Andrei Platonov 1899–-1951
(Pseudonym of Andrei Klimentov; also transliterated Andrey, Andrej) Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, dramatist, folklorist, essayist, and critic.
Platonov is best known for his short stories and novels that demonstrate his disgust at the misguided application of Marxist principles to Soviet peasant communities in the decades after the 1917 Russian Revolution. The ironic and often bizarre portrayals of how Communist utopian ideals were crushed beneath bureaucratic and dictatorial Soviet policies resulted in many of Platonov's works being banned or censored during his lifetime. His writing enjoyed some posthumous recognition after their publication in the 1960s, and there has been a resurgence of interest in his work after the late 1980s with the rewriting of Soviet literary history. Even so, Platonov remains something of an obscure figure in Russia and abroad. However, champions of his work consider him to be a central voice in the repressionist Stalinist era, praising his stories' innovative use of puns to express ontological concerns, modernistic elevation of peasant speech and dialogue, anarchist sentiments, and depiction of suffering under a machine-like bureaucracy. While acknowledging the inaccessible nature of his fiction, critics today find in Platonov an uncompromisingly honest chronicler of Russian life who foresaw what were to be the brutalizing effects of Soviet rule.
Platonov was born in 1899 in Voronezh, a town three hundred miles north of Moscow, the son of a railroad metal worker. Although financial difficulties forced him to leave school when he was fourteen, Platonov spent his free time during his teenage years teaching himself science and mechanics. While a soldier in the Red Army, he wrote his first short stories for local railway magazines and Bolshevik newspapers. These early tales express Platonov's hope that human technology would aid the construction of a Communist utopia. In 1920 Platonov joined the Communist Party, but left a year later. In 1922 he published a volume of poetry, but abandoned writing to pursue his engineering career. In 1924, Platonov was made the overseer of projects designed to modernize his home district's electrical and agricultural industries. He then moved to Moscow to work for the National Commissariat for Agriculture. There, he became disillusioned with bureaucracy in the government agency, and in 1927 he left engineering to devote his life to writing.
In the late 1920s Platonov was associated briefly with a group of writers called the Perevalists, Communist Party members who were committed to the ideals of the Revolution but who were highly critical of the Soviet state, which they viewed as a temporary, transitional phase before the more perfect realization of a Marxist community. Many of Platonov's short stories from the 1920s reflect his growing scorn for the bureaucratic machinery of the Communist Party. His first volume of stories, Epifanskie shlyuzy, enraged government censors for their harsh portrayals of peasant workers victimized by the agencies responsible for uplifting them, and shortly after its publication Platonov was arrested and forced into exile. Only after he wrote two public apologies to prominent newspapers in 1931 disavowing his stories and his “contra-revolutionary tendencies” was Platonov offered a chance at rehabilitation. He was sent to observe the creation of Communist communities and organizations in Turkmenistan and to write laudatory newspaper articles about them. However, Platonov's observations would become the settings for his bleak portrayals of utopia-building in such stories as “Dzhan” and “Takyr” in the 1937 collection Reka Potudan’. The publication of this volume cemented Platonov's reputation as a pessimistic opponent of the Communist state. Blacklisted and impoverished by censorship, Platonov survived throughout the 1930s by pseudonymously writing critical reviews of European and American literature.
Platonov's situation improved somewhat in 1941 when he was drafted as a war journalist. As his attention turned to combating the evils of fascism, many of Platonov's works were published to great popular approval. But this popularity was short-lived. Several stories written after the war, were criticized as attacks on Soviet veterans and communism in general. For the rest of his life until he died of tuberculosis in 1951, Platonov's work was effectively blacklisted from publication or critical commentary.
Major Works of Short Fiction
Platonov's first published collections of stories, Epifanskie shlyuzy, published in 1927, marked a clear departure from the idealistic Marxist tales written in his youth. The new stories were less than enthusiastic about how communism had changed the lives of peasants living in village hinterlands, commonly depicting individuals who have become slaves to the machinery and bureaucracy that was supposed to usher in a socialist utopia on earth. It was also with this collection that Platonov began his experiments with the skaz, or traditional frame story using peasant dialogue. He revolutionized the form by presenting with sympathy and complexity peasant speech and concerns, giving artistic expression to his philosophical conviction that all communication, no matter how vulgar or unrefined, conveys the nature of reality and human existence.
A second volume of short stories, Reka Potudan’, which appeared in 1937 after his exile and rehabilitation, showed that Platonov had become even further estranged from the Communist state. Most of these tales concern themselves with dispossessed characters—beggars, homeless children, orphans, and other miserable individuals—whose ability to love and communicate are diminished by the demands of the socialist government and its policies of collectivization.
Many of the more than fifty articles and stories written from 1941 until the end of the war, when Platonov enjoyed a brief respite from censorship by attacking fascism, develop his early concern for the ontology of language—the possibility that language has to reveal basic concerns about human existence—and the near-hopeless struggle faced by humans in their effort to lead a truly spiritual life. His post-war stories, which led again to the suppression of his writing, are frequently psychological in nature and involve bizarre sexual events. Apart from a collection of folk tales published a year before his death, Platonov did not see any more of his writing published in his lifetime.
During his life Platonov's stories were condemned by Soviet censors for their anti-revolutionary sentiments. The publication of his 1927 volume contributed directly to his arrest and exile from Moscow. The 1937 Reka Potudan’ stories were banned because of their themes of suffering at a time when censors demanded positive and uplifting portrayals of Soviet life. He was accused of being a nihilist and an anarchist, and Stalin was reported to express hatred for Platonov and his work.
It was only during the “cultural thaw” under Khrushchev in the 1950s and 1960s, which for the first time permitted critical examinations of Lenin and Stalin, that some of Platonov's large body of work was allowed to be published. He was thereupon praised by critics and the Soviet public hailed him as a voice of and for the common man.
The vast majority of critical commentary on Platonov is in Russian, and a great deal of what can be found in English is little more than introductory. However, the publication of English-language editions of his short stories in The Fierce and Beautiful World and Fro and Other Stories in the 1970s have done much to bolster Platonov's reputation as a unique voice in world literature. While some critics have labeled his writing old-fashioned, too full of early Communist sloganeering, and too reliant on puns that are not translatable to be interesting or relevant to contemporary readers, most commentators agree that Platonov has secured his place in Russian literature as a misunderstood visionary who tried, using the voice of the people, to warn against the brutalizing effects of Soviet authoritarianism.
Epifanskie shlyuzy 1927
Sokrovennyi chelovek 1928
Reka Potudan’ 1937
Izbrannye rasskazy 1958
V prekrasnom I yarostnom mire 1965
The Fierce and Beautiful World 1970
Fro and Other Stories 1972
Collected Works (short stories, novella, and drama) 1978
Golubaya glubina (poetry) 1922
Kotlovan [The Foundation Pit] (novel) 1968
Chevengur Chevengar (novel) 1972
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SOURCE: “Andrei Platonov (1896–1951),” in Early Soviet Writers, Frederick A. Praeger Publishers, 1958, pp. 245–51.
[In the following essay, Zavalishin discusses why many of Platonov's short stories got him into trouble with Soviet censors—namely, because of their common theme that Communist machinery too often resulted in “the depersonalization of man.”]
Andrei Platonov was one of the most remarkable of Soviet writers, again less because of literary skill than because of moral qualities. Although his stylistically most mature work came long after he had left the Pereval organization (he was a member for only a short time and then struck out as a lone wolf), he spoke from the beginning in his own distinctive voice. The germs of his later work, with its intense strain of compassion for luckless, fear-ridden men were already discernible in his first stories and soon invited the disfavor and vilification which he was to suffer throughout his life.
In his prose of the mid-1920's (he began as a poet) Platonov followed in the footsteps of Leskov, although he also was influenced by Gogol and Remizov. Over and over again the same characters recur in Platonov's stories—the grandsons of Leskov's Levsha, that uncrowned king of self-taught men, the craftsman who shod a mechanical flea. His descendants have come down in life and become hobos, tramps, drunkards, failures and...
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SOURCE: Introduction to Fro and Other Stories, by Andrei Platonov, Progress Publishers, 1972, pp. 5–20.
[In the following introduction to Fro and Other Stories, Dorofeyev finds in many of Platonov's stories a unique and sensitive literary voice.]
Platonov began writing in his teens, as a working lad—the inevitable poetry—and soon after the October Revolution began to appear in the press with poems and articles, and later short stories. In 1922 he had a verse collection, Blue Depths, published and intended publishing a book of short stories, which for some reason never materialised. His first collection of short stories, Yepifan Locks appeared in 1927, when he had already left his work as an engineer and embarked on his literary career, as prose writer, critic and dramatist. During the war he served as a war correspondent at the front almost without interruption. Thus Andrei Platonov went through life, a modest person, a glutton for work and a consummate artist, with a sensitive, restless heart.
The revolution, the Civil War, the years of socialist construction, the Patriotic War-Platonov went through it all, and it was all reflected in his writings.
Platonov was a man of the people. His outlook was essentially the healthy, straightforward “working man's” outlook, based on excellent knowledge of the practical needs of the working man, the...
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SOURCE: “Andrei Platonov,” in Russian Literature Triquarterly, Vol. 8, 1974, pp. 363–72.
[In the following excerpt, Jordan discusses Platonov's unusual literary style and sensibility, and paints a picture of an eccentric whose predominant thematic concerns are peasant suffering due to Soviet bureaucracy and the mortal vulnerability of individuals.]
In Andrei Platonov's posthumously published Chevengur, there occurs an inscription on an anonymous grave: “I am alive and I weep; she is dead and is silent.”1 It sums up Platonov's credo: life in its anonymity is to be defined by the existence of grief, and death is distinguishable from life only by virtue of its imposition of silence. Yet, ironically, the epitaph is wholly inappropriate for Platonov himself. For though his life may be viewed as a lament, yet in death his voice is heard. He is one of a group of writers of the 1920s and 30s whose work, often suppressed at the time of its writing, has been revived in Russia since the late fifties. Though Platonov died in 1951 at least six selections2 of his work have appeared in book form in Russia since then, and journals vie with each other to bring out short stories and film-scripts by him.3 Yet there are still complaints that much of his best work has not been published and the Russian émigré press has sometimes stepped in to fill important gaps with, for...
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SOURCE: “The Promised Land—Desired and Lost: An Analysis of Andrej Platonov's Short Story ‘Džan,’” in Scando-Slavica, Vol. 37, 1991, pp. 5–24.
[In the following excerpt, Bodin analyzes “Džan,” tracing the biblical and other mythological allusions that define this work about the impossibility of utopia in a new Soviet community.]
In 1933 Andrej Platonov was chosen, together with a number of the most well-known young Soviet writers such as Vsevolod Ivanov and Leonid Leonov, to participate in an extensive tour to Turkmenistan in order to study the socialist development of Central Asia in connection with the ten-year anniversary of the Turkmen Socialist Republic.1 The development of Central Asia was one of the most important issues at the time and to write about this subject was considered almost a duty of any Soviet writer.2
At that time Platonov had already published several literary works, mostly short stories but also a collection of poems. He had also been able to publish the first half of the novel Čevengur. Due to censorship, a great number of works were also lodged in the drawer of his writing table, among them the short novel Kotlovan and the second part of Čevengur.3
In 1931 Platonov had been severely criticized especially by his proletarian colleagues for his short story about collectivization...
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SOURCE: “The Evolution of Platonov's Literary Style,” in Andrei Platonov: Uncertainties of Spirit, Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 81–90.
[In the following excerpt from his study of Platonov's literary career, Seifrid examines Platonov's verbal style.]
Platonov's reputation as one of the major figures in Soviet literature rests more than anything on his verbal style, on his creation of a linguistic medium widely held to be both “strange” and somehow highly apposite to the world view expressed in his works. In fact, an investigation into the poetic principles motivating this “unique” Platonovian style forms the necessary culmination of any discussion of his themes. This is so because, far from serving as mere embellishment, the semantics of literary style in Platonov's mature works comes to serve as the iconic embodiment of his ontological theme. Platonov resembles the modernists in that it is ultimately to language, especially to its odd but ideologically motivated permutations in the Soviet era, that he looks for evidence of the ontological fate of the world.
How, then, did this in many ways untutored, provincial writer of working-class origins, an adherent of a rather eccentric set of utopian beliefs, come to produce some of the most sophisticated literary prose his country has known—in a style, moreover, which is interpretable in either a modernist or a populist...
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Anninsky, L. “East and West in the Work of Andrei Platonov.” The Soviet Review 11, No. 1 (Spring 1970): 25–51.
Claims that Platonov's work expresses his longing for unity between the polarities of Eastern and Western cultures.
Friedberg, Maurice. Review of The Fierce and Beautiful World, by Andrei Platonov. Saturday Review, Vol. 53, No. 2 (10 January, 1970): 44.
Discusses various short stories and their thematic concern of “bringing nature and humanity into harmony.”
Haworth, David. “Resurrection.” New Statesman 91, No. 2081 (5 February, 1971): 188.
Calls the short stories of The Fierce and Beautiful World “brilliant” but difficult to appreciate.
Jordan, Marion. Andrei Platonov. Letchworth, England: Bradda Books, Ltd., 1973, 116 p.
Full-length study of Platonov's literary career, paying special attention to the short fiction.
Oates, Joyce Carol. Review of The Fierce and Beautiful World, by Andrei Platonov. The New York Times Book Review (1 February, 1970): 4, 42.
Complains that Platonov's short stories are old-fashioned and unimpressive when compared to those of his contemporaries.
Rostovtseva, Inna. “Close to the Human Heart.”...
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