Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) (Encyclopedia of Psychology)
U.S. federal legislation (PL 101-336; 42 U.S.C. 12101) enacted in 1990 and designed to prohibit certain forms of discrimination against individuals with disabilities.
In 1990, approximately 40 million Americans could be classified as having one or more physical or mental disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted to legally address the widespread and serious social problem of discrimination against these individuals in employment, housing, public accommodations, education, transportation, communication, public service, and other areas. In addition to establishing enforceable standards in reference to discrimination against individuals with disabilities and ensuring that the federal government enforces those standards, the intent of this legislation was to provide a clear national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities and to allow these individuals into the economic and social mainstream of American life.
See also Disability
Bowe, Frank. Equal Rights for Americans with Disabilities. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
(The entire section is 149 words.)
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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Encyclopedia of Small Business)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a revolutionary piece of legislation designed to protect the civil rights of people who have physical and mental disabilities, in a manner similar to that in which previous civil rights laws have protected people of various races, religions, and ethnic backgrounds. The ADA mandates changes in the way that both private businesses and the government conduct business to ensure that all Americans have full access to and can fully participate in every aspect of society. The ADA requires the removal of barriers that deny individuals with disabilities equal opportunity and access to jobs, public accommodations, government services, public transportation, and telecommunications. The law applies to small companies as well as to large ones, so small business owners must be aware of its provisions and how they affect their companies'employment practices, facilities, and products. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is the federal agency charged with enforcing the various aspects of the ADA.
It is estimated that 43 million Americans, or one out of every five, have a disability. As defined in the ADA, the term "disability" applies to three categories of individuals: 1) people who have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; 2) people who have a record of an impairment which substantially limits major life activities; and 3) people who may be regarded by others as having such an impairment. For an employee or job applicant to be protected by the ADA, an individual must be "disabled" in or more of the above manners, be "otherwise qualified" for the position, and be able to perform the essential functions of the job, "with or without accommodation."
PROVISIONS OF THE ADA
President George H. Bush signed the ADA into law on July 26, 1990. The legal structure of the ADA is based on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The ADA uses concepts of disability, accessibility, and employment which were introduced in the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. These two federal laws were the predecessors of the ADA that mandated a level of accessibility in federally funded buildings and programs. The ADA expanded the requirements of accessibility to the new and existing facilities of privately funded companies for the first time.
The ADA consists of five separate parts or titles: Title I relates to employment; Title II concerns public services; Title III pertains to public accommodations and commercial facilities; Title IV refers to telecommunications; and Title V covers miscellaneous other items.
Title I of the ADA prohibits discrimination in employment against qualified individuals with disabilities. For companies with 25 or more employees, the requirements became effective on July 26, 1992. For employers with between 15 and 24 workers, the requirements became effective on July 26, 1994.
Title II of the ADA prohibits discrimination in programs, services, or activities of public entities (state and local governments), including public transportation operated by public entities. The provisions of Title II which do not involve public transportation became effective on January 26, 1992.
Title III, pertaining to public accommodations and commercial facilities, requires that private businesses that are places of "public accommodation"ncluding restaurants, health clubs, department stores, convenience stores and specialty shops, and hotels and motelsllow individuals with disabilities to participate equally in the goods and services that they offer. This title also requires that all future construction of commercial facilitiesncluding office buildings, factories, and warehousesnd places of public accommodation be constructed so that the building is accessible to individuals with disabilities.
Title III also mandates modifications in policies, practices, and procedures. Commercial businesses and places of public accomodation are required to provide auxiliary aids and services, and to make accessible transportation available when transportation services are offered. In addition, companies are required to remove architectural and communications barriers and to comply with ADA in any ongoing or new construction. The Act stipulates that all fixed-route or on-demand transportation servicesuch as hotel-to-airport and other shuttle servicese accessible to persons in wheelchairs and other disabled individuals.
Title IV of the ADA requires telephone companies to make relay services available for persons with hearing and speech impairments.
Title V ties the ADA to the Civil Rights Act of 1974 and its amendments. It includes a variety of miscellaneous legal and technical provisions, including one that stipulates that the ADA does not override or limit the remedies, rights, or procedures of any federal, state, or local law which provides greater or equal protection for the rights of individuals with disabilities.
The ADA draws an important distinction between the terms "reasonable accommodations" and "readily achievable." For small businesses and other employers, no modifications to their facilities must be undertaken to fulfill the requirements of the ADA until a qualified individual with a disability has been hired. At that point, "reasonable accommodations" must be made unless they impose a significant difficulty or expense. In contrast, the terminology "readily achievable" refers to business obligations to clients or guests and applies to actions that can be accomplished without much difficulty or expense. "Readily achievable" modifications must be made in anticipation of a disabled guest's or client's needs, before they ever arrive on the premises.
Compliance with the various provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act also lies with both landlord and tenant, so either or both party may be held legally liable for violations of the ADA. Assignation of ADA responsibilities is generally made via the lease agreement. Small business owners who lease their office space or other place of business, then, should examine these agreements closely.
THE ADA AND THE MENTALLY DISABLED
The fastest-growing area of legal activity relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act concerns mentally disabled employees. Claims that businesses failed to accommodate their employees'psychological problems according to the provisions of the ADA nearly doubled between 1998 and 1999 alone, and they account for 15-20 percent of all ADA claims received by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This percentage may grow even larger in future years. Under the original language of the ADA, the Act applied a higher standard for legal redress to individuals whose disabilities stemmed from "any mental or psychological disorder." But legislative efforts to eliminate this higher standard have intensified in recent years.
Problems associated with mentally disabled employees may include workplace socialization difficulties, limited stamina, irregular attendance, difficulty dealing with stress or criticism, and limited attention spans. But many experts in both the mental health and business fields insist that the mentally disabled can be valuable additions to the workforce if companies provide appropriate accommodations.
One valuable tool that business owners and managers can utilize in establishing and maintaining a productive work environment for mentally disabled employees is the EEOC Enforcement Guidance, a comprehensive legal guidebook issued in 1997. As Business Horizons points out, the Guidance stipulates that "traits or behaviors are not, in themselves, mental impairments. This means that stress does not automatically indicate a mental impairment, although it may be a symptom. Similarly, such traits as irritability, chronic lateness, and poor judgement are not, in themselves, mental impairments, although they may be linked to them." Legitimate mental disabilities do, however, include major depression, bipolar disorder, various anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and special learning disorders.
Under the ADA, companies employing mentally disabled individuals are not responsible for every aspect of the employees'behavior. For instance, they are not required to relieve employees of work responsibilities or excuse them from violations of established work policies. Nor are they required to employ workers who are deemed a safety threat. Moreover, employers are not legally responsibile for mental disabilities of which they are unaware.
But employers are required under ADA law to make "reasonable accommodations" for mentally disabled employees. These may include leaves of absence; minor modifications in work policy, supervision, or job position; or flexible work schedules. "Although the nature or form of accommodation is up to the employer, and is only 'reasonable'if it helps the employee do a better job, in some instances the employer might wish to consider professional assistance in the communication process," wrote Robert Schwartz, Frederick Post, and Jack Simonetti in Business Horizons. "Managers should also verify that the condition qualifies as a psychiatric disability and whether the person can perform the job's essential functions with or without accommodation. Management can request reasonable documentation from a health care professional about the disability and the need for accommodations."
Compliance with the ADA's mental disability provisions can help companies retain productive employees and protect themselves from legal peril. But "even beyond mere compliance, socially responsible businesses may elect to embrace these legal mandates as changes that advance the common good of society," noted Schwartz, Post, and Simonetti. "By doing so, they would be helping millions of mentally ill citizens become gainfully employed and saving society billions of government dollars spent supporting the presently unemployed mentally ill."
THE ADA IN PRACTICE
Since the Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law in 1990, its provisions, enforcement measures, and effectiveness have all come under scrutiny. Supporters have credited the ADA with improving the quality of life of millions of disabled citizens and opening new economic opportunities for disabled workers across the nation. In addition, C.C. Sullivan noted in Building Design and Construction that "the landmark civil rights law changed the way U.S. businesses and institutions understand the rights and abilities of disabled citizens." But Sullivan also voiced a common lament among business owners and managers that "the ADA's open-ended, murky language has been a decade-long minefield of confusion and litigation." Indeed, even supporters of the Act admit that efforts to clarify various provisions of the ADAow underwayre needed to reduce litigation.
Critics of the ADAn its current incarnation at leastlso note that employment among people with disabilities was lower in the late 1990s, a period of great economic expansion in the United States, than it was when it was passed in 1990. In early 2000 the unemployment rate among disabled Americans stood at approximately 30 percent, more than six times higher than the nation's overall unemployment rate.
Some observers attribute these statistics, however, to lax ADA compliance and enforcements efforts by federal agencies charged with seeing that the Act's provisions are carried out. In 2000, for instance, the federal National Council on Disability (NCD) issued a report claiming that this alleged poor performance could be traced to inadequate funding of the agencies in question and an "over-cautious" approach on the part of their investigating arms.
Allen, Jeffrey G. Complying with the ADA: A Small Business Guide to Hiring and Employing the Disabled. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
The Americans with Disabilities Actitle II Technical Assistance Manual. Office on the Americans with Disabilities Act, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice.
DeLeire, Thomas. "The Unintended Consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act." Regulation. Winter 2000.
"Finding Mediation for ADA Disputes." Dallas Business Journal. September 8, 2000.
Hofius, Julie. "Guidelines Define Discrimination Against the Disabled." Tampa Bay Business Journal. September 8, 2000.
Hoogesteger, John. "Barriers Remain, But Some are Falling." Minneapolis-St. Paul CityBusiness. July 28, 2000.
Leonard, Bill. "New Report Criticizes ADA Enforcement Efforts." HRMagazine. September 2000.
"Navigating the ADA and Disability Maze." HR Focus. July 2000.
Premo, Brenda. "Has Americans with Disabilities Act Done Any Good?" San Francisco Business Times. August 18, 2000.
Promises to Keep: A Decade of Federal Enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act. National Council on Disability, 2000.
Saimen, John P.S. Accommodating All Guests: The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Lodging Industry. American Hotel & Motel Association. Washington: December 1992.
Schwartz, Robert H. "The ADA and the Mentally Disabled: What Must Firms Do?" Business Horizons. July 2000.
Sullivan, C.C. "ADA's Contentious Decade." Building Design and Construction. September 2000.
SEE ALSO: Disabled Customers
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Encyclopedia of Business)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a revolutionary piece of civil rights legislation. The law is designed to protect the civil rights of people who have physical and mental disabilities, in a manner similar to the way that previous civil rights laws have protected people who are of various races, religions, and ethnic backgrounds. The ADA mandates changes in the way that both private businesses and the government conduct employment practices and provide products and services to the general public to ensure that all Americans have full access to, and can fully participate in, all aspects of society. It was the first federal law that required privately financed businesses to provide physical accessibility in existing buildings. The ADA requires the removal of barriers that deny individuals with disabilities equal opportunity and access to jobs, public accommodations, government services, public transportation, and telecommunications.
THE ADA'S LEGAL STRUCTURE
On July 26, 1990, President George Bush signed the ADA into law. The legal structure of the ADA is based on that of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and much of its wording is taken directly from these earlier acts.
The ADA uses concepts of disability, accessibility, and employment that were introduced in the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. These two federal laws anticipated the ADA by mandating a level of accessibility in federally funded buildings and programs. The concepts of "Reasonable Accommodation" and "Undue Burdens," which are found in Title I and Title III of the ADA came from Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act. The concept of "Program Accessibility" using changes in services, policies, or programs to provide equal access came from Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. The ADA extends these service concepts to all state and local facilities and programs in Title II, and to private businesses in Title III. The architectural accessibility provisions of Title III extend to commercial buildings, including studios, factories, office buildings, and warehouses that are not open to the public.
It is estimated that one of every five Americans has a disability. The ability of such people to participate in the mainstream of society has gradually increased during the last 30 years as a result of improvements in assistive technology and auxiliary aids and services, as well as expanding requirements for accessibility in newly constructed facilities. As defined in the ADA, the term "disability" has a three-part definition:
- people who have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity;
- people who have a record of an impairment which substantially limits major life activities; and
- people who may be regarded by others as having such an impairment.
The ADA consists of five separate parts or titles: Title Imployment; Title IIublic Services; Title IIIublic Accommodations and Commercial Facilities; Title IVelecommunications; and Title Viscellaneous.
TITLE 1. EMPLOYMENT.
Prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities with regard to employment. The act provides individuals with protection from discriminatory treatment arising from corporate activities and policies governing the recruitment, hiring, training, promotion, pay, job assignment, leaves of absence, benefits, and social programs. For employers with 25 or more employees, the requirements became effective on July 26, 1992. For employers with 15 to 24 employees, the requirements became effective on July 26, 1994.
TITLE II. PUBLIC SERVICES.
Prohibits discrimination in programs, services, or activities of public entities (state and local governments), including public transportation operated by public entities. The provisions of Title II that do not involve public transportation became effective on January 26, 1992.
TITLE Ill. PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND COMMERCIAL FACILITIES.
Requires that private businesses that are open to the publicncluding restaurants, department stores, convenience stores and specialty shops, and hotels and motelsllow individuals with disabilities to participate equally in the goods and services that they offer. This title also requires that all future commercial facilities, including office buildings, factories, warehouses, as well as places of public accommodation, be constructed so that they are accessible to individuals with disabilities.
Title III also mandates modifications in policies, practices, and procedures; the provision of auxiliary aids and services; the provision of accessible transportation services when transportation services are offered; and the removal of architectural and communications barriers. As of August 26, 1990, all newly ordered or leased vehicles for fixed route systems with 17 seats or more (including the driver) must be accessible; this includes accessibility to persons in wheelchairs.
As of January 26,1992, fixed route or on-demand transportation services when viewed as a whole must be accessible. This includes accessibility to persons in wheelchairs, and encompasses hotel to airport shuttles and similar shuttle services.
As of the same date, existing places of public accommodation must modify policies, practices, and procedures; they must provide auxiliary aids and services; and they must remove certain architectural and communications barriers, where readily achievable.
Also as of January 26, 1992, alteration for which construction began must meet the applicable requirements of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines, regardless of the permit or permit application date.
As of January 26, 1993, new facilities designed and constructed for first occupancy after this date must comply with Title III requirements.
TITLE IV. TELECOMMUNICATIONS.
Requires telephone companies to make relay services available for persons with hearing and speech impairments. This provides equal opportunity for people with speech or hearing impairments to use telephone services. The requirements became effective on July 26, 1993, for provision of operator relay services.
TITLE V. MISCELLANEOUS.
Ties the ADA to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its amendments. It includes a variety of legal and technical provisions, including a provision that stipulates that the ADA does not override or limit the remedies, rights, or procedures of any federal, state, or local law which provides greater or equal protection for the rights of individuals with disabilities.
A few of the key terms and definitions in the ADA are "Public Accommodation," "Reasonable Accommodations," and "Readily Achievable." As defined in the ADA, the term "Public Accommodation" refers to any private place of business that is open to the public for the sale or lease of goods and services. The act lists 12 general categories of public accommodation:
- places of lodging;
- places serving food or drink;
- places of exhibition and/or entertainment;
- places of public gathering;
- sales or rental establishments;
- service establishments;
- stations used for specified public transportation;
- places of public display or collection;
- places of recreation;
- places of education;
- social service center establishments; and
- places of exercise or recreation.
As defined in the ADA, there are two types of action employers or public places must undertake for people with disabilities: "Reasonable Accommodations" and "Readily Achievable." "Reasonable Accommodations" has to do with employees, and no modifications must be undertaken to fulfill the "Reasonable Accommodations" requirement until a qualified individual with a disability has been hired." Reasonable Accommodations" must be made unless they impose a significant difficulty or expense. "Readily Achievable" has to do with clients or guests. The term means easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. "Readily Achievable" modifications must be made in anticipation of a disabled guest's or client's needs, before they ever arrive on the premises.
THE ADA IN PRACTICE
In the years since the ADA came into effect, accessibility of public places and businesses to people with disabilities has increased significantly. The act has also enabled people with disabilities to mount legal challenges against what they feel is discriminatory treatment in the workplace. Despite these advances, the ADA has also spawned controversy, and in some cases has conflicted with earlier statutes.
To some degree, the ADA has come into conflict with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA), despite an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Technical Assistance Manual directive that "if a standard is required by another federal law, an employer must comply with it and does not have to show that the standard is job related and consistent with business necessity." The conflict can arise in cases where employees' physical disabilities place them in dangerous situations in the workplace. Under ADA guidelines, an employer would not be able to shift the employee to a safer position, an action that would in fact be mandated by the OSHA. Employers have struggled to grapple with this apparent contradiction by working with their employees to either alter workplace conditions to ensure the safety of disabled workers or find equivalent and mutually acceptable employment in safer conditions for disabled workers.
ADA guidelines can also contradict those of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). ERISA allows employers to exclude, or limit the insurance benefits available to, employees with certain disabling conditions. Since ADA mandates that individuals cannot be discriminated against due to their disabilities, corporate insurance plans that are legal under ERISA can be illegal under the ADA. The EEOC responded to this contradiction by requiring employers to first show compliance with ERISA, and then prove that any disability based distinction in its insurance and benefits plans is not a "subterfuge" to avoid compliance with ADA. To prove absence of subterfuge, employers must show that any disability-based distinctions in the provision of insurance and benefits is based on "legitimate actuarial data" or "reasonably anticipated experience," and that conditions with similar actuarial data are treated equivalently. Employers can also prove absence of subterfuge if they can show that any distinctions made in insurance and benefits provisions are necessary to avoid an "unacceptable change" in insurance coverage or premiums. Despite these guidelines, many employers and insurance companies worry that advances in medical science and assistive technology may render existing actuarial data obsolete, leaving them open to litigation under the ADA even though their insurance and benefits policies were originally in compliance with the act.
State workers' compensation laws also come into conflict with the provisions of the ADA. Job-related injuries of a permanent or long-term nature can be considered disabilities under the ADA, and in such cases employers are required by the act to undertake any accommodations necessary to allow disabled workers to return to their jobs. Furthermore, employers that use health screening to identify injury-prone job candidates may be in violation of the ADA, despite the long-standing use of such screening to reduce workers' compensation and OSHA liabilities.
Finally, the ADA can contradict National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) guidelines for industrial relations. For instance, employer attempts to make reasonable accommodation for disabled employees may come into conflict with NLRA requirements for collective bargaining in any case involving changes in the terms and conditions of employment. Despite EEOC attempts to clarify this situation, it is still unclear whether or not employer actions to provide reasonable accommodation for disabled workers must first be approved through collective bargaining.
Confusion has also arisen regarding the definition of a disability as set forth in the ADA. Most notably, the limited mental health coverage offered by many employee insurance policies has been challenged as discriminatory under the ADA. While no such cases have reached the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati, Ohio, ruled in 1997 that employee insurance policies that offer differing benefits for physical and mental disabilities may be in violation of the ADA.
Similarly, many individuals have advocated extension of the ADA's definition of disability to include obesity. Although employers maintain that obesity should not qualify as a disability due to its essentially voluntary nature, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit ruled in the 1994 case of Cook v. State of Rhode Island that obesity does constitute a disability under ADA, even when such obesity results from purely nonphysiological causes. In the court's opinion, since individuals with conditions such as emphysema and cardiopulmonary disease are guaranteed equal treatment by insurance providers by the ADA, and since these conditions often arise as the result of a voluntary habit, namely smoking, the voluntary component of obesity does not remove individuals suffering from the condition from the protection of the ADA.
While defining exactly which conditions constitute disabilities has proven problematic in enforcing the ADA, the definition of an employer under the act has also aroused controversy. Court rulings in the mid 1990s expanded the definition of employers under the act to include voluntary associations, such as labor unions, professional associations, health insurance providers, and other organizations offering group benefits to their members.
In 1994 the U.S. District Court in New Hampshire ruled that companies that provide group health insurance policies to other companies and organizations must be considered employers under the ADA, and that, as such, their policies must adhere to ADA strictures against discrimination due to physical disability. This ruling specifically applied to people with HIV and AIDS, who had been excluded from certain insurance benefits because of their condition. This ruling was confirmed and expanded in the June 1998 case of Bragdon v. Abbott, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a dentist who refused to perform an in-office cavity filling for a patient with AIDS violated that patient's rights under the ADA, despite the dentist's willingness to perform the procedure in a hospital setting (albeit at greater cost to the patient).
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit also ruled in October 1994 that trade associations offering group benefit and insurance packages could be considered employers under the ADA. The denial of benefits to the heirs of a person with AIDS spawned the lawsuit.
In a highly publicized 1998 case, professional golfer Casey Martin, a victim of a circulatory ailment that renders him incapable of walking a golf course, successfully sought exemption under the ADA from Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) rules barring players in competitive events from using carts. In this case the courts ruled that the PGA, a professional association, did qualify as an employer under the ADA, and that to allow Martin to use a cart would constitute reasonable accommodation of his disability.
The confusing nature of certain conditions and requirements set forth in the ADA, and its conflicts with existing statutes and regulations, has made the act the subject of widespread litigation. By 1994 approximately 50 percent of cases pursued under the ADA arose from allegations of discriminatory discharge from employment. A further 23 percent of ADA charges brought to trial arose from allegations of failure by employers to provide reasonable accommodation to employees with disabilities; notable among these cases was that of Harmer v. Virginia Electric and Power Co., in which the courts held that an employer was not obliged to make an entire floor of its offices smoke-free to reasonably accommodate an employee with asthma. Allegations of discrimination in hiring accounted for 13 percent of cases brought under the ADA through 1994, cases arising from allegations of disability-based harassment spawned 10 percent of ADA cases, and allegations of benefits-related discrimination represented the remaining 4 percent of ADA cases brought during the period.
While the exact scope and nature of the ADA was hammered out in the courts, challenges to the legal validity of the act were also mounted. In 1994 International House of Pancakes (IHOP), a national restaurant chain, challenged a lower court ruling requiring the company to renovate an existing outlet in San Diego to make it accessible to people with physical disabilities. In presenting its case, the company argued that the U.S. Congress had overstepped its constitutional authority in passing the ADA, which places tangible obligations on private companies. The case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, which dismissed IHOP's claims.
A second, more subtle challenge to the ADA was mounted in 1996 by the First Colony Life Insurance Co., which was originally sued in 1995 by an individual with HIV who claimed that the company, in violation of the ADA, refused to provide him with a life insurance policy because of his condition. The company responded that the ADA did not apply in the case, but rather could only be applied to instances in which an employer denied an individual "physical access to, or equal enjoyment of" any of its facilities. First Colony's claims were denied, however, on the grounds that the ADA defies narrow interpretation given its broad mandate to "address the major areas of discrimination faced day-to day by people with disabilities."
Throughout its brief history, the Americans with Disabilities Act has created consternation among the business community and aroused controversy regarding the exact nature and correct accommodation of physical and mental disabilities. The sheer number of court cases arising under the act proves its usefulness, and court interpretations of the act and its mandate have ensured that the civil rights of people with disabilities relating to public areas and the workplace will continue to receive heightened protection.
SEE ALSO: AIDS in the Workplace; Civil Rights Act of 1991
[Susan Bard Hall,
updated by Grant Eldridge]
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