Vaca, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca 1490-c. 1557
Spanish explorer and chronicler.
Cabeza de Vaca is remembered by students of American history as the first European to set foot in the interior of what would become the states of Florida, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The Relación, his account of the eight years he spent traveling on foot across North America as one of only four survivors of a Spanish expedition of nearly 500 men, has long been a primary source for historians and anthropologists interested in Native American life and customs before contact with white civilization. While the Relación is not regarded as among the greatest literary chronicles of Spanish exploration and conquest in the New World, its sympathetic portrayal of native peoples and subtle yet penetrating condemnation of Spanish savagery and greed make it one of the most unique.
Cabeza de Vaca was born in 1490 in the Spanish town of Jerez de la Frontera, near the port at San Lúcar de Barrameda, from where Magellan sailed in 1519 to become the first man to circumnavigate the globe. It was from San Lúcar de Barrameda that Cabeza de Vaca was to begin his first adventure in 1527. Cabeza de Vaca's family had a long history of illustrious service to Spanish royalty. His paternal grandfather, Pedro de Vera, had been one of the major figures in the Spanish conquest of the Canary Islands, and his mother's family had earned royal favor along with the unusual title “Cabeza de Vaca” (literally “head of the cow”) when a peasant ancestor aided a Spanish victory against the Moors in 1212 by marking an unguarded path with the skull of a cow.
There is no record that Cabeza de Vaca had any university education, and while in his teens he began a career in the military. In 1512 he saw action in the Battle of Ravenna, in which 20,000 soldiers died forcing the French to leave Italy. His service to the Duke of Medina Sidonia and to Charles V in several civil wars over the next ten years brought him greater military distinction and a promotion to lieutenant. Little else is known of Cabeza de Vaca until 1527, when he was appointed treasurer and second in command to Pámfilo de Narváez, in an expedition to conquer the recently discovered land of Florida. On June 17, 1527, Cabeza de Vaca and nearly 500 men set sail. He did not return to Spain until 1537, one of only four men from the entire expedition to survive storms, shipwreck, disease, starvation, attacks from Native Americans, and the blundering decisions of Narváez, and the only member to return to Spain. Upon his return he gave an official report to the Spanish king of what he had witnessed as the first European to have traversed nearly 5,000 miles of the interior of the North American continent. Five years later Cabeza de Vaca published his account of these adventures as the Relación.
Perhaps because of his experience with Narváez, Cabeza refused the following year to return to Florida as second in command in De Soto's expedition to conquer the lands and peoples of Florida. In 1540 the King made Cabeza de Vaca the governor of Río de la Plata, a province roughly comparable to present-day Paraguay. The explorer left Spain in November 1540 and landed in Brazil the following March. His records of his governorship and two marches—each traversing over a thousand miles through unexplored South American jungle—before his men mutinied and returned him to Spain in 1543 as a prisoner, were published together with his North American chronicle in 1555 as the Comentarios.
After being forced to return to Spain in 1543, Cabeza de Vaca spent many of his final years defending his South American actions in court. After years of trials and appeals, he was stripped of his honorary titles, sentenced to banishment from the New World, and condemned to eight years of exile in North Africa. In addition he was sued by many investors in the South American expedition who were unable to recoup their financial losses. Although his exile to Africa was eventually withdrawn, Cabeza de Vaca was effectively bankrupt from the costs of his trial. Some scholars have suggested that the explorer died forgotten and penniless; others believe that the Spanish King took pity on him and granted him a pension and new honorary titles. The exact date of his death is also a matter of debate; it is generally accepted that he died somewhere between 1556 and 1564.
Cabeza de Vaca wrote and published two works. The first, the Relación (also known as Naufragios or Shipwrecks), was published in 1542 and retells in harrowing detail the many ill-fated adventures that doomed the Narváez expedition to failure and the eventual death of all but four of the original crew of 500 men. The narrative is the first work by a European to offer details of North American species such as the buffalo, opossum, armadillo, and Gila monster; to recount the terrible fury of a Caribbean hurricane; and to bear witness to the lives of Native Americans.
Beginning with their departure from Spain in June 1527, Cabeza de Vaca describes how the men eventually arrived on the western coast of Florida near present-day Tampa Bay, but not before nearly a hundred men either deserted the ship or died in tropical hurricanes while wintering in Cuba. Despite Cabeza de Vaca's warnings, expedition leader Pámfilo de Narváez decided to march with the majority of his men up the Florida peninsula while their supply ships followed them by hugging the coast. Within months, however, the men lost contact with the ships, and, short of provisions, began to die of starvation and tropical diseases. To make matters worse they were continually attacked by coastal Indian tribes. Deciding that their only chance of survival was to sail west toward what they believed was New Spain, the surviving 250 men fashioned five crude rafts and set sail from the Florida coast. Several of the boats sank when they were pushed far out to sea as they passed the area where the Mississippi River empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Cabeza de Vaca's raft with several dozen men managed to land on the eastern coast of present-day Texas. Gradually their numbers were reduced to just four men—Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso Castillo, Andrés Dorantes, and Dorantes' African slave, Estevanico, all of whom figure prominently in the written account. The bulk of the book describes how the four were capturerd and enslaved by Indians in Texas, their attempts to escape, and the turn of events that led from their enslavement to positions of high honor among their captors as the foreigners gained reputations as divine healers. The book then traces the long march across Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, down through Sonora, Mexico, concluding as Cabeza de Vaca and his comrades are greeted as heroes by the Spanish viceroy in Mexico City in 1536. The influence of Cabeza de Vaca's tale of suffering, privation, and spiritual awakening has been enduring. Inspired by de Vaca's allusions to fabulous riches, expeditions led by De Soto and Coronado soon returned to Florida and the desert Southwest to conquer the land and its people as they searched for the mythical golden cities of Cibola.
Arriving back in Spain in 1537, Cabeza de Vaca delivered a report of the years in North America co-written by himself, Dorantes and Castillo known as the Joint Report to the Spanish King and government. Although the original report has been lost, a version of it was published by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdéz in 1539.
Cabeza de Vaca's second major work, the Comentarios, was published in 1555 and included a newly edited version of his North American account as well as a much more lengthy description of the three years he spent as leader of an expedition to restore peace and Spanish rule in the South American province that would become Paraguay. Concerned that his predecessor as governor of the region had been murdered by Native Americans, Cabeza de Vaca tells how he decided it would be faster to march overland from Brazil rather than sailing all the way around the southern tip of the continent to reach his destination. The five-month journey through what was believed to be impenetrable forest is described in great detail, as is another march the following year in search of one of the golden cities of Cibola. The marches take a great toll on his men, and he is forced to halt his second expedition after his men refuse to walk any further. A few months later, a full mutiny against his leadership erupts in large part because many of the Spanish resent his protection of Native Americans against their own financial interests. Cabeza de Vaca's tale comes to a close as he is returned to his homeland in chains.
Cabeza de Vaca's reports of his travels and suffering in strange, new lands had enough popular appeal to be regularly reprinted in Spanish and translated in 1556 into Italian. However, they did not garner much attention in the rest of Europe or North America until the middle of the nineteenth century, when they were translated into French, German, and English. Several English translations in the twentieth century made the Relación available for historians and anthropologists in the United States who found in the accounts of his long overland trek across the desert Southwest valuable descriptions of flora, fauna, and Native American customs. Much of recent scholarship on the Relación has been concerned with attempting to determine the explorer's exact route based on geographical clues in the work. Other scholars have examined differences between the accounts given in the Joint Report, the 1542 version of the Relación, and the 1555 version in the Commentarios, and they have debated whether Cabeza de Vaca may have fabricated elements of his narrative either to please his king or to increase his own prestige. Cabeza de Vaca's account of his years in South America has been largely ignored by English critics and historians; the complete Commentarios have never be translated into English.
Over the last forty years, Cabeza de Vaca's Relación has been gaining increasing critical attention for its literary merits. While it is clear from the frequent misspellings and grammatical mistakes that Cabeza de Vaca was no polished writer, the subtle way the author appeals to the king (to whom the book is addressed) for mercy and for compassion for Native Americans has been regarded as skillful. Critics have also praised the story's pacing and its mood of tension and excitement. Themes of spiritual transformation in the Relación have also been examined; Cyclone Covey and Peter Wild, for example, have stressed the work's underlying Christian ethic. While much of this attention has tended to focus on Cabeza de Vaca's unusual sympathy for Native Americans and the implicit argument that Spanish dominion will be better achieved by practicing a loving Christianity than by conquest, there is also a growing segment who see in the Relación the seeds of modern fiction in general and American literature in particular. William T. Pinkerton has argued that Cabeza de Vaca's narrative may be seen as the “prototype” of much of modern American literature with its preoccupation with “the voyage of exploration, of physical and spiritual discovery, the journey into the interior, in which the dominant figure is man isolated—alone in the wilderness, alone with himself.”
*La relacíon que dio Aluar nuñez cabeça de vaca de lo acaescido en las Indias en la armada donde yua por gouernador Pãphilo de narbaez desde el año de veynte y siete hasta el año d'treynta y seys que boluio a Seuilla con tres de su compañi (narrative) 1542
†La relacion y comentarios del gouernador Aluar nuñez cabeça de vaca, de lo acaescido en las dos jornadas que hizo a las Indias (narrative) 1555
*This work is commonly called the Relación, and is also known as Naufragios (Shipwrecks).
†This work is commonly called the Commentarios and contains an edited version of the Relación together with an account of Cabeza de Vaca's adventures in South America.
(The entire section is 124 words.)
SOURCE: “Nuñez Cabeza De Vaca: Alvar,” in The Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794: An Annotated Bibliography, Part I, Arno Press, 1967, pp. 42-50.
[In the following excerpt from a work originally published in 1937, Wagner cautions against looking at the Relación as an accurate historical document because it appears that many sections were added later by editors hoping to increase book sales and also because the explorer's apparent reticence in describing the land and resources was designed to prevent further exploration that would interfere with his own dreams of personal glory and fortune.]
The first person to attack the general credibility of [Cabeza de Vaca] was Judge Bethel Coopwood in his interesting series of articles [“The Route of Cabeza de Vaca in Texas,” Texas Historical Quarterly III (October 1899, January 1900, April 1900), pp. 108-140, 177-208, 229-264; IV (July 1900), pp. 1-32]. In these he maintains that Cabeza de Vaca never got to Sonora at all, but that the narrative was written up in Mexico to suit the designs of the viceroy. He thinks that they really entered the Spanish settlements east of the mountains, and argues his point well. The only support that I have ever found for Judge Coopwood's position is the statement in López de Velasco that they came out “por los Zacatecas.” Nevertheless, it seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that Cabeza de Vaca and his...
(The entire section is 2652 words.)
SOURCE: “The Ordeal of Cabeza de Vaca,” in American Heritage, Vol. 12, No. 1, December 1960, pp. 32-7; 78-82.
[In the following essay, McGann recounts the major adventures of Cabeza de Vaca as described in the Relación]
A crude boat carrying forty exhausted Spaniards drifted close to the long Texas beach. “Near dawn it seemed to me that the tumbling roar of the sea could be heard. Surprised, I called the boatswain and he replied that we were near the coast. We sounded and found ourselves in seven fathoms. It seemed to the boatswain that we ought to keep to sea until sunrise and I took an oar and pulled on the land side until we were a league off-shore. Then we turned the stern to the sea. Near the land a breaker took and threw the boat the cast of a horseshoe out of the water. With the violent blow almost all the men, who were like dead, came to themselves and seeing the beach near they began to climb from the boat and crawl on hands and knees to some ravines where we made fire and toasted some corn that we had brought and drank some rain water that we found. The heat of the fire restored the men and they began somewhat to exert themselves. The day that we arrived here was the sixth of the month of November.” The year was 1528.
Thus Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca of Jerez, treasurer of the ill-fated Narváez expedition, which had set out from Spain in June, 1527, with five ships...
(The entire section is 6643 words.)
SOURCE: Preface to Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America, translated by Cyclone Covey, University of New Mexico Press, 1997, pp. 7-17.
[In the following preface to his 1961 translation of the Relación, Covey argues that the explorer's adventures are fascinating for more than their tales of survival and Native American customs, as they also show his transformation from a Spanish conquistador into a visionary whose compassion for native peoples would tragically be ignored by subsequent Spanish expeditions.]
This sixteenth-century odyssey of Cabeza de Vaca's is one of the great true epics of history. It is the semi-official report to the king of Spain by the ranking surviving officer of a royal expedition to conquer Florida which fantastically miscarried.
Four out of a land-force of 300 men—by wits, stamina and luck—found their way back to civilization after eight harrowing years and roughly 6,000 miles over mostly unknown reaches of North America. They were the first Europeans to see and live to report the interior of Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and northernmost Mexico; the 'possum and the buffalo; the Mississippi and the Pecos; pine-nut mash and mesquite-bean flour; and a long string of Indian Stone Age tribes. What these wanderers merely heard and surmised had just as great an effect on subsequent events as what they learned at first hand....
(The entire section is 3455 words.)
SOURCE: “Some Observations on the Style and Language of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca,” in Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: The Forgotten Chronicler, Ediciones Universal, 1975, pp. 125-27.
[In the following excerpt, Fernández praises the narrative quality and rich detail of the Relación,which he maintains amply compensate for the author's poor organization and lack of literary sophistication.]
THE “RELACION” AS NARRATIVE
As one of the earliest records of Spanish penetration into the North American continent, the Relación of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca has a certain literary value regardless of its style and form. This will be demosntrated below.
The Relación is not an example of stylistic perfection like the Florida of Garcilaso the Inca. The author of the Relación had a wealth of material and could have spun a fantastic tale, but it was not his intention to do do; Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was concerned with history and chronicle and that is what he wrote.
If one studies the Relación closely, one can conclude that Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was not an educated man. He probably had an average education for his day, in as much as he served as treasurer of the expedition and was appointed an ‘alguazil mayor.’ There is no record of any university attendance. Since we find many lapses in grammatical...
(The entire section is 1453 words.)
SOURCE: Epilogue to Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America, translated by Cyclone Covey, University of New Mexico Press, 1997, pp. 145-51.
[The following essay was first published in 1983 as an afterword appended to a reissue of Cyclone Covey's 1961 translation of the Relación. Pilkington argues that the literary importance of the Relación outweighs its historical significance, stressing that its racial themes, allegorical style, and parable of the human spirit have come to characterize American literature.]
“How shall a man endure the will of God and the days of the silence?” asks the narrator of Archibald MacLeish's poem Conquistador. This is the kind of riddle that Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca might have posed himself during the eight years he roamed the coastal marshes and mountains and deserts of what is now the American Southwest. Like the great conquerors he marched by “a king's name,” discovered a “famous country,” and suffered “unknown hardships.” But the only enemies he fought and subdued were his own body and will. Cabeza de Vaca's conquest lay in the realm of the spirit rather than that of territory and treasure.
The historical significance of Cabeza de Vaca's wanderings with three companions over six thousand miles and eight years cannot be doubted. The Spaniards' adventures in the uncharted lands to the north...
(The entire section is 2213 words.)
SOURCE: “Story vs. Discourse in the Chronicle of the Indies: Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca's Relacion,” in Hispanic Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Spring 1984, pp. 89-99.
[In the following essay, Dowling claims that one of the most interesting elements of the Relación is its tension between historical and fictional narrative.]
One of the most abundant types of Latin American Colonial writings, the chronicle of the Indies, has proven to be at the same time one of the most difficult for literary critics to approach.1 The purely historical approach preferred by historians, geographers, and ethnographers tends to pursue the referent while neglecting formal aspects. The formalistic or purely structuralistic analysis of the works may, on the other hand, prove equally unsatisfactory by failing to consider chronicles as documents that are, by definition, records of events that really took place. Hardly more satisfying is the treatment in which a lengthy discussion of a particular chronicle's referential aspects is followed by a separate section on “style” or “literary characteristics,” since this approach overlooks the tension between the chronicle's use of devices commonly associated with fiction and the reader's knowledge that what he is reading is not fiction but history. It is this tension that constitutes for the modern reader the definitive feature of chronicle...
(The entire section is 5082 words.)
SOURCE: Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Boise State University, 1991, pp. 1–51.
[In the following study, Wild argues that Cabeza de Vaca's account of the years he spent lost and near death in North America has many elements of the modern novel and that the explorer masterfully blends factual events with literary devices to win favor for himself and gain support for his conviction that Native Americans were more likely to be conquered with a loving Christianity than the conquistador's sword.]
Recounting his adventures on an unknown continent, Cabeza de Vaca passes on a story he heard in an Indian village:
They said that a little man wandered through the region whom they called Badthing [Mala Cosa]. He had a beard and they never saw his features distinctly. When he came to a house, the inhabitants trembled and their hair stood on end. A blazing brand would suddenly shine at the door as he rushed in and seized whom he chose, deeply gashing him in the side with a very sharp flint two palms long and a hand wide. He would thrust his hand through the gashes, draw out the entrails, cut a palm's length from one, and throw it on the embers. Then he would gash an arm three times, the second cut on the inside of the elbow, and would sever the limb. A little later he would begin to rejoin it, and the touch of his hands would...
(The entire section is 14847 words.)
SOURCE: “The Negotiation of Fear in Cabeza de Vaca's Naufragios,” in Representations, Vol. 33, Winter 1991, pp. 163-99.
[In the following essay, Adorno traces the evolution of Cabeza de Vaca from slave to shaman and argues that the most important theme of his narrative—namely the peace and resettlement the explorer initiated in lands devastated by earlier sadistic conquistadors—has been largely ignored by critics.]
When the Gentleman of Elvas begins his account of the expedition of Hernando de Soto to Florida, he tells how a certain hidalgo (nobleman) arrived at court after the concession to de Soto had been granted.1 This gentleman, “Cabeza de Vaca by name,” had survived the disastrous Pánfilo de Narváez expedition of 1527 to conquer “Florida,” the territory along the Gulf of Mexico coast that reached all the way from the Florida peninsula to the province of Pánuco (near present-day Tampico) in Mexico. Cabeza de Vaca now returned to Spain after years of hardship in the wilderness to seek the favor of the emperor. According to the Gentleman of Elvas, Cabeza de Vaca brought with him a written relación (relation), which said in some places, “Here I have seen this; and the rest which I saw I leave to confer of with His Majesty” (136). Whether this relation was one that narrated the fate of the expedition from its...
(The entire section is 17941 words.)
Martin A. Favata and José Fernández (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: Introduction to The Account: Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca's Relación, translated by Martin A. Favata and José Fernández, Arte Público Press, 1993, pp. 11-19.
[In the following essay, Favata and Fernández recount details fromCabeza de Vaca's life, his route through North America, and the literary qualities of his chronicle.]
During Spain's process of exploration and conquest in the Western Hemisphere, the chronicle, a traditional genre in Spanish literature, continued to be written by the participants in this enterprise. Many of these men were neither learned scholars nor creators of beauty; yet their chronicles are filled with creative power as well as valuable information.
Among these men was Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, the first Spaniard to traverse—on foot—a large portion of the recently discovered territory of North America. His journey (1528-1536) predates the expeditions of De Soto and of Coronado in what was later to be the United States. Cabeza de Vaca's odyssey of hardship and misfortune is one of the most remarkable in the history of the New World.
Cabeza de Vaca's journey resonated in history in several important ways. The mention of two advanced Indian cultures and possible riches to the North promoted two subsequent journeys. Soon after arriving in Mexico,...
(The entire section is 3606 words.)
SOURCE: Introduction to Castaways: The Narrative of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, edited by Enrique Pupo-Walker and translated by Frances M. López-Morillas, University of California Press, 1993, pp. xv-xxx; 139-40.
[In the following introduction to a 1993 translation of the Relación, Pupo-Walker links the literary qualities of Cabeza de Vaca's narrative with medieval romances and adventure stories, and suggests that the chronicle has had a profound impact on modern Latin American fiction.]
Governor Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition that set out on “the seventeenth of June in the year fifteen hundred and twenty-seven” consisted of five ships, and crews totaling about six hundred men. After sailing from Sanlúcar de Barrameda the ships made a stop in the Canaries and went on for almost three months until, in mid-August, they reached Hispaniola. On this island they replenished their supplies and Narváez attempted without success to recruit additional crew members. From Hispaniola they went to Cuba, where they spent the winter of 1527-1528 but experienced setbacks (chs. I and II). In Santiago de Cuba and in the town of Trinidad they gradually acquired the provisions that the expedition needed to continue on its way. The costs, it may be remarked in passing, were borne by Narváez and the wealthy Spaniard Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, who was then living in Cuba and who, years later, joined...
(The entire section is 6366 words.)
Bishop, Morris. The Odyssey of Cabeza de Vaca. New York: The Century Co., 1933, 306 p.
Biographical study of the life of Cabeza de Vaca, giving equal attention to his expeditions in North and South America.
Bandelier, Ad. F. Introduction to The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, trans. Fanny Badelier, ed. Ad. F. Bandelier, pp. v-xxii. New York: A. S. Barnes & Company, 1905.
Examines details of Cabeza de Vaca's travels in North America as depicted in his two major works and includes notes on translations of his North American narrative.
Bannon, John Francis. Introduction to The Narrative of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, trans. Fanny Badelier, pp. xi-xxxi. Barre, Mass.: The Imprint Society, Inc., 1972.
Overview of Cabeza de Vaca's life and adventures, noting him as one of the first white men to see the interior of the North American continent.
Chipman, Donald E. “In Search of Cabeza de Vaca's Route across Texas: An Historiographical Survey.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 91, No. 2 (October 1987): 127-48.
Compares competing theories about Cabeza de Vaca's possible route through what would become the state of Texas. Chipman also offers details of the explorer's descriptions of geography, plants,...
(The entire section is 436 words.)