Afonso de Albuquerque (Dictionary of World Biography: Renaissance)
Article abstract: Albuquerque, called “the Great” and “the Portuguese Mars,” conquered Goa in India (1510) and Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (1511), ended the Arabian trade monopoly in Asia, made Goa a center of the Portuguese colonial government and commerce in that area, and developed colonial administration using native officials. He served as the second Portuguese governor of India. His most lasting contribution was the foundation of the Portuguese colonial empire in the East.
Afonso de Albuquerque was born the second son of Gonzalvo de Albuquerque, Lord of Villaverde. Through his father, he was related to the royal house of Portugal (through illegitimate descent), the males in the family having for several generations been confidential secretaries to Portuguese kings. On the maternal side, his grandfather had served as an admiral of Portugal. With these connections, it is not unexpected that Afonso’s early education was at the court of King Afonso V. He served in the army of Portugal in North Africa, gaining military experience crusading against the Muslims. He fought in the conquest of Arzila and Tangier (1471), participated in the invasion of Spain (1476), and served in the expedition led by King Afonso against the Turks and in the Battle of Otranto (1480-1481).
(The entire section is 1975 words.)
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Afonso de Albuquerque (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Albuquerque, by his conquests of the strategically located port cities of Goa, in India, and Malacca, on the Malay peninsula, did more than anyone else to create the Portuguese Empire in Asia.
Ruthless, energetic, and indomitable, Afonso de Albuquerque served his military apprenticeship in the 1470’s and 1480’s in the bitter fighting between the Portuguese and the Muslims of Morocco. Transferred to the East, he established fortresses at Cochin, in India, in 1503, and Socotra, in East Africa, in 1506. He seized the island of Hormuz, at the entrance to the Persian Gulf, in 1507 but had to withdraw, owing to the insubordination of his captains. Appointed governor of Portuguese India in 1508, he captured Goa in March, 1510. Driven out by superior forces in May, he retook the city in November, 1510, slaughtering its Muslim population. His conquest of Malacca on August 24, 1511, with leaky ships and only 1,100 men against heavy odds, is one of the most remarkable successes in the history of European empire building. Conversely, Albuquerque’s failure to capture the port of Aden in 1513 helped lead to his dismissal from office in 1515.
Black, Jeremy. War and the World: Military Power and the Fate...
(The entire section is 274 words.)