qualify the celebration; but it will be relevant to the latter part of my discussion to describe at this point how, some years ago, I misread the poem by giving my attention...
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SOURCE: "Against Polarization: Literature and Politics in Marvell's Cromwell Poems," in English Literary Renaissance, Vol. 5, Spring, 1975, pp. 251-72.
[In the following excerpt, Patterson argues that it is only by considering all of his Cromwell poems that we can understand Marvell's changing perceptions of Cromwell.]
Despite the steady accumulation of commentary on Marvell's poems, the First Anniversary of the Government under O.C. has attracted little attention. Still less attention has been given to the elegy, Upon the Death of O.C. While critics return frequently to consideration of the techniques and insights of the Horatian Ode, The Garden, and Upon Appleton House, it is apparently acceptable to publish a full-length study of Marvell's poetry without a section on either of the later Cromwell poems.1 Literary judgment has not proceeded much beyond Legouis' original discouragement;2 and when the formidable political contexts of the poems have been mastered, as they were by John Wallace,3 knowledge of the period and of its constitutional debates seems to overpower purely literary considerations. This paper attempts to reduce such polarization and to unite what are now separated segments of Marvell's canon.
It is worth remembering that the modern pastoral/political dichotomy assumed to operate in Marvell's mind...
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SOURCE: "The Cromwell Poems," in Marvell and the Civic Crown, Princeton University Press, 1978, pp. 59-94.
[In the following excerpt, Patterson argues that in his attempts to describe Cromwell, Marvell also advanced his understanding of language and writing.]
… In all of his poems about Cromwell, Marvell faced a rhetorical problem which was clearly occasioned by political facts. Cromwell's actions were not only unconstitutional, they were also extremely difficult to assimilate into traditional modes of expression. A training in classical rhetoric provided a writer with a range of attitudes ….
At first sight the First Anniversary suggests a simple development from choice in progress to choice complete, from a mixed rhetorical stance supported by the classics to Christian determinism supported by biblical typology. However, any attempt to develop a straightforward reading of the poem as an alternative to the Ode, a "committed" Puritan poem which knows where it stands, is quickly defeated. Cromwell may resemble Elijah or Gideon, but he is also an Amphion of classical harmony, particularly as that figure had been interpreted by Horace's Ars Poetica. The poem seems extraordinarily digressive and, while invoking the temporal structures both of classical encomium and Christian prophecy, it also seems to subvert them in ways which can scarcely be accidental....
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SOURCE: "Andrew Marvell and Oliver Cromwell," in Renaissance and Modern Studies, Vol. XXVI, 1982, pp. 75-89.
[In the following essay, Elliott argues that throughout his poems about Cromwell, Marvell remains favorable to Cromwell.']
Andrew Marvell was a servant of the Protectorate Government, tutor to the Lord-General Fairfax's daughter and, finally, a member of Parliament for Hull, wellknown for his opposition to the Crown's policies. A cultured, middle-class Puritan, he wrote political poetry in the 1640s and 1650s which clearly expresses the turbulence of the age and the anxieties of Long Parliament supporters who stubbornly resisted 'Stuart tyranny' only to find their victory threatened by radicals bent on loosening the whole fabric of society. Marvell catches the mood of a society in flux and his work serves as a corrective to notions of 'historical perspective' and 'inevitability' by reminding us that to contemporaries the outcome of the great rebellion was far from predictable. In Marvell's responses, however, to the flux of the times, there is, I would submit, an underlying consistency. This emerges most clearly in his poems addressed to Oliver Cromwell, but his continuing sympathy for the constitutional aims of the 1642 Parliament is still evident in 'The Rehearsal Transpros'd', a work written after the restoration of the monarchy and addressed to Charles II. Attempting to persuade the King of...
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SOURCE: "Power and Conscience: Marvell and the English Revolution," in The Poet's Time: Politics and Religion in The Work of Andrew Marvell, Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 15-62.
[In the excerpt below, Chernaik contrasts the political and world views presented in Marvell's "Horatian Ode" and "Upon Appleton House."]
… Marvell's most famous comment on the English revolution, made twenty-odd years after the fact, combines a recognition of the inevitability of historical processes with a sigh of regret that history took the path it did. If only the aggrieved subjects had been content with 'Patience and Petitions', if only the King had carried out the necessary reforms himself. 'An Horatian Ode' and 'Upon Appleton House' view the events of the Civil War from two entirely different perspectives, appropriate to their central figures, Cromwell and Fairfax, but they share with The Rehearsal Transpros'd the ironic recognition that what must be—'such an Earth as it has pleased God to allot us'—takes precedence over what 'might have been better' (RT, II, p. 231). The view of human striving in the passage on the Civil War in The Rehearsal Transpros'd is akin to the laughter of the grasshoppers at man's pretensions in 'Upon Appleton House', stanza XLVII; the distance imparted by coupling the downfall of Charles I with the return of Charles II gives the events of contemporary history...
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SOURCE: "Representing Cromwell: Marvell's Wiser Art," in Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Vol. 23, 1992, pp. 64-79.
[In the essay below, Lawson compares Marvell's "Horatian Ode" with other works of the period and argues that Marvell was presenting his own political views as well as a critique of political rhetoric in general.]
The past decade has witnessed an effort on the part of Marvell critics to "rehistoricize" the Horatian Ode. In an essay published in 1981, Judith Richards rejected the "cavalier" readings of the New Criticism, and made an appeal for interdisciplinary readings of the poem that would restore historical contexts and recover "what meaning Marvell might have been seeking to convey to a contemporary audience."1 Six years later, Marion Campbell argued a similar interpretive agenda, also attacking the New Critics for their ahistorical readings and, while acknowledging a "distinguished" line of historical criticism by the work of scholars such as Wallace and Patterson, asserting that deeper scrutiny of the relation of literature and history is still needed.2
This widely shared concern has occasioned many rich historical readings of the ode during the past ten years by critics including Warren Chernaik, Kenneth Elliot, Derek Hirst, Michael Wilding, and Blair Worden.3 It is worth noting, however, that the...
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SOURCE: "Antithesis and Resolution in the Character of Andrew Marvell's Cromwell and Fairfax," in CLA Journal, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1, September 1994, pp. 87-96.
[In the following essay, Gonzalez compares "Horatian Ode " with "Upon Appleton House," arguing that rather than being diametric opposites, Cromwell and Fairfax as described by Marvell share numerous elements.]
About twenty years ago James Carscallen made some insightful and extremely useful observations about Andrew Marvell's poetry. Although I do not agree with everything he has to say, I feel that Carscallen successfully argues at least one idea that is of major significance of Marvell: that "where you find a pair of contraries you will also find that each of them contains both in itself, and that each can be seen in terms of the other." Carscallen goes on to add that often the "contraries change places and metamorphose into one another."1 My purpose here is to compare the characters of Oliver Cromwell in the "Horatian Ode" and Lord Fairfax in "Upon Appleton House," and to show that although they appear to be irreconcilable opposites they are actually contained within each other and can be defined by each other. As a result, I will attempt to refute some critics, such as Isabel Rivers, who in comparing Cromwell and Fairfax sees "a onesidedness" in each respective position of action (Cromwell) and retirement (Fairfax), and who concludes...
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SOURCE: "Cromwell Alone: Marvell as Cromwell's Poet," in The Modest Ambition of Andrew Marvell: A Study of Marvell and His Relation to Lovelace, Fairfax, Cromwell, and Milton, University of Delaware Press, 1995, pp. 92-107.
[In the following excerpt, Griffin discusses Marvell's support of Cromwell.]
The point at which Marvell chose to write "The First Anniversary" is interesting. The title indicates that it is a celebration of the end of Cromwell's first year as protector, yet other moments would seem more worthy of celebration: Cromwell's triumph in Scotland or at Worcester, for instance. Or if Marvell had been deeply involved in millenarianism, he might have chosen the moment of the first meeting of the Barebone's Parliament. He did not. "The First Anniversary," advertised in Mercurius Politicus of January 1654/55, defends Cromwell's actions as Lord Protector and unrelentingly accuses the English of being recalcitrant stoneheads. Cromwell's domestic decisions and his newly devised constitutional basis, the Instrument of Government, clearly stood in need of defense. The deposed royal family grew dearer in absence. The English mind seemed unwilling, even unable, to understand the requirements of the change from monarchical to republican government. They did, however, understand that the time was unique; Charles's decapitation had impressed that on them. Marvell takes advantage of this one...
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Coolidge, John S. "Marvell and Horace." Modern Philology LXIII, No. 2 (November 1965): 111-20.
Interprets Marvell's "An Horatian Ode" as an imitation of Horace.
Donnelly, M. L. '"And still new stopps to various time apply'd': Marvell, Cromwell, and the Problem of Representation at Midcentury." In On the Celebrated and Neglected Poems of Andrew Marvell, edited by Claude J. Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth, pp. 154-68. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992.
Discusses Marvell's choice of images, symbols, and allusions in his Cromwell poems.
Duncan-Jones, E. E. "The Erect Sword in Marvell's 'Horatian Ode'." études Anglaises XV, No. 2 (April-June 1962): 172-74.
Remarks on the symbolic meaning of the sword in "An Horatian Ode."
Everett, Barbara. "The Shooting of the Bears: Poetry and Politics in Andrew Marvell." In Andrew Marvell: Essays on the Tercentenary of His Death, edited by R. L. Brett, pp. 62-103. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Discusses the critical "rediscovery" of Marvell's poetry.
Friedenreich, Kenneth, ed. Tercentenary Essays in Honor of Andrew Marvell. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1977, 314 p....
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