Introduction (Psychology and Mental Health)
Advertising is a process of persuading an audience to buy products, contract services, or support a candidate or issue. Advertising creates a reality for the consumer—both the image of the product, company, or candidate and the need for a product or service. Advertisements try to change consumer attitudes toward a product, company, or candidate. Attitudes consist of three components: belief, affect (emotion), and intention to act. The ultimate goal of the advertiser is to persuade the consumer to act—to buy the product, support the candidate or company, or use the service.
Advertising is one form of mass communication. A classified ad from around 1000 b.c.e. offered a reward (a gold coin) to anyone finding and returning a runaway slave. Johannes Gutenberg, an inventor and metallurgist, invented movable type in the fifteenth century, which allowed for the printed mass communication of advertising. The Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century cultivated commercialism and transportation of national publications, including a large number of magazines. Advertising proliferated on radio after 1920, on television after 1945, and on the Internet in the mid-1990’s.
Psychologists study advertising as a form of communication in the context of cognition and psycholinguistics. Consumers “read” advertisements, whether in print, on television, or online, similarly to the way they read books. Therefore, one way to...
(The entire section is 329 words.)
Narrative Script (Psychology and Mental Health)
The first step in changing consumer attitudes toward an advertised product is to persuade the consumer that the informational content of the advertisement is true. One way advertisers create belief in the consumer is to follow a narrative script, a simple plot such as a child might hear when a parent reads a story.
The narrative script is a knowledge structure composed of exposition, complication, and resolution. The exposition introduces the characters and settings of the story. The complication is a developing problem. The resolution is the solution to the problem. Many advertisements take the form of the narrative script to facilitate comprehension and belief. For example, John, Jane, and their daughter Judy are playing at the park (exposition). While swinging, Judy falls on the ground, scraping her knee (complication). Jane soothes Judy and dresses her wound by applying a plastic bandage coated with an antibacterial agent (resolution). The consumer is comfortable with the narrative script as an understandable and entertaining format. The advertiser is able to hold the audience’s attention. The resolution is associated with the product (bandages).
(The entire section is 180 words.)
Information Processing (Psychology and Mental Health)
The consumer’s belief in the advertisement is affected by how the consumer processes the information presented in it. There are eight stages of information processing involved in the comprehension of advertisements. The belief component of the consumer’s attitude toward the product can be formed or modified at any stage. The first stage is exposure. The consumer must have the opportunity to perceive the advertisement. The second stage is attention. The consumer may pay attention to part or all of an advertisement. The third stage is comprehension. The consumer must understand the information in the ad. The fourth stage is evaluation. The consumer assesses the information presented in the ad. The fifth stage is encoding. The consumer encodes, or saves, the advertised information in long-term memory. Later, the sixth stage, retrieval, can occur: The consumer retrieves the encoded information. The seventh stage is decision. The consumer decides to buy (or not buy) the advertised product. The final stage is the action of buying the product.
(The entire section is 166 words.)
Miscomprehension (Psychology and Mental Health)
Advertisers may persuade consumers to buy their product by intentionally inducing miscomprehension. The basis of the miscomprehension is the tendency for people to encode inferences, or interpretations, of stated advertising claims. Therefore, the consumer later remembers inferences made, but not explicitly stated, about a product. At no point is the advertiser presenting false information. However, the advertisement is structured in a way that induces the consumer to draw a specific inference. An advertisement might use hedge words such as “may” or “could.” For example, pain reliever Brand A “may help” prevent heart attacks.
Other advertisements contain elliptical comparatives. In an elliptical comparison, the standard that something is being compared to is intentionally left out. The consumer naturally completes the comparison with the most logical standard. However, the true standard might not be the most logical. For example, cereal Brand A “gives you more.” More what? A logical standard might be “more vitamins.” The true standard might be “more heartburn.” An advertisement might imply causation when in actuality the relationship is correlational. Juxtaposing two imperative statements implies that the first statement leads to, or causes, the next statement: Buy tire Brand A. Drive safely.
(The entire section is 193 words.)
Psychological Appeals (Psychology and Mental Health)
Advertisers use psychological appeals directed to basic human needs. Abraham Maslow, the American humanist psychologist who developed a hierarchy of needs in the 1960’s, theorized that all humans have needs that must be met to achieve self-fulfillment. The most basic are the physiological needs, such as food, water, and shelter. People also need basic feelings: feeling secure, that they belong, and that they are loved, as well as feelings of self-esteem. The final need is self-actualization, the highest form of self-fulfillment. Advertisements may focus on any one, or combinations, of these needs.
Psychological appeals in advertising influence the emotional component of people’s attitudes. The advertised product is associated with positive emotions such as fun, love, belonging, warmth, excitement, and satisfaction. Advertisements can also be based on fear: The advertisers try to convince consumers that there will be negative consequences if they do not buy their product, focusing on the need for safety. For example, buying any tire other than the one advertised will increase the risk of an automobile accident. Advertisements also appeal to the human need for self-esteem, which is heightened through power and success. An ad may aim to associate the product with the consumer being the best or having the most.
(The entire section is 205 words.)
Classical Conditioning (Psychology and Mental Health)
Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov discovered the process of classical conditioning in the early twentieth century. An unconditioned stimulus(US) produces naturally an unconditioned response (UR). For example, the image of a baby may naturally produce pleasant, even maternal or paternal, feelings. In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus (one that does not normally produce the unconditioned response). For example, a can of soda (neutral stimulus) can be paired with a picture of a baby (unconditioned stimulus). With several pairings, the neutral stimulus will become the conditioned stimulus, eliciting the unconditioned response without the actual association with the unconditioned stimulus. Once conditioning occurs, the unconditioned response becomes the conditioned response (CR).
Thus, the can of soda becomes the conditioned stimulus when it alone produces pleasant feelings (conditioned response). Advertisers use classical conditioning to associate a product with a stimulus that elicits the desired responses (belief in the product, positive emotions about the product, intent to buy the product) in the consumer. While shopping, a consumer sees the advertised can of soda, associates it with positive feelings, and therefore is more likely to purchase this brand of soda.
(The entire section is 192 words.)
Subliminal Advertising (Psychology and Mental Health)
Stimuli that are subliminal are below the threshold of conscious perception. Consumers are not normally aware of subliminal stimuli unless they consciously look for them. For example, an image on a product package may contain the shape of sexual organs. There is some weak evidence that subliminal messages in advertising may positively affect the emotional quality of consumer attitudes toward a product. However, there is no evidence that subliminal messages affect consumer behavior toward a product.
(The entire section is 76 words.)
Sources for Further Study (Psychology and Mental Health)
Benoit, William L., and Pamela J. Benoit. Persuasive Messages: The Process of Influence. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2008. Psychological and sociological study of the function of messages in the process of persuasion. Includes chapters on advertising and political campaigns.
Cialdini, Robert B. Influence: Science and Practice. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson Education, 2009. Examines the psychology of compliance. The author combines research results with anecdotal evidence.
__________. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. Rev. ed. New York: Collins, 2007. Essential book on the science of persuasion and the psychological foundations of marketing.
Day, Nancy. Advertising: Information or Manipulation? Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow, 1999. Discusses the effects of advertising on children, liquor and tobacco advertisements, and ways advertisements catch consumers’ attention.
Harris, Richard J. A Cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. This textbook deals with the effects of mass communication on its consumers. The author provides the reader with an objective and comprehensive look at years of scholarly writings.
Hogan, Kevin. The Psychology of Persuasion: How to Persuade Others to Your Way of Thinking. Gretna, La.: Pelican, 1996. Teaches persuasion, using techniques derived from hypnosis,...
(The entire section is 376 words.)
Advertising (Encyclopedia of Business and Finance)
Advertising is often thought of as the paid, non-personal promotion of a cause, idea, product, or service by an identified sponsor attempting to inform or persuade a particular target audience. Advertising has taken many different forms since the beginning of time. For instance, archaeo-logists have uncovered walls painted in Rome announcing gladiator fights as well as rock paintings along Phoenician trade routes used to advertise wares. From this early beginning, advertising has evolved to take a variety of forms and to permeate nearly every aspect of modern society. The various delivery mechanisms for advertising include banners at sporting events, billboards, Internet Web sites, logos on clothing, magazines, newspapers, radio spots, and television commercials. Advertising has so permeated everyday life that individuals can expect to be exposed to more than 1,200 different messages each day. While advertising may seem like the perfect way to get a message out, it does have several limitations, the most commonly noted ones being its inability to (1) focus on an individual consumer's specific needs, (2) provide in-depth information about a product, and (3) be cost-effective for small companies.
FORMS OF ADVERTISING
Advertising can take a number of forms, including advocacy, comparative, cooperative, direct-mail, informational, institutional, outdoor, persuasive, product, reminder, point-of-purchase, and specialty advertising.
Advocacy Advertising Advocacy advertising is normally thought of as any advertisement, message, or public communication regarding economic, political, or social issues. The advertising campaign is designed to persuade public opinion regarding a specific issue important in the public arena. The ultimate goal of advocacy advertising usually relates to the passage of pending state or federal legislation. Almost all nonprofit groups use some form of advocacy advertising to influence the public's attitude toward a particular issue. One of the largest and most powerful nonprofit advocacy groups is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). The AARP fights to protect social programs such as Medicare and Social Security for senior citizens by encouraging its members to write their legislators, using television advertisements to appeal to emotions, and publishing a monthly newsletter describing recent state and federal legislative action. Other major nonprofit advocacy groups include the environmental organization Green-peace, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), and the National Rifle Association (NRA).
Comparative Advertising Comparative advertising compares one brand directly or indirectly with one or more competing brands. This advertising technique is very common and is used by nearly every major industry, including airlines and automobile manufacturers. One drawback of comparative advertising is that customers have become more skeptical about claims made by a company about its competitors because accurate information has not always been provided, thus making the effectiveness of comparison advertising questionable. In addition, companies that engage in comparative advertising must be careful not to misinform the public about a competitor's product. Incorrect or misleading information may trigger a lawsuit by the aggrieved company or regulatory action by a governmental agency such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Cooperative Advertising Cooperative advertising is a system that allows two parties to share advertising costs. Manufacturers and distributors, because of their shared interest in selling the product, usually use this cooperative advertising technique. An example might be when a soft-drink manufacturer and a local grocery store split the cost of advertising the manufacturer's soft drinks; both the manufacturer and the store benefit from increased store traffic and its associated sales. Cooperative advertising is especially appealing to small storeowners who, on their own, could not afford to advertise the product adequately.
Direct-Mail Advertising Catalogues, flyers, letters, and postcards are just a few of the direct-mail advertising options. Direct-mail advertising has several advantages, including detail of information, personalization, selectivity, and speed. But while direct mail has advantages, it carries an expensive per-head price, is dependent on the appropriateness of the mailing list, and is resented by some customers, who consider it "junk mail."
Informational Advertising In informational advertising, which is used when a new product is first being introduced, the emphasis is on promoting the product name, benefits, and possible uses. Car manufacturers used this strategy when sport utility vehicles (SUVs) were first introduced.
Institutional Advertising Institutional advertising takes a much broader approach, concentrating on the benefits, concept, idea, or philosophy of a particular industry. Companies often use it to promote image-building activities, such an environmentally friendly business practices or new community-based programs that it sponsors. Institutional advertising is closely related to public relations, since both are interested in promoting a positive image of the company to the public. As an example, a large lumber company may develop an advertising theme around its practice of planting trees in areas where they have just been harvested. A theme of this nature keeps the company's name in a positive light with the general public because the replanting of trees is viewed positively by most people.
Outdoor Advertising Billboards and messages painted on the side of buildings are common forms of outdoor advertising, which is often used when quick, simple ideas are being promoted. Since repetition is the key to successful promotion, outdoor advertising is most effective when located along heavily traveled city streets and when the product being promoted can be purchased locally. Only about 1 percent of advertising is conducted in this manner.
Persuasive Advertising Persuasive advertising is used after a product has been introduced to customers. The primary goal is for a company to build selective demand for its product. For example, automobile manufacturers often produce special advertisements promoting the safety features of their vehicles. This type of advertisement could allow automobile manufactures to charge more for their products because of the perceived higher quality the safety features afford.
Product Advertising Product advertising pertains to nonpersonal selling of a specific product. An example is a regular television commercial promoting a soft drink. The primary purpose of the advertisement is to promote the specific soft drink, not the entire soft-drink line of a company.
Reminder Advertising Reminder advertising is used for products that have entered the mature stage of the product life cycle. The advertisements are simply designed to remind customers about the product and to maintain awareness. For example, detergent producers spend a considerable amount of money each year promoting their products to remind customers that their products are still available and for sale.
Point-of-Purchase Advertising Point-of-purchase advertising uses displays or other promotional items near the product that is being sold. The primary motivation is to attract customers to the display so that they will purchase the product. Stores are more likely to use point-of-purchase displays if they have help from the manufacturer in setting them up or if the manufacturer provides easy instructions on how to use the displays. Thus, promotional items from manufacturers who provide the best instructions or help are more likely to be used by the retail stores.
Specialty Advertising Specialty advertising is a form of sales promotion designed to increase public recognition of a company's name. A company can have its name put on a variety of items, such as caps, glassware, gym bags, jackets, key chains, and pens. The value of specialty advertising varies depending on how long the items used in the effort last. Most companies are successful in achieving their goals for increasing public recognition and sales through these efforts.
Advertising objectives are the communication tasks to be accomplished with specific customers that a company is trying to reach during a particular time frame. A company that advertises usually strives to achieve one of four advertising objectives: trial, continuity, brand switching, and switchback. Which of the four advertising objectives is selected usually depends on where the product is in its life cycle.
Trial The purpose of the trial objective is to encourage customers to make an initial purchase of a new product. Companies will typically employ creative advertising strategies in order to cut through other competing advertisements. The reason is simple: Without that first trial of a product by customers, there will not be any re peat purchases.
Continuity Continuity advertising is a strategy to keep current customers using a particular product. Existing customers are targeted and are usually provided new and different information about a product that is designed to build consumer loyalty.
Brand Switching Companies adopt brand switching as an objective when they want customers to switch from competitors' brands to their brands. A common strategy is for a company to compare product price or quality in order to convince customers to switch to its product brand.
Switchback Companies subscribe to this advertising objective when they want to get back former users of their product brand. A company might highlight new product features, price reductions, or other important product information in order to get former customers of its product to switchback.
Once an advertising objective has been selected, companies must then set an advertising budget for each product. Developing such a budget can be a difficult process because brand managers want to receive a large resource allocation to promote their products. Overall, the advertising budget should be established so as to be congruent with overall company objectives. Before establishing an advertising budget, companies must take into consideration other market factors, such as advertising frequency, competition and clutter, market share, product differentiation, and stage in the product life cycle.
Advertising Frequency Advertising frequency refers to the number of times an advertisement is repeated during a given time period to promote a product's name, message, and other important information. A larger advertising budget is required in order to achieve a high advertising frequency: Estimates have been put forward that a consumer needs to come in contact with an advertising message nine times before it will be remembered.
Competition and Clutter Highly competitive product markets, such as the soft-drink industry, require higher advertising budgets just to stay even with competitors. If a company wants to be a leader in an industry, then a substantial advertising budget must be earmarked every year. Examples abound of companies that spend millions of dollars on advertising in order to be key players in their respective industries (e.g., Coca Cola and General Motors).
Market Share Desired market share is also an important factor in establishing an advertising budget. Increasing market share normally requires a large advertising budget because a company's competitors counterattack with their own advertising blitz. Successfully increasing market share depends on advertisement quality, competitor responses, and product demand and quality.
Product Differentiation How customers perceive products is also important to the budget-setting process. Product differentiation is often necessary in competitive markets where customers have a hard time differentiating between products. For example, product differentiation might be necessary when a new laundry detergent is advertised: Since so many brands of detergent already exist, an aggressive advertising campaign would be required. Without this aggressive advertising, customers would not be aware of the product's availability and how it differs from other products on the market. The advertising budget is higher in order to pay for the additional advertising.
Stage in the Product Life Cycle New product offerings require considerably more advertising to make customers aware of their existence. As a product moves through the product life cycle, fewer and fewer advertising resources are needed because the product has become known and has developed an established buyer base. Advertising budgets are typically highest for a particular
product during the introduction stage and gradually decline as the product matures.
SELECTING THE RIGHT ADVERTISING APPROACH
Once a company decides what type of specific advertising campaign it wants to use, it must decide what approach should carry the message. A company is interested in a number of areas regarding advertising, such as frequency, media impact, media timing, and reach.
Frequency Frequency refers to the average number of times that an average consumer is exposed to the advertising campaign. A company usually establishes frequency goals, which can vary for each advertising campaign. For example, a company might want to have the average consumer exposed to the message at least six times during the advertising campaign. This number might seem high, but in a crowded and competitive market repetition is one of the best methods to increase the product's visibility and to increase company sales. The more exposure a company desires for its product, the more expensive the advertising campaign. Thus, often only large companies can afford to have high-frequency advertisements during a campaign.
Media Impact Media impact generally refers to how effective advertising will be through the various media outlets (e.g., television, Internet, print). A company must decide, based on its product, the best method to maximize consumer interest and awareness. For example, a company promoting a new laundry detergent might fare better with television commercials rather than simple print ads because more consumers are likely to see the television commercial. Similarly, a company such as Mercedes-Benz, which markets expensive products, might advertise in specialty car magazines to reach a high percentage of its potential customers. Before any money is spent on any advertising media, a thorough analysis is done of each one's strengths and weaknesses in comparison to the cost. Once the analysis is done, the company will make the best decision possible and embark on its advertising campaign.
Media Timing Another major consideration for any company engaging in an advertising campaign is when to run the advertisements. For example, some companies run ads during the holidays to promote season-specific products. The other major consideration for a company is whether it wants to employ a continuous or pulsing pattern of advertisements. Continuous refers to advertisements that are run on a scheduled basis for a given time period. The advantage of this tactic is that an advertising campaign can run longer and might provide more exposure over time. For example, a company could run an advertising campaign for a particular product that lasts years with the hope of keeping the product in the minds of customers. Pulsing indicates that advertisements will be scheduled in a disproportionate manner within a given time frame. Thus, a company could run thirty-two television commercials over a three-or six-month period to promote the specific product is wants to sell. The advantage with the pulsing strategy is twofold. The company could spend less money on advertising over a shorter time period but still gain the same recognition because the advertising campaign is more intense.
Reach Reach refers to the percentage of customers in the target market who are exposed to the advertising campaign for a given time period. A company might have a goal of reaching at least 80 percent of its target audience during a given time frame. The goal is to be as close to 100 percent as possible, because the more the target audience is exposed to the message, the higher the chance of future sales.
Once the advertising campaign is over, companies normally evaluate it compared to the established goals. An effective tactic in measuring the usefulness of the advertising campaign is to measure the pre-and post-sales of the company's product. In order to make this more effective, some companies divide up the country into regions and run the advertising campaigns only in some areas. The different geographic areas are then compared (advertising versus nonadvertising), and a detailed analysis is performed to provide an evaluation of the campaign's effectiveness. Depending on the results, a company will modify future advertising efforts in order to maximize effectiveness.
Advertising is the paid, nonpersonal promotion of a cause, idea, product, or service by an identified sponsor attempting to inform or persuade a particular target audience. Advertising has evolved to take a variety of forms and has permeated nearly every aspect of modern society. The various delivery mechanisms for advertising include banners at sporting events, billboards, Internet Web sites, logos on clothing, magazines, newspapers, radio spots, and television commercials. While advertising can be successful at getting the message out, it does have several limitations, including its inability to (1) focus on an individual consumer's specific needs, (2) provide in-depth information about a product, and (3) be cost-effective for small companies. Other factors, such as objectives, budgets, approaches, and evaluation methods must all be considered.
Boone, L. E., and Kurtz, D. L. (1992). Contemporary Marketing, 7th ed. New York: Dryden.
Churchill, G. A., and Peter, P. J. (1995). Marketing: Creating Value for Customers. Boston: Irwin.
Farese, L., Kimbrell, G., and Woloszyk, C. (1991). Marketing Essentials. Mission Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Kotler, P., and Armstrong, G. (1993). Marketing: An Introduction, 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Semenik, R. J., and Bamossy, G. J. (1995). Principles of Marketing: A Global Perspective, 2d ed. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western.
Advertising Media—Print (Encyclopedia of Small Business)
The two most common print media are newspapers and magazines, but print media also include outdoor billboards, transit posters, the yellow pages, and direct mail. Print media is important because it can reach such a large audience, and the great number of specialized publications enable businesses to focus in on a target audience with a specific set of characteristics. Print media are allowed to advertise most anything, such as cigarettes, liquor, and contraceptives; however, many publications will not accept controversial ads.
TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA
NEWSPAPERS When deciding upon a newspaper in which to advertise, there are three physical criteria to consider: distribution, size, and audience. Newspapers are either daily or weekly, come in a standard or tabloid size, and reach nearly all of the reading public, which is estimated to be around 85-90 percent of the population. Because of the broad demographic reach of most newspapers it is difficult to target a specific audience; however, newspapers are effective in increasing awareness of a business' products and services in a specific geographical area.
Types of ads placed in newspapers include: display ads, classified ads, public notes, and preprinted inserts. Newspaper ads have some flexibility in their size. For instance, some are small boxes that take up only a small portion of a page, while others might span one or two full pages (the latter, however, are typically only bought by larger corporations). Regardless of this flexibility, newspaper ads can only use limited special effects, such as font size and color. These limitations lead to advertising "clutter" in newspapers because all the ads look very similar. Therefore, advertisers must use original copy and headings to differentiate their ads from their competitors. The quick turnover of newspapers also allows the advertiser to adjust ads to meet new market conditions; however, this turnover means that the same ad may need to be inserted over a significant period of time in order to reach its target audience.
MAGAZINES With magazines an advertiser can focus in on a specific target audience. As the Small Business Administration pointed out in "Advertising Your Business": "Audiences can be reached by placing ads in magazines which have [a] well-defined geographic, demographic, or lifestyle focus." An attractive option for many small businesses may be placing an ad in the localized edition of a national magazine. But magazine advertisements often have a lag time of a couple months between the purchase of ad space and the publication of the issue in question. Magazines, then, are sometimes not the optimum option for businesses seeking to target fast-changing market trends.
In addition to the above factors, it is also important to consider the nature of the magazine ad copy. Magazines allow elaborate graphics and colors, which give advertisers more creative options than do newspapers. Also, recent surveys have indicated that informative ads are the most persuasive. Therefore, it is important to include copy and art work that is direct and presents important product information to the consumer, such as how the product works, how it benefits the consumer, and where it can be purchased.
DIRECTMAIL Many consultants feel that direct mail is the best way for a small businesses to begin developing awareness in their target consumers. Mailing lists can be generated (even though they are often difficult to maintain) with the names of those people most likely to purchase the advertiser's products or services. However, direct mail is not always cost effective. According to James W. Taylor, author of Marketing Planning: A Step by Step Guide, a direct mailing campaign can cost as much as $1,000 to reach 1,000 people, whereas television can reach a similar number of potential customers at a fraction of that cost. But business experts indicate that direct mail does tend to generate more purchasing responses than does television, and they observe that the products of many small businesses are often more suited to a direct mailing campaign than to indirect, image advertising.
YELLOW PAGES The Small Business Administration stated in "Advertising Your Business" that a yellow page ad is often used to "complement or extend the effects of advertising placed in other media." Such an ad has permanence and can be used to target a specific geographic area or community. Essentially, a yellow page ad gives the consumer information needed to make a purchase. Therefore the key information to include in such an ad includes: the products and services available; location; phone number; business hours; special features, such as the acceptable kinds of payment (i.e. credit cards, checks); parking availability; discounts; and delivery policies and emergency services. The best way to arrange this information is in a list, so that the consumer will be able to scan the ad for the desired information.
A major consideration with a yellow page ad is where to place it, which primarily depends on the directory (or category) under which businesses choose to locate their ads. Central to this choice are the products or services that the company wishes to emphasize. The ad copy should compliment the directory, indicating the main products and services for sale, so that the ad will emerge from the similar looking ads that surround it.
OUTDOOR ADVERTISING Outdoor advertising usually comes in two forms: billboards and transit posters. Like yellow page ads, outdoor advertising is usually used to support advertisements placed in other media. As Alf Nucifora noted in the LI Business News, perhaps the greatest strength of outdoor advertising is as a directional marker to point customers toward your business. Since the prospective consumer often has only fleeting exposure to billboards and transit posters, the advertising copy written for these media needs to be brief with the ability to communicate ideas at a glance; this, of course, requires efficient use of graphics and headings.
Addis, Jim. "How the Net and Print Media Can Help Each Other." Marketing. November 1999.
Nucifora, Alf. "Getting the Most from Your Media Purchase." LI Business News. October 23, 1998.
Taylor, James W. Marketing Planning: A Step by Step Guide. Prentice Hall, 1997.
Advertising (Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity)
Advertising is a paid, persuasive form of communicating a message that attempts to influence the buying behavior or thought patterns of consumers. Advertisements are also a sign of the times, reflecting what consumers find attractive or influential. Throughout modern history advertising has played a role in idealizing favored groups, and dehumanizing or stereotyping disfavored groups.
The following advertisements ran in a special issue of a leading German weekly magazine (Illustrierte Zeitung Leipzig: Sonderausgabe 1944, Der europäische Mensch) during the height of World War II in Nazi Germany. Each advertisement depicts a Nazi ideal, or refers to a Nazi goal.
Focke-Wulf has been building airplanes for 20 years.
We join in the vastly increased use of labor and technology in the German aircraft industry. We are thus helping to solve the great tasks of the day, the fulfillment of which will bring about a New Order in Europe.
After the victorious end to this war for European self-determination, we will return to peacetime production. Using the knowledge we have gained, as well as our proven productivity, we will build better planes to meet the high expectations of coming European air traffic.
One of the main goals of the Nazi regime was to increase employment, but this text could also be interpreted as a reference to the slave labor provided by the concentration camp inmates. The text asserts that Germany would win the war and become the dominant economic power within Europe. The visual images used are the swastika and eagle symbol of the Third Reich.
On the roads of Europe, German Ford trucks testify to the work of German industry. The agile, reliable and easy to maintain Ford truck will be a welcome help in solving the major tasks that await our continent after the war.
The text of this ad assumes German domination of the continent of Europe and reflects the supposed superiority of German products and people. The ad also visually depicts Greek ruins theme consistent with Hitler's idealization of ancient, vast, and powerful empires.
German children: Europe's future inventors!
While courageous men are fighting on the battlefields for the victory that will crown a happy and united Europe, the German home front is already working today on plans to benefit the freed peoples. German youth are preparing for the great tasks of reconstruction and peace. They tinker and build models, engaging in guided and creative learning. Whether it is in shop class at school, evenings at home, or while participating in youth organizations, UHU is everywhere. A special glue developed by the German firm Kunststoff-Chemie, it is in demand as a dependable product.
This ad reinforces the belief that the Germans were in fact liberating Europe, and that Germany would
A Picture of Peace
With their peaceful work, each LANZ-tractor, LANZ-thrasher, and LANZ-harvesting machine helps to guarantee the nutrition of Europe. Our agricultural technology is already showing the way to what will happen when peace comes.
This advertisement reflects the Nazi ideal of Germans nourishing themselves from the Fatherland, getting back to a basic way of life consisting of hard work. It also refers to the German domination of Europe and characterizes Germany as the provider for the rest of Europe. The ad visually depicts an idyllic German countryside, with two farmers diligently laboring.
Other examples of popular advertising that dehumanize disfavored groups can be seen throughout the world. One familiar example is from the Jim Crow era in the United States, which extended from the mid-1870s to the mid-1960s. Many racist forms of advertising served to justify prejudice and discrimination against African Americans. The Aunt Jemima trademark, introduced in 1893 and based on an actual former slave, portrays a black "Mammy" in a kerchief as slow-witted, fat, and ugly. Childlike, subhuman portrayals such as this came to justify the denial of civil rights to blacks and supported the common misconception that blacks were intellectually inferior to whites.
SEE ALSOArt as Propaganda; Art as Representation; Deception, Perpetrators; Incitement; Propaganda; Television
Advertising Age. "The Advertising Century." Available from http://www.adage.com/century/icon07.html.
Calvin University. "German Propaganda Archive." Available from .
Davis, Ronald L. F. "Popular Art and Racism: Embedding Racial Stereotypes in the American Mindsetim Crow and Popular Culture." Ph.D. diss. Available from .
Greenspan, L., and C. Levitt, eds. (1993). Under the Shadow of Weimar. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers.
Kressel, Neil J. (1996). Mass Hate. New York: Plenum Press.
Amy W. Leith
Advertising (Encyclopedia of Business)
- ELEMENTS OF ADVERTISING
- MAJOR ADVERTISING MEDIA
- ADVERTISING AGENCIES AND WHAT THEIR CLIENTS REALLY WANT
- BRAND LOYALTY CAN MEAN BIG PROFITS
A medium through which sellers communicate with potential buyers, advertising constitutes a major component of an organization's marketing strategy, and is a $200 billion-a-year business in the United States. Traditional advertising includes
- magazine and newspaper ads
- television commercials
- radio commercials
- outdoor billboards
The field also encompasses other specialty marketing concepts, such as product promotions, infomercials, direct marketing, and Internet advertising. In fact, one of the newest trends has been interactive advertising, an electronic twist on database marketing, in which companies customize the content of their Internet sites in response to information about the person viewing the site.
HISTORY OF ADVERTISING
The history of advertising is as old as business itself. In the American colonies, certain craftsmenuch as cobblers, tinsmiths, and gunsmithsrected signs outside their homes depicting their trade. The signs were usually much larger than life so out-of-town visitors knew that the man with the four-foot-long wooden shoe hanging by his door could repair a worn sole.
Print advertising in the United States started in colonial-era newspapers and broadsheets as small, word-only ads, similar in concept to today's newspaper classified ads. Sometimes the ads would appear on the front page (a practice that has only recently been revived by USA Today). In time, the use of illustrations to actually show the products for sale began to appear.
At first the ads were created by the publisher of the newspaper as a service to the advertiser. After the U.S. Civil War, an idea that first emerged in the 1840s began to grow in popularity. Advertising agents, supposedly independent creators of ads that would go into newspapers, started acting as middlemen and marketing advisers between the newspapers and advertising merchants. The first heavily advertised products were patent medicines.
One of the first true agencies and the oldest one still in business is N.W. Ayer & Son. Ayer was founded in 1869 by Francis Wayland Ayer, who, like legions of admen after him, recognized the value of the illusion of permanence. Ayer named his agency after his father because it sounded as if the firm was older than it actually was. Ayer's father was not in the ad business, but his name looked good on the company letterhead.
The first true copywriter in advertising came along in 1880 when retailer John Wanamaker hired John E. Powers to write ads for the Grand Depot department stores in Philadelphia. Powers wrote simple ads, hated "catchy" headlines and illustrations, and once said that the key to advertising was to "have the attention of the reader. That means to be interesting. The next thing is to stick to the truth, and that means rectifying whatever's wrong in the merchant's business. If the truth isn't tellable, fix it so it is. That is about all there is to it."
ELEMENTS OF ADVERTISING
Powers' intuitive assessment of what makes good advertising has remained constant throughout the past 130 years of modern advertising. Research repeatedly confirms that a "basic selling proposition" is the most important variable in determining an advertisement's success in attracting the attention and trust of buyers. If consumers can easily find the reasons why they should buy the product or service, are convinced the ad is truthful, and are motivated to act, the ad or commercial has served its purpose. One study found that an ad with good execution but an inferior selling proposition had a 60 percent likelihood to have an inferior persuasive score, while an ad with so-so execution but a superior selling proposition had a 75 percent likelihood of getting a high persuasive score.
Two of the strongest elements of a good selling proposition are a convincing introduction of a new product or adding of new features to an existing product, and a skillful differentiation between the advertised brand and competing brands. Advertisers who demonstrate that their product is "new and improved," or better than the competing brand sell product.
CURRENT STATE OF ADVERTISING
Advertising continues to undergo drastic changes in response to expanding media venues, changing consumer demographics, and new technology. In 1980 two-thirds of every marketing dollar went into traditional advertising. By 1990 that figure had shrunk to one-third. Another study says brand loyalty, so lovingly built by advertising since the 1950s, is declining. Some studies suggest that more than a third of the people who consider themselves brand loyalists today could pick another brand the next time they buy, maybe for as simple a reason as a 50-cents-off coupon.
The biggest change affecting advertising is that mass merchandising of consumer goods over network television, which was the way to go for the past 40 years, may no longer be effective. There is no longer just one mass market reached by three coast-to-coast TV networks. The choice of channels has evolved into 50-plus cable choices with more to come. This multiplicity of channels can fragment audience demographics along the lines of age, ethnicity, and other factors potential benefit for some advertisers, but a drawback for companies that still concentrate on the major broadcast networks. Even worse for television advertisers, VCRs and some newer television sets can help viewers avoid seeing commercials altogether.
But while some consumers are happily zapping the commercials they taped on "free TV," some of the same people are tuning in and buying from home-shopping stations, which offer nothing but commercials. Shop-at-home television, also being integrated with Internet shopping, is now a multibillion-dollar business in its own right.
Changes in advertising practices are being felt in local communities as well. The local television network affiliates also have to compete with low-power, low-cost cable stations. Daily newspapers are mounting campaigns to get people to read their news, rather than get all of it from television and radio. Trade and professional magazines, always affected when the industries they cover go into or recover from recessions, have only recently started to pick up sales. Only in the past year have advertising rates and space sales held steady or even increased a bit, indicating a slowing or end to an advertising recession.
Technology has created even more opportunitiesr obstacleso reaching the public. Advertising executives are trying to figure out what role advertising will play in reaching people who regularly use computers at work and home. This is a growing market of affluent, educated consumers willing to spend money, but until recently they have been reached only through traditional means. The big question is whether these consumers will accept advertising over the computers they use.
MAJOR ADVERTISING MEDIA
The most expensive advertising is network television commercials where 30-second spots can cost a vast amount of money, depending on which highly rated shows they appear. These commercials, designed to appeal to the large, multicultural, mass audience that supposedly watches television, are also the most in danger of dying according to advertising prognosticators. In the spring of 1994 Edwin L. Artzt, CEO of Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G), which spends more than $1 billion a year on television advertising, stunned advertising agency executives when he said that he was not sure advertising-supported television would be around much longer.
Artzt was making the point that the traditional network television viewership is slowly, but daily, dropping as the audience uses its remote control to sample cable offerings, or turn the set off in pursuit of other forms of entertainment. He predicted that mass market merchandisers such as P&G may one day return to a practice common in early television of totally sponsoring shows rather than buying 30-second commercials during the show. A modern-day model may be Hallmark Cards Inc., which occasionally sponsors shows that attract the same people who enjoy buying sentimental greeting cards.
Some ad-effectiveness research studies seem contradictory, particularly with television commercials. One recent study found that commercials with children are the most popular, with 61 percent of people surveyed saying they enjoyed them, followed by commercials with humor, and commercials with celebrities. At the bottom of the list of popularity were "endorsement from experts" (17 percent) and "product demonstrations" (17 percent). That research seems to fly in the face of other studies listing the "selling proposition" as the most important persuasive element in advertising. Another study released by a different organization found that 50 percent of television watchers do something other than watch television during commercial breaks. Only 22 percent of the people in this survey say they watch commercials closely and 26 percent say they are annoyed by commercials. The most faithful television commercial watchers are those older than 60 and those with the lowest incomes. These are the same two groups that most national television advertisers do not target.
Almost every city of any size either has its own local network affiliate or is reached by a neighboring city. Commercial time rates vary by size of the market (how many television viewing households can be reached by the signal) and how much of that market competing stations already have. Local stations sell commercials during network shows and local news broadcasts, and during syndicated shows that are generally grouped around the late afternoon news hour until network television begins. Most local television stations can themselves produce commercials for low-budget customers, although it is probably better for both advertiser and station to involve an ad agency with television commercial experience.
"Spot buys" are possible on several stations when dealing with a cable operator. For example, a local car dealer pushing four-wheel-drive pickup trucks with a target market of young men may show the same commercial on different cable stations carrying professional football, wrestling, and a Chuck Norris film festival. Like local network affiliates, cable television stations can sometimes produce commercials for local advertisers on a budget. Companies can also advertise on cable at the national level, where the average commercial slot is still considerably cheaper than on the national broadcast networks. Based on 1997 figures, advertising spending on the top 25 cable networks amounted to only one-third of that on the 6 national broadcast networks, even though the ad volume on cable was nearly ten times greater.
|The following are estimates for selected U.S. media. This list is not exhaustive; it accounts for less than half of all advertising spending in the United States.|
|Network TV||$15.2 billion|
|Spot TV||$14.5 billion|
|Yellow pages||$10.8 billion|
|Cable networks||$5.8 billion|
|National radio||$2.5 billion|
|Outdoor ads||$1.5 billion|
While advertising agencies sometimes disdain it, radio is a favorite of advertisers and the public alike. Once thought to be slowly dying, AM radio made a dramatic comeback in the 1990s as regulatory reform allowed the growth of corporate chains and the resulting shakeout eliminated some of the less profitable stations. The FM side of the business was also an important part of the consolidation trend. One national rating bureau found that 96 percent of Americans over the age of 12 listen to the radio daily. The same study found that from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s the amount of time spent listening to radio rose almost 2 hours to 24 hours a week. Spurred by these solid demographics, by the late 1990s spending on radio advertising had nearly tripled from mid1980s levels, reaching $15 billion per year.
Most of radio's ad dollars are spent locally with just $1 billion a year spent on network radio buys. The most expensive buys are those scheduled around "drive time" in the morning and evening when people are listening on their way to and from work.
Radio ad rates are generally considered inexpensive compared to print since they can be targeted by type of audience that listens to the station. Rates vary depending on size of the market reached, which is determined both by the power of the station's transmitter and the popularity of its talk or music format.
One recent study touted by the industry demonstrated the power of radio to extend the effect of television campaigns at much lower costs. The study found that radio "transfers and magnifies" images first seen on television when the listener hears a similar ad on radio. The researchers found that 60 percent of the people who listened to a radio spot made a connection with a similar-sounding television commercial. Devout radio listeners were 12 percent more likely to "transfer image" to the intended television spot.
Except for USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and Investors Business Daily, there are few national daily publications that try to reach all newspaper readers. Almost all newspaper advertising is either for local merchants and professionals (local department stores and accountants at tax time) or for national products and services that are available through a local source (airline tickets, grocery stores).
Before television, newspapers and magazines shared media dominance. Throughout the early 1990s, however, newspapers have seen slack ad rates and declining readership. Today, newspapers account for less than 10 percent of U.S. advertising expenditures.
Taking a cue from USA Today, most local newspapers have been fighting back by revamping their design to appeal to younger readers. They are adding color and more features that they think will appeal to the 20-somethings.
Newspapers have also been pursuing their own studies to prove that newspapers deliver the buying public, even if the overall subscription numbers are down. One study showed a 50 percent increase in the sale of a popular brand of cookie after a one-third page, color ad ran for a month in one newspaper. Over an I1-week study period, the sale of the cookie was up 38 percent. Sales for a particular brand of cat food jumped 11 percent after its ad ran.
A survey conducted by a Canadian newspaper chain reconfirmed what advertising agencies have been telling their clients for years: bigger is good and with color is even better. The study found a half-page ad was 80 percent as effective in attracting attention as a full-page ad. A quarter-page ad was 60 percent as effective as a full-page ad. Using a second color boosted attention, but running full-color ads did not have a major effect in attracting more readers. That finding was a surprise to publishers who have been investing in color presses. Not surprisingly, awareness of individual ads decreased as the number of ads on the page increased. The only research finding that may surprise advertisers is that there appeared to be no effect on the placement of ads on the right or left page or above or below the fold. The standing belief is that ads placed on the right side are noticed more by readers.
The study's encouraging finding for newspaper publishers was that readers who noticed the ads were 77 percent more likely to buy advertised products compared to those who had not seen the ads. The "intent to purchase" was somewhat higher among ad readers, which implies that shoppers in the market for certain products search out and study ads to help them make a purchase.
According to the Newspaper Association of America, more than $10 billion in advertising funds available to local retailers each year goes unused. That money is for cooperative ("co-op") campaigns that manufacturers of products set aside to reimburse retailers who mention their specific products in local ads. Many manufacturers will allocate between 3 and 10 percent of a retailer's dollar purchases to co-op advertising that the retailer can draw against to help promote the local store and the manufacturer's product line.
Retailers do not always use the money because they do not always know it is there, or they do not wish to keep up with the manufacturer's bookkeeping requests to prove that the money was spent advertising its product line. The Newspaper Association suggested that most newspaper sales representatives would be happy to help with the paperwork since it might mean another sale.
Billboard advertising always seems to be under attack by one activist group or another. The main objections are that they distract drivers, frequently advertise controversial products such as liquor and cigarettes, and detract from the landscape.
Billboards work, however, if the execution is unusual and the message simple. One study found that highway billboards were remembered much more often than those on surface streets; that those on the right side of the highway were seen more than those on the left; and that black and white signs drew just as much attention as color. Simple messages were recalled best. Billboards with fewer than seven words were most often remembered.
It may sound like a good idea to fax a personalized ad to a business, but it may be violating a 1992 Federal Communications Commission ban on unsolicited fax advertising. Still, many companies continue the practice, and enforcement has been lax. The FCC rule says fax advertisers should stop if the company receiving their faxes sends a letter requesting that the unsolicited faxes stop.
The hodgepodge of half-hour infomercialsrom beef-jerky makers to wonder car polishes to seminars on finding true loveork, and are a growing part of advertising. In 1994 there were some 200 infomercials playing on cable television, accounting for about one-quarter of the programming time on cable systems. One trade association estimates consumers have bought nearly $1 billion worth of goods and services advertised on these programs.
Infomercial industry executives predict that the medium's content will grow in sophistication as cable television stations proliferate. The executives believe there will be channels that may show nothing but infomercials touting cars, boats, computers, or other high-ticket items. Production values will no doubt improve as consumers will expect broadcast quality television commercials that sell them expensive items.
The Internet is advertising's underdeveloped frontier. While already there exist Internet-only ad agencies, there is no widespread agreement on what the best methods of Internet advertising are or what their effectiveness is.
Early attempts to advertise on the Internet have sometimes met with angry resistance from Internet users, some of whom resent the commercialization of the erstwhile academic network. Consumers on the Internet have been especially rankled by unsolicited broadcast e-mail messages, unaffectionately known as "spam." As with unsolicited faxes, this sort of e-mail can have legal implications when consumers specifically request to be removed from an advertiser's list.
The ubiquitous Internet banner ads, often appearing at the top of a web page with a link to the sponsor's site, have been less controversial, but their success rate is questionable. A 1998 study reported that most banner advertisers were unhappy with the effectiveness of such ads. Other forms of Internet-related advertising include (1) search-engine submission, typically a free service that allows advertisers' sites to be indexed on popular search engines; (2) cross-media promotion, also called offline promotion, such as when a magazine ad refers to a Web site; and (3) solicited e-mail, which requires potential customers to join a mailing list to receive periodic promotions.
MEASURING AD EFFECTIVENESS
Beyond assessing how much in sales an ad generateshich is not as simple as it soundshere are many measures of whether advertising is serving its intended purpose. Traditional gauges include so-called copy testing, which evaluates how well consumers remember an ad, whether they find it persuasive, what image of the product consumers come away with, and so forth.
These all seem like worthy qualities to measure, but there is, in fact, an ongoing debate within academic and professional circles over what constitutes advertising effectiveness and how it might be measured. Many managers believe that an ineffective advertising campaign simply won't return a meaningful sales increase, but there is evidence that certain ads have actually diminished sales. When segments of the public find an ad irritating or when ads deliberately or inadvertently raise negative concerns, consumers may avoid the advertiser's product or service. In addition, some ads may draw attention to an entire product category, thereby benefiting competitors as muchr morehan the advertiser.
There are other unexpected consequences in advertising as well. Consider these real-life research findings: it is seemingly possible for an advertising campaign to significantly increase the public's awareness of a product without delivering a commensurate boost in sales; conversely, it appears that a campaign can add little to the public's knowledge, yet provoke a jump in sales. This surprising result is not the norm, but extensive professional literature on advertising effectiveness suggests some of the possible causes:
- consumers can be affected by ads without consciously reading or listening to an ad they've been exposed to
- reported attitudes and knowledge are distinct from actual behaviors
- advertising can have both immediate and cumulative effects, calling into question whether any particular ad resulted in the ultimate purchase
- the research itself may have inaccurately measured the sequence of events
Such issues complicate research into advertising effectiveness, but they do not mean that any given ad is a stab in the dark. Sophisticated advertisers always test market a new ad (or even a few variations of a potential new ad) with several different audiences to gain insights on how well the message will be received. This fact underscores that measuring effectiveness need not wait until the ad is formally launched, reducing the likelihood that an ad will flop once major media time or space is purchased.
. Among measures of effectiveness, whether before or after an ad is run, those related to persuasion tend to be most valued. This relates in part to the basic selling proposition: if it's a strong proposition, the ad is more likely to persuade; if the underlying proposition is weak, no amount of creativity in the execution will change people's minds. According to some advertising veterans, the ability to shift consumer attitudes far outweighs the benefits of simple name recognition and similar effects, particularly when the advertising objective is short term.
ADVERTISING AGENCIES AND WHAT THEIR CLIENTS REALLY WANT
A study of companies by the North American Advertising Agency Network found that the clients of advertising agencies believe agency efficiency in carrying out advertiser orders is more valuable than "creativity." Clients prefer agencies that come in on time and on budget rather than those who spend more time and money trying to think of new ways to dazzle the customer.
The same study found that advertisers are continuing to shift to the idea that agencies should be compensated by a negotiated fee or for hours billed. Until recent years, agencies had traditionally tacked a 15 percent commission on their media purchases for their major means of compensation. Advertisers have been cutting that commission as a cost-savings measure. Large agencies, faced with a fragmented marketplace that no longer produces large commissions from huge network television buys, agree. The years-old debate on how much advertising is worth continues.
CREATIVITY AT ADVERTISING AGENCIES
"Breaking through the clutter" is the standard term advertising agencies use when trying to sell their clients on new campaigns. The "clutter," of course, is all the other advertisements competing for consumers' attention. Trying to find a technique that will make potential buyers pay attention is a constantly changing process. Sometimes agencies find the key is to make fun of the commercials themselveshich is how the Energizer bunny was born in the 1980s. The bunny would interrupt fake commercials with its selling proposition that its power allowed it to keep "going and going and going.
In recent years creativity has reigned as agencies have searched for ways to make people look and listen. Much advertising now uses computer-generated images in order to attract attention. Today, television features tango-dancing gas pumps instead of a pitchman explaining how his brand of gasoline is the best. At the opposite end of the technology scale, but still high on the creative meter, is the frame-by-frame process of claymation where clay raisins were given personalities to sell dried grapes.
Creativity has its downside. One ill-conceived style in print and television ads used multiple hard-to-read typefaces on the theory that the unusual look would attract attention. On television, the typefaces were put in motion, scrolling in all directions across the screen, sometimes too fast to read. The result was the opposite of what creative directors intended. One study showed that only 11 percent of magazine readers bothered to read the jumbled copy of a cosmetics ad, which was 19 percent below the average for the category. A supposedly stylish athletic shoe ad drew only 12 percent of the potential magazine readers, 43 percent below what that category normally attracts. Such results demonstrate that while creativity attracts attention, the majority of consumers will ignore ads that are difficult to listen to, view, or read.
BRAND LOYALTY CAN MEAN BIG PROFITS
No matter how creative advertising is, most advertising agencies and manufacturers agree that the consuming public falls into what is commonly called "the 80-20" rule. This theory, which seems to crop up no matter what is being sold, says that 80 percent of the product will be bought by 20 percent of the potential consumers. The other 80 percent of buyers fall into other categories. They may sample products with the potential of establishing a brand loyalty, already maintain loyalty to another brand, or buy whatever is on sale or discounted by use of a special offer such as a coupon.
The figures might vary by the product being sold, but a core of loyal customers will always buy their favorite product unless its manufacturer drives them away by drastically changing it or raising the price too much. To that end, much advertisingarticularly for consumable productss designed to attract people who will become brand loyalists. Advertisers know much of this money is wasted on the majority of people, but they believe nothing else will establish brand loyalty like frequent advertising.
Once this brand loyalty is established, manufacturers often keep it by shifting some advertising dollars into promotion dollars. Known customers might be offered discounts or direct mail coupons for increased purchases. Advertising's real effect on brand loyalty itself is more difficult to measure. Some studies suggest that brand loyalists pay even more attention to advertising once they have bought because they are reassuring themselves that they made the right decision. This is particularly true of high-ticket items such as cars, kitchen appliances, and computers.
Finding consumers who want more information is a trend advertisers believe will allow them to better target some of their ad dollars, rather than try to hit everyone in the mass market. The process is called "self-selection," where potential buyers notice some advertising and then request more information. Requesting that information indicates interest, which allows the advertiser to identify a potential customer who might need more persuasive communications than is possible in early advertising. This is the sort of advertising push that results when a potential buyer writes or calls for more information such as an explanatory videotape. For instance, a car buyer who requests the full-color brochure after seeing a magazine ad is likely to be studying cars in anticipation of buying one soon.
Abugel, Jeff. "Cost-Effective Net Ads." Business Marketing, January 1999.
Advertising Age, weekly.
Bogart, Leo. Strategy in Advertising. 3rd ed. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1995.
Caples, John, and Fred E. Hahn. Tested Advertising Methods. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Dietz, Nancy. "Survey: Banners Losing Effectiveness." Business Marketing, September 1998.
Lewis, Herschell Gordon, and Carol Nelson. Advertising Age Handbook of Advertising. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1998.
Wells, William D., ed. Measuring Advertising Effectiveness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erblaum Associates, 1997.