An Essay on Man, Alexander Pope
An Essay on Man Alexander Pope
The following entry presents criticism of Pope's poem An Essay on Man. See also, Rape of the Lock Criticism and Alexander Pope Criticism.
The philosophical poem An Essay on Man consists of four verse epistles, each of which was published separately and anonymously between February 1733 and January 1734 by a bookseller not previously associated with Pope's writings. Attesting to his belief that “the life of a Wit is a warfare upon earth,” Pope contrived the elaborate ruse partly to defuse the hostility provoked by his recent satires, notably The Dunciad (1728) and his Epistle to Burlington (1731), and partly to secure an impartial audience for the poem. Pope eventually identified himself as the author when he collected the epistles under the subtitle “Being the First Book of Ethic Epistles.” He had originally conceived of An Essay on Man as the introduction to an opus magnum on society and morality, but he later abandoned the plan. To this end, the poem addresses the question of human nature and the potential for happiness in relation to the universe, social and political hierarchies, and the individual. Articulating the values of eighteenth-century optimism, the poem employs a majestic declamatory style and underscores its arguments with a range of conventional rhetorical techniques. An Essay on Man met with international acclaim upon publication and generated no small share of controversy in ensuing decades. During the succeeding centuries, however, critics have perceived Pope's poem as fundamentally flawed, both aesthetically and philosophically. Nearly three hundred years after its publication, the poem generally merits distinction as, in David B. Morris's phrase, “a forlorn classic of ratiocination.”
Plot and Major Characters
Pope addressed An Essay on Man to Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, who served briefly as secretary of state and prime minister under Queen Anne. Previously acquainted with Pope by mutual association with Jonathan Swift, Bolingbroke retired in 1723 to Dawley, a farm neighboring Pope's Twickenham, and quickly befriended the poet, whose personal beliefs neatly coincided with his own. The friends often discussed much of the subject matter expressed in both Pope's poem and Bolingbroke's own amateur philosophical writings, usually as they walked the grounds of their properties. Divided into four parts, An Essay on Man explicates ideas commonplace among eighteenth-century European intellectuals concerning human nature and humanity's role in the universe. Proposing to “vindicate the ways of God to man,” the first epistle attempts to show the underlying harmony and virtue of the universe and the propriety of humanity's place in it, despite the presence of evil and apparent imperfection in the world. Each of the remaining epistles draws upon this premise, describing potential improvements to some aspect of human nature and society with the implicit understanding that the universe is divinely ordered and essentially perfect. The second epistle discusses humans as unique beings and shows how the psychological balance between self-interest and the “passions,” or emotions, under the guidance of reason, promotes virtuous living. The third epistle addresses the role of the individual in society, tracing the origins of such civilizing institutions as government and the class system to a constant interaction between the selfish motivations and altruistic impulses of individual humans. The fourth epistle frames the struggle between self-love and love of others in terms of the pursuit of happiness, arguing that any human can attain true happiness through virtuous living, which happens only when selfish instincts yield to genuine expressions of benevolence toward others and God.
Throughout the epistles of An Essay on Man Pope surveys such grand themes as the existence of a Supreme Being and the behavior of humans, the workings of the universe and the role of humans in it, and the capacity of government to establish and promote the happiness of its citizens. Consequently, the poem is one of Pope's most thorough statements of his philosophical, ethical, and political principles, which, however, were generally neither unique, radical, nor systematic. A practicing Catholic and instinctually conservative in his politics—each position precarious to acknowledge in Pope's time—Pope carefully avoids explicit references to specific church doctrines and political issues in the poem. Implicitly assuming such Christian notions as fallen man, lost paradise, and a beneficent deity, the poem presents an eclectic assortment of both traditional and current philosophical ideas that attempt to explain the universal characteristics of humankind. The poem borrows ideas from a range of medieval and renaissance thinkers, although Pope somewhat modifies them to suit his artistic purposes. The underlying theme of the poem is the idea that there exists an ordered universe which possesses a coherent structure and functions in a rational fashion, according to natural laws designed by God. The description of its structure derives from the metaphysical doctrine of the Great Chain of Being, which explains the fullness and unity of the natural world in terms of a hierarchy that ranges from plants and insects at one end to humans and angels at the other. As a creation of God, the universe ultimately is a perfect design that appears imperfect to humans because the ability to perceive its order correctly is diminished by pride and intellectual limitations. If humanity were to acknowledge with humility its insignificant position in the greater context of creation, Pope reasons, then humanity's capacity to live happily and virtuously on earth would be possible. Pope expresses many of his main ideas regarding human nature in language so indelible and pithy that some phrases from the poem have become commonplace in the English language.
Upon publication, An Essay on Man made Pope the toast of literati everywhere, including his inveterate foes in London, whom he deceived into celebrating the poem, since he had published it anonymously. His avowed enemy Leonard Welsted, for instance, declared the poem “above all commendation.” This assessment typified the initial critical and popular response in England, which was generally echoed throughout Europe over the next two decades. Such notable figures as Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant rhapsodized about the poem's literary aesthetics and philosophical insights. However, the early universal appeal of An Essay on Man soon gave way to controversy inspired by a small but vocal community of metaphysicians and clergymen, who perceived challenges and threats in the poem's themes to their respective authority. These critics determined that its values, despite its themes, were essentially poetic and not coherently philosophical by any means. Within fifty years of its publication, the prevailing critical opinion of the poem mirrored that of Samuel Johnson, who noted, “Never were penury of knowledge and vulgarity of sentiment so happily disguised.” This consensus persisted throughout the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth century, as commentators also trivialized the work's poetic achievements—as they generally did Pope's other writings. Widely neglected and relegated to the dustbin of literary history, An Essay on Man has been often perceived as an historical curiosity disconnected from contemporary concerns, literary and otherwise. However, a number of recent critics have sought to rehabilitate the poem's status in the canon by focusing on its language and ideas in terms of the genre of philosophical poetry. Other commentators have attempted to reevaluate the poem's ideas within the context of early eighteenth-century thought in an effort to demonstrate that Pope derived his theodicy—or explanation of the ways of God—from the various philosophical and theological positions held by his intellectual peers.
*Pastorals (poetry) 1709
An Essay on Criticism (poetry) 1711
Windsor-Forest. To the Right Honourable George Lord Lansdown (poetry) 1713
The Rape of the Lock. An Heroi-Comical Poem. In Five Canto's (poetry) 1714; revised edition, 1718
The Iliad of Homer. 6 vols. [translator] (poetry) 1715-20
The Works of Mr. Alexander Pope (poetry and criticism) 1717; enlarged edition, 1727
Eloisa to Abelard (poetry) 1719
The Odyssey of Homer. 5 vols. [translator] (poetry) 1725-26
The Works of Shakspear. 6 vols. [editor] (plays) 1725
†“Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry” (criticism) 1727
The Dunciad. An Heroic Poem. In Three Books (poetry) 1728
The Dunciad, Variorum. With the Prolegomena of Scriblerus (poetry) 1729
An Epistle To The Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington. Occasion'd by his Publishing Palladio's Designs of the Baths, Arches, Theatres, &c. of Ancient Rome (poetry) 1731
The First Satire Of The Second Book of Horace, Imitated in a Dialogue between Alexander Pope of Twickenham … and his Learned Council (poetry) 1733
An Essay on Man, Being the First Book of Ethic Epistles. To Henry St. John L....
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SOURCE: “The Place of Reason,” in Pope and the Context of Controversy: The Manipulation of Ideas in An Essay on Man, University of Chicago Press, 1970, pp. 74-125.
[In the essay below, White discusses Pope's idea of reason as subservient to passion for humankind and places Pope's understanding of reason within the context of prevailing eighteenth-century philosophical thought.]
In his insistence that moral and physical evil should be accounted for in the same way, Pope gives one specific demonstration of a point that he reiterates throughout the Essay on Man. Man is not a special creature, apart from the fabric of the creation, for whose benefit the entire system was constructed. He is merely a part of the whole and occupies a place and plays a role just as other creatures do. In his specific analysis of man Pope continues to emphasize this central theme. Of primary significance is his evaluation of man's reason.
It should be noted that Pope does not prove or attempt to prove that such a creature as man, with the exact characteristics possessed by man, would be abstractly necessary to any possible and excellent system. The necessity for man to exist in the present system stems from the requirement that the system be full if it is to cohere, and this is largely an a priori assertion. Given the mechanical necessity of man's existence, however, Pope shows two concerns: (1) What...
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SOURCE: “Pope's Beliefs,” in A Preface to Pope, Longman Group Ltd., 1976, pp. 109-24.
[In the following essay, Gordon explores the intellectual and ethical background of Pope's thought in An Essay on Man, highlighting the poem's expression of prevalent philosophical, religious, and political ideas in early eighteenth-century England.]
Papist or Protestant, or both between, Like good Erasmus in an honest Mean, In Moderation placing all my Glory, While Tories call me Whig, and Whigs a Tory.
Imitation of Horace, Satire II, i, 1733 (65-8)
The separation of Pope's beliefs into the philosophical, religious and political divisions propounded in this chapter is clearly an oversimplication of complex material. Philosophical ideas can never be set apart from religious and political views for the fundamental reason that any enquiry into the meaning of the universe must also be an enquiry into the existence of God and the behaviour of man. Pope's philosophical views are, therefore, both the result of and the basis for his religious beliefs and political commitments. The divisions used here for the sake of convenience are put forward in full awareness of the false separation frequently involved.
For the major part of his life Pope strove to avoid too contentious a position with regard to any one of these areas of thought. In his religion he was a...
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SOURCE: “The ‘New World’ of Augustan Humanism: An Essay on Criticism (1711), An Essay on Man (1733-4),” in Alexander Pope, Basil Blackwell, 1985, pp. 46-93.
[In the following excerpt, Brown analyzes the logic of An Essay on Man, maintaining that the poem incoherently addresses the often contradictory ideological values of capitalism and Christianity.]
We now turn to Pope's two major theoretical treatises, one aesthetic, the other philosophical. An Essay on Criticism was published in 1711, within two years of Windsor-Forest (1713) and the first version of The Rape of the Lock (1712). An Essay on Man was written between 1730 and 1734 and belongs to the last decade of Pope's poetic production. Our reading of Pope's theoretical works will thus require a chronological leap that parallels a division in Pope's poetic career between the early period of generic variety—the period represented by the first collected volume of Pope's Works in 1717—and the late period of satire and philosophy. These two segments of the corpus of Pope's original poetry stand on either side of a decade of translations and editions—the Iliad (1715-20), the Odyssey (1725-6) and Shakespeare (1725). Readers of the whole of Pope's poetry have readily noticed an increasing bitterness in the satire, a growing anticipation of cultural collapse, and a related...
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SOURCE: “‘Some Strange Comfort’: Construction and Deconstruction in An Essay on Man,” in Quests of Difference: Reading Pope's Poems, University Press of Kentucky, 1986, pp. 39-65.
[In the following essay, Atkins explains the theodicy of An Essay on Man in relation to Pope's notion of “the ‘proper,’” deconstructing the poem's central opposition between divine impartiality and human expectation.]
Many of the concerns that structure An Essay on Criticism continue in An Essay on Man. Whereas the earlier poem reveals Pope's commitment to certain distinctions and oppositions, his theodicy revolves around his commitment to the notion of the “proper.” This complex idea is itself related to Pope's central argument in An Essay on Man concerning God's impartiality, which runs counter to the human desire for and expectation of preferential—and differentiating—treatment. The work of difference in this later poem, in both Pope's declarations and the textual description, is more complicated, in part because, in An Essay on Man, deconstruction appears in those declarations, as an important theme.
THE VANITY OF HUMAN WISHES
In “The Design” of An Essay on Man, Pope writes:
There are not many certain truths in this world. It is therefore in the Anatomy of...
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SOURCE: “‘Steering betwixt extremes’: An Essay on Man,” in The Unbalanced Mind: Pope and the Rule of Passion, Harvester Press, 1986, pp. 64-94.
[In the following essay, Ferguson links the dialectic of An Essay on Man to its poetic form, emphasizing philosophical and literary dimensions of the concept of discordia concors.]
In the preceding chapters I have made note of two very generalised but significant anticipations of the Essay on Man's philosophy some years before any detailed plans for the work had been laid down by Pope; the first of these is the emphasis on the terms ‘grace and nature, virtue and passion’ developed in Eloisa to Abelard, and the second the note to Book XVII of the Iliad (n.5) which refers the contrasting temperaments of Achilles and Patroclus to the balancing of contrary principles within the scheme of Providence. In either case the links may perhaps appear limited or superficial; in fact, however, they express two facets of Pope's thinking which were developed consistently through his works and which became central to the Essay on Man in particular—the striving towards a form of moral idealism, and a strong imaginative interest in the concept of harmony through the reconciliation of opposites, the discordia concors. When Pope came to develop his theories on human nature within the optimistic framework of the...
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SOURCE: “Pope on the Origins of Society,” in The Enduring Legacy: Alexander Pope Tercentenary Essays, edited by G. S. Rousseau and Pat Rogers, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 79-93.
[In the following essay, Erskine-Hill discusses the political character of the third epistle of An Essay on Man, tracing the influence of contemporary debates, literary antecedents, and Bolingbroke on Pope's interpretation of the origins of society and government.]
Most readers agree that Pope's poetry is comprehensively social, and few deny that, implicitly or explicitly, in a variety of ways, it is often political. It is then surprising that in the wave of critical and biographical discussion which has pursued the earlier volumes of the Twickenham Edition relatively little attention has been paid to Epistle III of An Essay on Man (May 1733), the one poem in Pope's canon in which he offers an account of the origin of society and the origin of government.1 For we may safely say of the eighteenth century, more than of our own time, that the quest for the origin of any given phenomenon was thought essential to the understanding of it. In the earlier eighteenth century, debate still continued concerning the origin of the English constitution, whether to be found among the Danes, Saxons, or even the British first encountered by the Romans in their conquest; while...
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SOURCE: “Trivializing An Essay on Man,” in The Rape of the Text: Reading and Misreading Pope's Essay on Man, University of Alabama Press, 1993, pp. 6-31.
[In the following essay, Solomon details the historical development of the critical consensus that now regards An Essay on Man as a fundamentally flawed work.]
If the question were asked, What ought to have been the best of Pope's poems?” Thomas De Quincey wrote, “most people would answer, the Essay on Man. If the question were asked, What is the worst? all people of judgement would say, the Essay on Man.”1 Ours must be an age of judgment, for the current consensus is indisputable: An Essay on Man is fundamentally flawed. The textbook of eighteenth-century British literature most frequently used in American universities concludes: “To write sustainedly on Man in prose … calls for powers that few poets possess, and from the start Pope had to face his deficiencies as an exact philosopher. An Essay on Man, then, could never be more than a partial success.”2 Although the poem contains isolated passages of great power, Leopold Damrosch, Jr., writes in 1987, it “never quite becomes a great poem.”3 These and a plenitude of similar pronouncements are the most recent reinscriptions of a consensus developed two centuries earlier.
The development of...
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Mack, Maynard. Alexander Pope: A Life. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995, 975 p.
Comprehensive treatment of Pope's life and career, placing his writings in the context of “feelings, personalities, and events which precipitated them.”
Damrosch, Leopold, Jr. “Psychology” and “Religion and Metaphysics.” In The Imaginative World of Alexander Pope, pp. 139-59, 160-91. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Thematic study of contemporaneous psychological, religious, and metaphysical ideas that informed Pope's works, particularly focusing on An Essay on Man.
Griffin, Dustin H. “‘Ourselves To Know’: The Poet in An Essay on Man.” In Alexander Pope: The Poet in the Poems, pp. 127-64. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1978.
Posits that the self-expressive passages of An Essay on Man reveal Pope's implicit self-consciousness towards his own rhetoric and philosophical viewpoints.
Leranbaum, Miriam. “An Essay on Man.” In Alexander Pope's ‘Opus Magnum’ 1729-1744, pp. 38-63. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
Examines An Essay on Man as the first stage of a planned large, more ambitious philosophical treatise on humankind and focuses on how Pope modeled the...
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