Alain Chartier c. 1385-1430
French poet, prose writer, orator, and epistler.
A courtier and diplomat, Chartier composed highly accomplished poetry and prose works in French and Latin, addressing the political upheaval of his time. He was also a greatly admired and frequently imitated writer of polished love poetry. As Edward J. Hoffman observed, for over a century after Chartier's death, his work was lauded for its elegance and nobility, and Chartier himself was hailed as the “Father of French eloquence.”
Little is known about Chartier's early life. He was born into a prominent middle-class family in Bayeux around 1385. He had two brothers, Guillaume, who would become Bishop of Paris, and Thomas, who, like Chartier, would become a royal secretary. He received his education at the University of Paris, where, some evidence suggests, he earned a Master of Arts degree. Chartier's earliest known works, including Le Lay de Plaisance, were composed around 1410. By the mid-1410s Chartier was a member of the entourage surrounding the Dauphin Charles (later King Charles VII); by the end of the decade he was a notary and secretary to King Charles VI.
During this period France was torn apart by civil conflict. Charles VI's mental instability created vacuum of power that opposing factions sought to fill. In addition, the English king, Henry V, took advantage of the turmoil and launched an invasion of France in 1415. When the dauphin was forced to flee Paris in 1418, Chartier accompanied him. He would remain in Charles's service until his death over a decade later, even after Charles's accession to the throne upon the death of Charles VI in 1422. Throughout this time Chartier was engaged in official correspondence and other duties of the chancellery, and he occasionally served as a royal envoy, seeking support for his employer. In the course of these diplomatic missions, Chartier wrote and delivered several orations in Latin, including Ad Jacobum regem Scotorum oratio (1428), which may be translated as Oration before James, King of Scots. The result of this embassy was the renewal of an old alliance between Scotland and France and the marriage of James's daughter to Charles's son. In the course of his service Chartier was awarded a number of ecclesiastical posts, including the rectorship of Saint-Lambert-des-Levées in 1424 and the chancellorship of Bayeux in 1428. In the late 1420s Chartier was promoted to royal counselor, a post he held until his death on March 20, 1430, in Avignon.
Chartier's varied output includes poetry, prose, letters, and orations. Notable among his love poems is the early piece, Le Debat des deux fortunés d'amours (1412-13). This work, which may be translated as “The Debate of the Two with Varied Fortunes in Love,” presents two knights, one fat and one thin, who hold differing opinions on love. The fat knight takes a favorable view of love, emphasizing its joys and the benefits it brings. The thin knight offers a darker picture of love, stressing the fear and jealousy it may engender. The vividness of his speech, which concludes with a string of paradoxes concerning love, overcomes the affirmative but conventionalized observations of the fat knight. Chartier would again employ the debate structure in a number of other works, both prose and poetry, and would, as he did here, present himself as an observer who merely reports what he has seen and heard. In Chartier's longest poem, Le Livre des quatre dames (1416)—which may be translated as “The Book of the Four Ladies”—the story of a melancholy poet trying to gain a woman's love encloses the tales of four women with varying fortunes in love. The details the women provide of their lovers' responses to a battle suggest that they were real people and that the battle was Agincourt (1415). After he fled Paris in 1418 Chartier composed few love poems, focusing more on prose works with political themes. Among the handful of late love poems is the widely admired and imitated La Complainte (c. 1424), in which the poet complains to Death, who has taken his lady and thus deprived him and the world of her beauty. When La Belle Dame sans mercy first appeared in 1424 it was harshly criticized for its perceived attack on courtly love and negative portrayal of women. A year later Chartier sought forgiveness and justification for his offense in L'Excusacion aux dames (1425).
In his prose works, Chartier often used allegory to explore political themes. Le Quadrilogue invectif (1422; The Quadrilogue Invective) presents a dream in which the author observes a dialogue between France and the three Estates—the Clergy, the Nobility, and the People—on the ruinous state of affairs in the country. Chartier explored similar themes in Dialogus familiaris amici et sodalis super deploracione gallice calamitatis (1426-27), which may be translated as “Familiar Dialogue of the Friend and the Companion Lamenting the Calamity of France.” The unfinished Le Traité de l'Espérance (1427-28; The Treatise of Hope) combines prose and poetry in an exploration of France's glorious past and its current disastrous situation. The narrator is visited by a series of allegorical figures, including Melancholy, Indignation, and Defiance, who declaim in progressively darker tones on the present state of affairs. The character Despair recommends suicide. These are followed by more comforting figures, including Understanding, Faith, and Hope (the titular Espérance), who dispel Despair.
Chartier wrote a number of letters in Latin, on a variety of subjects. Some address public issues, such as De libertate ecclesie epistola (c. 1411)—which may be translated as “Letter Concerning the Liberty of the Church” and Ad universitatem parisiensem epistola (c. 1418-19)—which may be translated as “Letter to the University of Paris.” Others treat more personal concerns. Letters such as Ad fratrem suum juvenem epistola (1410)—which may be translated as “Letter to his Young Brother”—and De vita curiali (1425-28)—which may be translated as “On Life at Court”—offer advice and counsel to their recipients. One of Chartier's last works was De Puella espistola (1429). This piece, which may be translated as “Letter about the Maid,” interprets Joan of Arc's achievements as evidence of divine intervention in the affairs of France.
The survival of some 200 fifteenth- and sixteenth-century manuscripts of Chartier's works is testament to the high esteem in which he was long held. A print collection of his works appeared as early as 1489, and several editions and reprints appeared over the next fifty years. As literary tastes changed, however, critics dismissed Chartier's works as stilted and artificial. Modern scholars have revived interest in Chartier and addressed a number of aspects of his writing. Critics such as Hoffman and James Laidlaw have examined Chartier's works within the literary context of his time, stressing his reception and influence. Julian Eugene White, Jr., and William W. Kibler, among others, have traced the relationship between Chartier's writings and contemporary political events. Several commentators, including Cynthia J. Brown and David F. Hult, have analyzed Chartier's use of allegory, while others, including Kibler and Robert Giannasi, have explored his innovative use of narrators. Throughout, modern critics have emphasized Chartier's formative influence on the development of French literary language and style.
Le Lay de Plaisance (poetry) c. 1410
Ad fratrem suum juvenem epistola (letter) 1410
Rondeaulx et balades (poetry) c. 1410-25
De libertate ecclesie oratio (oration) 1411-12
Le Débat des deux fortunés d'amours [also known as Le Gras et le Maigre] (poetry) 1412-13
Le Débat de reveille matin (poetry) 1413-24
Le Breviare des nobles (poetry) 1415?
Le Lay de Paix (poetry) 1415?
Le Livre des quatre dames (poetry) 1416
Ad universitatem parisiensem epistola (letter) c. 1418-19
Le Débat du Herault, du Vassault et du Villain [also known as Le Débat patriotique] (poetry) c. 1422
Le Quadrilogue invectif [The Quadrilogue Invective] (prose) 1422
La Complainte (poetry) c. 1424
*La Belle Dame sans mercy (poetry) 1424
Ad Cesarem Sigismundum prima oratio (oration) 1425
Ad Cesarem Sigismundum altera oratio (oration) 1425
L'Excusacion aux dames (poetry) 1425
†De vita curiali [also known as Le Curial] (letter) 1425-28
Dialogus familiaris amici et sodalis super deploracione gallice calamitatis...
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SOURCE: Hoffman, Edward J. “Prose.” In Alain Chartier: His Work and Reputation, pp. 138-98. New York: Wittes Press, 1942.
[In the following essay, Hoffman offers a critical overview of Chartier's prose works, providing an analysis of his reputation among critics, comparisons to other writers, and an assessment of his influence.]
Chartier's reputation as a prose writer did not fluctuate as much as his reputation as a poet. While his stately and eloquent prose once elicited the most unbridled enthusiasm, today, when it is still highly esteemed, one sees that enthusiasm tempered somewhat by a critical analysis of its style and an examination of its qualities in the light of literary history. It is found to sin on the side of over-emphasis, of declamation and of pedantry. On the other hand, Chartier's contribution to the development of French prose as a medium of serious expression is universally recognized and there is no one to contest his position as one of the founders of literary style in France.
His early critics placed no restrictions on their admiration. In their testimonials one finds Alain most often commended by the title, of broadest connotation for medieval rhetoricians, namely Orator, by which they referred not merely to the oratorical qualities of his prose. And when they heard this new-found eloquence supported by patriotic, moral and religious considerations of the...
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SOURCE: White, Julian Eugene, Jr. “The Conflict of Generations in ‘Débat patriotique.’” The French Review 39, no. 2 (November 1965): 230-33.
[In the essay that follows, White reads the Débat patriotique as a depiction of a generational conflict between a patriotic old knight and a cynical young knight regarding the Hundred Years' War.]
A recent article on the Cent Ballades1 places in contrast the attitude in 1390 of the mature and disillusioned chevaliers and that of their younger and more enthusiastic fellows toward the Hundred Years' War. The present study will continue and complement that of Professor Cottrell by discussing the attitudes and ideals of those same young knights, now mature themselves, and the attitudes of the knights of the following generation, between 1416 and 1422.2 This contrast will be discussed in the context of the Débat patriotique of Alain Chartier.3
According to Cottrell,
… l'ardente jeunesse aristocrate, s'enorgueillissant de ses traditionelles fonctions militaires et avide d'aventures chevaleresques, envisageait la guerre comme un glorieux tournoi et s'y jetait à corps perdu. Au fur et à mesure que se prolongeait la désastreuse débâcle (La Guerre de Cent Ans), les nobles les plus mûrs, les plus désabusés, opposaient l'idéal de la...
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SOURCE: Laidlaw, J. C. “The Poems.” In The Poetical Works of Alain Chartier, edited by J. C. Laidlaw, pp. 28-42. London: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
[In the essay that follows, Laidlaw offers a critical overview of Chartier's poems in a biographical context.]
Storys to rede ar delitabill, Suppos that thai be nocht bot fabill.
The preceding account of Chartier's life includes references to most of the poems which can be dated accurately; they will provide a convenient framework into which the other poems can be fitted. In discussing the order in which the poetical works were written,1 the statements made by the poet about himself will be of importance. Chartier states in some poems that he has no lady and has never known love; in others he is in love; in others he mourns the death of his beloved and in his grief abandons poetry. Such statements cannot be assumed to be reliable and straight-forward. In evaluating them, some assessment will be made of the poems, their form, their intention and their quality. The chapter is not intended, however, to present a detailed analysis and appreciation of Chartier's poetical works. It would be premature to do so in the absence of satisfactory critical editions of Chartier's works in French prose.
LE LAY DE PLAISANCE
The Lay de Plaisance is one...
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SOURCE: Kibler, William W. “The Narrator as Key to Alain Chartier's La Belle Dame sans mercy.” The French Review 52, no. 5 (April 1979): 714-23.
[In the following essay, Kibler contends that, rather than being “a piece of escapist literature written only to divert the court,” as it is often characterized, La Belle Dame sans mercy responds to the political and social upheaval caused by the Hundred Years' War by urging “a return to the chivalric virtues of honesty, truthfulness, loyalty and honor.”]
In the summer of 1422, Alain Chartier, secrétaire du roi de France, composed an impassioned plea to the three estates to end corruption and restore the rule of honesty and honor, to cease quarreling among themselves and to rediscover their common purpose in opposition to the English. This masterpiece of oratorical prose, known as the Quadrilogue invectif, was written when France was near the nadir of her fortunes in the Hundred Years War.1 The Burgundian-Armagnac civil war had been raging for twenty years; France's king, Charles VI, had been insane for thirty years; and Paris had been opened to the English since 1418. The population of France had been halved in the previous seventy-five years,2 towns had been leveled, churches burned, the countryside ravaged. The Quadrilogue, a shocking indictment of the nobility in particular, paints an...
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SOURCE: Giannasi, Robert. “Chartier's Deceptive Narrator: La Belle Dame sans mercy as Delusion.” Romania 114, nos. 3-4 (1996): 362-84.
[In the following essay, Giannasi refutes biographical interpretations of La Belle Dame sans mercy that see Chartier as the poem's narrator. The narrator, he argues, functions as both the teller of a story of a lady's cruelty and the protagonist who dies as a result of her disdain.]
Early studies of Alain Chartier's poetic work and of his most popular piece, La Belle Dame sans mercy, focused either on the apparently biographical information that would help constitute a poetic autobiography of Chartier himself1, or on the allusions (or lack of them) to contemporary events, including Chartier's supposed political or social partisanship2.
Written in or around 1424, the 100 huitains of octosyllabic verse that make up the poem consist of the record of a verbal exchange of a man and his unwilling lady as well as framing material both at the beginning and the end which allows the narrator of the poem to take center stage. Critics have seemed unwilling or unable to actually interpret the poem as a fiction; when they have not considered Chartier's poem a rehash of outdated courtly clichés, they have read it biographically3. I will show that the narrative structure is innovative in the way it...
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SOURCE: Brown, Cynthia J. “Allegorical Design and Image-Making in Fifteenth-Century France: Alain Chartier's Joan of Arc.” French Studies 53, no. 4 (October 1999): 385-404.
[In the following essay, Brown examines Chartier's allegorical depiction of Joan of Arc in the Latin prose letter De Puella epistola, and explores how this work draws upon the allegorical elements of some of Chartier's other writings.]
In the summer of 1429, Alain Chartier penned a letter in which he detailed Joan of Arc's divinely inspired mission in France up to that date. Chartier's Epistola de puella shared many of the features of the more well-known Ditié de Jehanne d'Arc, written by his contemporary Christine de Pizan, in part because both works postdate Charles VII's coronation on 17 July 1429 and precede Joan's ill-fated march on Paris in September 1429.1 However, whereas Christine directed her vernacular poem of 488 verses to a general public, referring to the more wide-reaching work by the informal diminutive ditié, Chartier addressed his Latin prose epistola of some one hundred lines to a single dedicatee, an un-named prince who is now thought to have been the duke of Milan.2 Yet this more formal mode did not restrain Chartier's enthusiasm any more than Christine's. Exhibiting great admiration and amazement in his account, Chartier discusses Joan's peasant...
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SOURCE: Hult, David F. “The Allegoresis of Everyday Life.” Yale French Studies 95 (1999): 212-33.
[In the excerpt that follows, Hult asserts that in Belle Dame sans mercy Chartier uses the techniques of allegory to construct a critique of the form itself and its interpretation.]
Tout pour moi devient allégorie …
Picture the following scene: a young man, about twenty years old, having reached adulthood yet still inexperienced in the domains of love and sexuality, comes upon a gathering of sophisticated people in opulent surroundings who are clearly having a good time.1 There is music, talk, mingling. Following upon this initial entry into a society that is eminently attractive and yet that elicits some measure of ambivalence, the young man is drawn into the seductions offered to him and encounters both the delights and the sufferings, the invitations and the obstacles that seem inevitably to strew the path leading to the object of one's desires. This description is easily recognized as a thumbnail sketch of one of the great allegorical romances of the Middle Ages, indeed the paradigm of the genre, Guillaume de Lorris's Romance of the Rose. Yet it also adequately encapsulates the plot of one of the landmark works of modern American cinema, Mike Nichols's The Graduate. Lest...
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Laidlaw, J. C. “Master Alain Chartier and Master Alain Lequeu.” French Studies 22, no. 3 (July 1968): 191-200.
Attempts to glean biographical information on Chartier from an examination of the household records of Yolande of Anjou, wife of King Louis II, which seem to suggest that Chartier was employed in the household.
Blayney, Margaret S., ed. Fifteenth-Century English Translations of Alain Chartier's Le Traité de l'Esperance and Le Quadrilogue Invectif. 2 vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1974, 1980.
Two-part edition of early English translations of Chartier's works. Volume I contains the text of the translations; Volume II contains the scholarly apparatus, including detailed examinations of the manuscripts and the method of translation.
Ferrier, Janet M. “The Theme of Fortune in the Writings of Alain Chartier.” In Medieval Miscellany Presented to Eugène Vinaver by Pupils, Colleagues and Friends, edited by F. Whitehead, A. H. Diverres, and F. E. Sutcliffe, pp. 124-35. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1965.
Traces references to fortune throughout Chartier's works.
Gathercole, Patricia M. “Illuminations on the Manuscripts of Alain Chartier.” Studi Francesi 60 (1976): 504-10.
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