Andrew Jackson

(History of the World: The 19th Century)
0111200641-Jackson_A.jpg (Library of Congress) Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Article abstract: Possessing the characteristics of the roughly hewn Western frontiersman as opposed to aristocratic propensities of the Eastern and Virginia “establishment,” Jackson came to symbolize the common man in America and the rise of democracy.

Early Life

Andrew Jackson was born March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw settlement of South Carolina. Jackson’s family came from County Antrim, Ireland. His father, Andrew, arrived in America in 1765 and died shortly before his son, the future president, was born. Andrew’s teenage years were “rough and tumble.” Acquiring little formal education, Jackson made his way through early life by hand-to-mouth jobs, helping his two older brothers support their widowed mother.

During the revolutionary war, the British invaded Waxhaw, an event that shaped much of Jackson’s subsequent life and career. His two brothers were killed, and his mother died of cholera while caring for prisoners of war. Jackson, taken prisoner by the British, was orphaned at the age of fourteen, a situation that taught him independence, both in action and in thought.

In 1784, Jackson went to Salisbury, North Carolina, apprenticed to the law firm of Spruce McKay. Within three years, he was admitted to the bar, and in 1788, Jackson made the decision to go west, to Nashville, Tennessee, to seek his fortune.

While Jackson pursued a legal career as a practicing attorney, superior court solicitor, and judge, he also ventured into other activities. He became an avid horse breeder and racer, as well as a plantation owner. Jackson had no formal military training, but he quickly earned a reputation as an Indian fighter, and it was undoubtedly his experience in this area that led to his election in 1802 as major general of the western Tennessee militia. In 1791, Jackson married Rachel Donelson Robards, who had, she thought, been recently divorced from Lewis Robards. The divorce decree had not been issued in Virginia at the time Andrew and Rachel were wed in Natchez, Mississippi. Three years later, when Jackson learned of the error, he and Rachel remarried, but this action did not stop enemies from slandering his wife in subsequent political campaigns.

Jackson was one of few serious duelists in American history (Aaron Burr was another), and his most famous confrontation was with Charles Dickinson, essentially over a problem that started with race horses. On the occasion, Jackson wore a borrowed coat that was too large for him. When Dickinson fired, he aimed for the heart, located, he thought, at the top of Jackson’s coat pocket. Since the coat was too big, the top of the pocket was below Jackson’s heart. Dickinson hit the target, but Jackson still stood. Dickinson exclaimed, “Great God, have I missed?” Jackson then fired at Dickinson, mortally wounding him. Dickinson lived for a time after being shot, and it was characteristic of Jackson not to allow anyone to tell Dickinson that he really had hit his opponent; he died thinking that he had missed. Jackson was seriously wounded in the duel, and he convalesced for several weeks.

Jackson was a tall, thin man, six feet one inch in height, usually weighing 150 pounds. His nose was straight and prominent, and his blue eyes blazed fiercely whenever he lost his temper, which was often. In the early years, his hair was reddish-brown; in old age, it was white. He had a firmly set chin and a high forehead. Paintings and daguerreotypes suggest a man accustomed to giving orders and having them obeyed.

Life’s Work

Jackson became a nationally known figure during the War of 1812. Though he had been elected to his rank rather than earning it by training and experience, he soon proved to be a capable leader. He endeavored to neutralize the Creek Indians in Alabama, who periodically attacked white settlers. He accomplished this objective at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. So tough and unremitting was he at this engagement that his soldiers began to call him Old Hickory. His greatest battle was against the British at New Orleans. Amazingly, there were some two thousand British casualties, and less than a dozen for the army of Westerners, blacks, and pirates that Jackson had put together. Although the war was essentially over before the battle took place—news traveled slowly before the advent of modern communications—Jackson became a national military hero, and there was talk in some quarters of running him for president of the United States.

After the war, in 1818, President James Monroe ordered Jackson and his army to Florida, to deal with Indian problems. While there, Jackson torched Pensacola and hanged two Englishmen whom he thought were in collusion with the Indians as they attacked settlers across the border in Alabama. Jackson’s deeds in Florida caused diplomatic rifts with Spain and England, and he clearly had exceeded his orders, but his actions appealed to a pragmatic American public, and the general’s popularity soared.

When Jackson became a presidential candidate in 1824, some believed that it was the office to which all of his previous activities pointed. If ever there was a “natural” for the presidency, his supporters argued, it was Andrew Jackson. His opponents feared that if Jackson were elected, there would be too much popular government; Jackson, they argued, might turn the Republic into a “Mobocracy.” Worse yet, he had little experience with foreign policy, and his confrontational style might create one diplomatic crisis after another.

Jackson missed the presidency in 1824, although he received more electoral votes than anyone else. It was necessary to get a majority of electoral votes—more than all the other candidates combined. Since there was no majority in 1824, the election was decided by the House of Representatives, which selected John Quincy Adams; Jackson protested that Adams’ victory was engineered by a “corrupt bargain” with Henry Clay, whom Adams appointed as secretary of state after Clay’s supporters in the House ensured Adams’ election. In 1828, however, there was no doubt that Jackson would defeat Adams. A political “revolution” had occurred in the four-year...

(The entire section is 2548 words.)

Andrew Jackson

(Comprehensive Guide to Military History)

Article abstract: Military significance: Jackson’s 1814 decisive defeat of the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend opened valuable cotton lands for settlement by white Americans. In 1815, Jackson prevented the British from seizing New Orleans, ending the War of 1812.

A refugee during part of the American Revolution (1775-1783), Andrew Jackson rode with various patriot militias and participated in the vicious civil strife that plagued the Waxhaw area in South Carolina. Captured and wounded by a British patrol, the imprisoned Jackson contracted smallpox and nearly died. His subsequent hatred of the British was further nurtured by the death of his mother and two brothers in the war.

Jackson’s rise to prominence began with his appointment as public prosecutor in the newly settled region around Nashville, Tennessee. He served briefly in Congress in the 1790’s and as judge of the superior court of Tennessee. Jackson was elected major general of the Tennessee militia in 1802.

In 1813, Jackson moved relentlessly against the rebellious Creek in what later became northern Alabama. Despite supply difficulties, orders to retreat, and potential mutinies, Jackson led his forces to victory at Talladega, Emuckfaw, and Enitachopko. The culmination of the Creek War was his victory at the Creek stronghold at Horseshoe Bend on March 27, 1814.

President James Madison commissioned Jackson major general in the...

(The entire section is 591 words.)