Algeria and Egypt Crack Down on Islamic Militants (Great Events from History II: Human Rights Series)
Article abstract: During the early 1990’s, the North African nations of Algeria and Egypt both saw the rise of radical political activists, who called for the replacement of the countries’ secular governments with Islamic states. Both countries responded by trying to suppress Islamic parties; the resulting wars led to violations of human rights by both governments and their Islamist opponents.
Summary of Event
Although there are many differences between the nations of Algeria and Egypt, there are a number of similarities relevant to human rights issues in the two countries. Both have governments closely associated with their militaries, and both are troubled by conflicts between their governments and Islamic militants. Until 1952, Egypt was a monarchy that had been dominated by the British. In that year, a group of army officers known as the Free Officers’ Movement took power from King Farouk. In 1956, Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser achieved sole leadership of the country and in 1957, Egypt became a one-party state. The two Egyptian presidents who followed Nasser, Anwar Sadat and Mohammad Hosni Mubarak, rose within the power structure established by Nasser and relied on the support of the military. Although Egypt liberalized under Anwar Sadat and allowed the establishment of multiple political parties in 1976, the rise of antidemocratic Islamic radicals and the assassination of President Sadat by some of these...
(The entire section is 1869 words.)
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