Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Adrienne Lita Hawkins Kennedy was born on September 13, 1931, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cornell Wallace Hawkins and Etta Haugabook Hawkins. After Kennedy learned to read at three years of age, she became a voracious reader who had moved alphabetically through her local library’s shelves before she reached high school.
In 1935, Kennedy’s family moved to an integrated, middle-class neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio. Both parents, college graduates and professionals, influenced Kennedy’s writing style: her mother, through humorous stories edged with pathos; her father, a Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) branch executive director, through nightly recitations of the poetry of Langston Hughes, Paul Laurence Dunbar, and others. Active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League, both parents instilled in Kennedy the importance of having a positive impact upon the world.
Throughout her elementary and her high-school years, Kennedy continued to be an all-consuming reader and a superb achiever. In fact, one of her elementary school teachers cautioned her mother that Kennedy could make herself ill from her own high expectations of herself.
Not until she began her freshman year at Ohio State University in 1949 did she experience overt racism that caused her to question her own identity. No longer was she judged on her abilities and her achievements; suddenly, she found herself prejudged on the basis of the color of her skin. The wrenching theme of a personal identity raging in a dissonant universe pervades Kennedy’s writings.
With the limited possibilities of education or social work for a major, Kennedy chose education. Although she satisfactorily completed...
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Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Kennedy counterpoints a polished poetic style with brutal synaesthetic imagery that engulfs those who experience her works. This process generates in her audiences an empathic recognition of the truth inherent in her vision, as well as a hypnotic tension that is further accentuated by her use of rhythm, ritual, repetition, and myth.
Kennedy exorcises her unconscious demons onstage. As such, her plays are a challenge to theater practitioners. Nevertheless, through her writing, she intimately captures and shares the essence of the human spirit’s search for self-integration, belongingness, and love.
Adrienne Kennedy’s plays baffle and entice theater critics. In Kennedy, critics recognize a singularly able writer whose surrealism surpasses that of Tom Stoppard and Amiri Baraka. Edward Albee’s early recognition of Kennedy’s ability encouraged the yet-unpublished playwright to persist in her writing and led to the production of her Funnyhouse of a Negro.
Raised in a multiethnic neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio, where her father, Cornell Wallace Hawkins, was an executive secretary for the Young Men’s Christian Association and her mother, Etta Haugabook Hawkins, was a teacher, Kennedy was secure in her identity. She grew up associating with her neighbors: blacks, Jews, Italians, eastern Europeans. Where she lived, these people existed harmoniously, so Adrienne was not exposed to a racially motivated identity crisis until she entered Ohio State University in Columbus in 1949. There Kennedy felt isolated and inferior. Columbus’ restaurants were still segregated, and there was little interaction between blacks and whites. By the time she was graduated in 1953, her racial anger and her detestation of prejudice had eaten away at her in ways that would shape her future writing career.
Kennedy married Joseph Kennedy shortly after graduation and followed him to New York City, where they both attended Columbia University. She studied creative writing there from 1954 until 1956. In 1958, she studied at the American Theatre Wing, then at the New School of Social Research, and finally at Edward Albee’s Circle-in-the-Square School in 1962, where she was the only black student. Albee’s encouragement led to Kennedy’s continuing her writing career.
Her drama examines the inner struggles people encounter as they cope with their identities in relation to the outside forces that confront them. Kennedy’s plays are essentially without plot. Her leading characters have multiple personalities, reflecting aspects of their identities. She relies heavily on the use of masks, each reflecting the different identities of her characters and suggesting elements of African art and culture as well.
Biography (Critical Survey of Drama, Second Revised Edition)
Adrienne (Lita Hawkins) Kennedy was born on September 13, 1931, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Cornell Wallace Hawkins, a social worker, and the former Etta Haugabook, a teacher. She grew up in Cleveland, Ohio, and attended Ohio State University, where she received a bachelor’s degree in education in 1953. A few years later, she moved to New York and enrolled in creative writing classes at Columbia University and the New School for Social Research. In 1962, she joined Edward Albee’s Playwrights’ Workshop in New York City’s Circle in the Square. She wrote Funnyhouse of a Negro for Albee’s workshop. A decade later, she became a founder of the Women’s Theater Council. In 1953, the playwright married Joseph C. Kennedy, whom she divorced in 1966. She has two sons.
Kennedy settled in New York, where she divided her time between writing and teaching. She continued to receive awards and recognition for her writing. On March 7, 1992, the opening date of her play The Ohio State Murders, the mayor of Cleveland proclaimed the day Adrienne Kennedy Day in Cleveland.
Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
The author of some of the most interesting and provocative plays to emerge from the experimental theater scene after the 1960’s, Adrienne Kennedy is a chronicler of the surreal and the world of dream and myth. Kennedy’s technique has been described as using form “to project an interior reality and thereby creating a rich and demanding theatrical style.” Although her plays are complex and opaquely symbolic, puzzling critics and audiences alike, most commentators agree that performances of Kennedy’s work are intensely theatrical and rewarding.
Born Adrienne Lita Hawkins, the playwright was one of two children and the only daughter of Cornell Wallace Hawkins and Etta Haugabook Hawkins of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Although she was a precocious and imaginative child who learned to read at age three, Kennedy enjoyed an average middle-class childhood in an integrated neighborhood. She was encouraged by her parents, who were college graduates and respected professionals, and she read voraciously and began writing stories while still a child. Because of her comfortable and relatively sheltered upbringing spent in the company of people of different ethnic and religious backgrounds, Kennedy was completely unprepared for the reality of racism she encountered while studying at Ohio State University. The segregated restaurants of Cleveland and the hostile white students at the university were an education in themselves; in her plays, she later she drew on the anger that developed during this time. After receiving her degree in 1953, she married Joseph C. Kennedy, who was sent by the U.S. Army to Korea shortly after the wedding.
It was during her husband’s absence that Kennedy first tried writing two short theatrical pieces, one based on an Elmer Rice play, the other influenced by Tennessee Williams’s The Glass Menagerie (pr. 1944). Yet it was only with her husband’s return and his subsequent enrollment in the graduate program at Columbia Teachers’ College that Kennedy began to write in earnest, honing her craft in creative writing programs at Columbia University, the American Theatre Wing, and the...
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