Adenovirus Infections (Encyclopedia of Medicine)
Adenoviruses are DNA viruses (small infectious agents) that cause upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, and other infections in humans.
Adenoviruses were discovered in 1953. About 47 different types have been identified since then, and about half of them are believed to cause human diseases. Infants and children are most commonly affected by adenoviruses. Adenovirus infections can occur throughout the year, but seem to be most common from fall to spring.
Adenoviruses are responsible for 3-5% of acute respiratory infections in children and 2% of respiratory illnesses in civilian adults. They are more apt to cause infection among military recruits and other young people who live in institutional environments. Outbreaks among children are frequently reported at boarding schools and summer camps.
Most children have been infected by at least one adenovirus by the time they reach school age. Most adults have acquired immunity to multiple adenovirus types due to infections they had as children.
In one mode of adenovirus infection (called lytic infection because it destroys large numbers of cells), adenoviruses kill healthy cells and replicate up to one million new viruses per...
(The entire section is 1167 words.)
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Adenovirus Infections (Encyclopedia of Children's Health)
Adenoviruses are small infectious agents that cause upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, and other infections in humans.
Adenoviruses were discovered in 1953. By 2004 about 49 different types had been identified, and about half of those were believed to cause human diseases. Adenovirus infections can occur throughout the year, unlike the seasonality associated with other respiratory viruses.
In children, adenoviruses most often cause acute upper respiratory infections with fever and runny nose. Adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are responsible for most of these infections. Occasionally more serious lower respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia or bronchitis, may occur. Adenoviruses can also cause acute diarrhea in young children, characterized by fever and watery stools. This condition is caused by adenovirus types 40 and 41 and can last as long as two weeks.
As much as 51 percent of all hemorrhagic cystitis (inflammation of the bladder and of the tubes that carry urine to the bladder from the kidneys) in American and Japanese children can be attributed to adenovirus infection. A child who has hemorrhagic cystitis has bloody...
(The entire section is 1535 words.)