By: Andrew MacDonald
Source: MacDonald, Andrew. The Turner Diaries. Washington, D.C.: National Vanguard Press, 1978. Reprint, New York: Barricade Books, 1996, 1–2, 4–7.
About the Author: Andrew MacDonald was a pseudonym adopted by William L. Pierce (1933–2002) for his 1978 novel The Turner Diaries, which became infamous for its racist, anti-Semitic call to violence. With a doctorate in physics, Pierce pursued a career as a professor and scientist before founding the National Alliance in 1974. With its message of white supremacy, the National Alliance was considered one of the most dangerous organizations in America and was blamed for encouraging hate crimes against minorities.
The 1990s witnessed a series of confrontations that pitted the government against right-wing extremist groups. In August 1992, a shoot-out between U.S. marshals and white supremacist Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, left one marshal and two members of Weaver's family dead, and the violence fueled conspiracy theories among other separatist groups about the government's motives. The following year, when eighty Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) agents stormed the compound of the Branch Davidians,...
(The entire section is 2514 words.)
Want to Read More?
Subscribe now to read the rest of this article. Plus get complete access to 30,000+ study guides!
Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture
By: Douglas Coupland
Source: Coupland, Douglas. Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991, 105–106.
About the Author: Canadian Douglas Coupland (1961–) grew up in Vancouver, British Columbia, and studied art and design and business before turning to writing. In 1991, he published Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, which instantly turned him into the voice of the post-baby-boom cohort. Coupland followed it with a series of witty novels that explored the themes of technology, alienation, and popular culture, including Microserfs (1995) and Miss Wyoming (2000), and nonfiction works such as Souvenir of Canada (2002), a photo essay of what it means to be Canadian.
In 1990, the last members of the baby-boom generation, roughly defined as those born between 1946 and 1960, turned thirty years old. Now that they were officially middle age, the differences between the country's largest demographical cohort and those who followed in its wake—soon to be dubbed "Generation X"—became clear. Baby boomers had freely experimented with marijuana and LSD in the 1960s and cocaine in the 1970s; Generation Xers were plagued by a crack...
(The entire section is 2045 words.)
Talk Radio and the Republican Revolution
The Way Things Ought to Be
By: Rush H. Limbaugh III
Source: Limbaugh, III, Rush H. The Way Things Ought to Be. New York: Pocket Books, 1992, 204–207.
See, I Told You So
By: Rush H. Limbaugh III
Source: Limbaugh, III, Rush H. See, I Told You So. New York: Pocket Books, 1993, 266–267.
About the Author: H. Rush Limbaugh III (1951–) grew up in a wealthy, conservative family in Missouri. After flunking out of college, he pursued his long-held ambition of becoming a radio disk jockey in 1971. He worked at various stations throughout the 1970s, and after a stint as a salesman for the Kansas City Royals, he returned to the airwaves in 1984 as the host of a call-in show in Sacramento. In 1988, Limbaugh syndicated his show to fifty-six radio stations and expanded it to a weekday, three-hour slot from noon to 3:00 P.M. By 1993, his show had expanded to six hundred AM radio stations and claimed a weekly audience of eighteen million listeners.
One of the most important...
(The entire section is 2333 words.)
By: Earvin "Magic" Johnson with William Novak
Source: Johnson, Earvin "Magic," with William Novak. My Life. New York: Random House, 1992, 224–225, 249–252, 265–267.
About the Author: Earvin Johnson Jr. (1959–) grew up in a family of ten children in Lansing, Michigan, where his standout basketball playing on his high school team earned him the nickname "Magic." Johnson led Michigan State University to a National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball title in 1979. The first draft pick of the Los Angeles Lakers in 1979, Johnson led the team to five championships in the 1980s and was the highest-paid player in the NBA. On November 7, 1991, he announced that he had contracted the HIV virus, which precipitated his retirement as an NBA player. After playing for the gold-medal-winning U.S. men's basketball team at the 1992 Barcelona Summer Olympic Games, he became a successful entrepreneur and AIDS educator.
With about two-thirds of AIDS cases occurring among gay men in the 1980s, the gay community led protests to demand more research, testing, and treatment to meet the health-care crisis. Yet the leadership of activist groups such as the Gay Men's Health Crisis and ACT-UP reinforced the...
(The entire section is 2677 words.)
Thinking Inside and Outside the Box
Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution
By: Michael Hammer and James Champy
Source: Hammer, Michael, and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. New York: HarperCollins, 1993, 1–3.
About the Author: Dr. Michael Hammer (1948–) was the leader of the "reengineering" movement in the 1990s. A former engineer and professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Hammer emphasized efficiency, planning, and a focus on "process-centered" management in his works, which included the 1993 best-seller Reengineering the Corporation, written with James Champy (1942–).
The Dilbert Principle
Nonfiction work, Cartoon
By: Scott Adams
Source: Adams, Scott. The Dilbert Principle. New York: HarperBusiness, 1996, 274–279.
About the Author: Using his seventeen years of experience as a computer programmer at the Crocker Bank and engineer at the Pacific Bell telecommunications company, Scott Adams (1957–) struck a nerve with his...
(The entire section is 2287 words.)
Closing Arguments in the O.J. Simpson Trial
By: Johnnie Cochran
Date: September 28, 1995
Source: Cochran, Johnnie. Closing Arguments in the O.J. Simpson Trial. September 28, 1995. Available online at http://simpson.walraven.org/sep28.html; website home page: http://simpson.walraven.org (accessed July 10, 2003).
About the Author: Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr. (1937–) earned his law degree from Loyola University in 1962. He worked for the Los Angeles City Attorney's Office from 1962 to 1965 before establishing his own practice. Specializing in police-brutality lawsuits, Cochran eventually won over $45 million in judgments against the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD). He also became a sought-after lawyer by celebrities facing criminal prosecution and civil lawsuits, including football player Jim Brown, actor Todd Bridges, and entertainer Michael Jackson. Cochran became a national celebrity himself as part of the "Dream Team" of defense lawyers representing O.J. Simpson in his double-murder trial in 1994–1995.
On June 12, 1994, Nicole Brown Simpson, the ex-wife of former professional football star O.J. Simpson, and her friend, Ronald Goldman, were found murdered on the...
(The entire section is 2647 words.)
"Women's Rights Are Human Rights"
By: Hillary Rodham Clinton
Source: Rodham Clinton, Hillary. "Women's Rights Are Human Rights: Remarks to the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women." September 5, 1995.
About the Author: Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947–) grew up in the Chicago area. She earned her bachelor's degree in political science at Wellesley College in 1969 and in 1973 completed a law degree at Yale University, where she began a relationship with fellow law student Bill Clinton. The two married in 1975 and lived in Clinton's native Arkansas, where he pursued a political career as she taught and practiced law. She served on several state boards related to health care, educational reform, and children's welfare. When her husband was elected president in 1992, she took on a policy role on health care and children's issues. In 2000, she became the only former First Lady to win office when she was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York.
Like most of her predecessors, Hillary Rodham Clinton, who served as the nation's First Lady from 1993 to 2001, was a lightning rod for criticism and commendation. A Yale-educated lawyer and public policy expert in her own right, she had continued to pursue her own legal career during her husband's...
(The entire section is 2001 words.)
Microsoft Network Home Page
By: Microsoft Corporation
Source: Microsoft Network home page, 1996. Available online at http://web.archive.org/web/19961022175327/http://msn.com (accessed March 11, 2003).
About the Author: The Microsoft Corporation (originally "Micro-Soft") was founded in 1975 by childhood friends Bill Gates (1955–) and Paul G. Allen (1953–). Both had a longstanding interest in building their own computers and left college to develop software for the new personal-computer market. Developing programs for computer manufacturers, Microsoft had annual revenues of $1 million by 1978. In 1980, Microsoft entered into an agreement with IBM for the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS), which became one of the standard software programs in the industry. The phenomenal growth of the personal computer industry and Microsoft's dominance of its field made Gates a billionaire by the end of the 1980s, and both partners were consistently ranked on the list of the richest people in the world throughout the 1990s.
In the 1990s, personal computers and the Internet transformed American society in ways that rivaled the changes brought by the automobile earlier in the...
(The entire section is 1079 words.)
"The Manifest Destiny of Anna Nicole Smith"
By: Lisa Carver
Source: Carver, Lisa. "The Manifest Destiny of Anna Nicole Smith." In Dancing Queen: The Lusty Adventures of Lisa Crystal Carver. New York: Henry Holt, 1996, 133–137.
About the Author: Lisa Carver (1969–) grew up in Dover, New Hampshire, and worked as a performance artist in the 1980s. Her self-published Rollerderby was one of the most popular "zines" of the 1990s, with essays on popular culture, class relations, and sex. Carver's work also appeared on the Internet website Nerve.com. The subject of Carver's essay, Anna Nicole Smith, was born Vickie Lynn Hogan in Mexia, Texas, in 1967. After a brief teenage marriage, Smith worked as a stripper in Houston and appeared in Playboy magazine in 1992. The following year she was named Playmate of the Year, modeled for Guess? jeans, and began a film career. Her 1994 marriage to eighty-nine-year-old oil billionaire J. Howard Marshall II left her widowed in 1995. While Smith went through a lengthy court battle with one of Marshall's sons over his estate, she appeared on the E! Entertainment Television network in a reality show of her daily life beginning in 2002. The show became the network's highest-rated program.
(The entire section is 2065 words.)
"Worker Rights for Temps!"
By: Jeff Kelly
Source: Kelly, Jeff. "Worker Rights for Temps!" The Best of Temp Slave! Madison, Wisc.: Garrett County Press, 1997, 139–140.
About the Author: Born around 1960 in Pennsylvania, Jeff Kelly eventually relocated to Madison, Wisconsin. When a job as a temporary worker failed to materialize into a promised permanent position in 1993, Kelly produced his first issue of Temp Slave! in his last days at work. Kelly went on to publish the iconoclastic "zine" through 1999 "as an attempt to analyze the changing face of work in America," as he told the Zine Book website. "It's also geared toward bringing humor into the political scene." After Kelly secured a permanent job as a press operator, he stopped publishing Temp Slave! but remained a frequently quoted commentator on the plight of working Americans.
In 1992, Bill Clinton won the presidency on a platform that highlighted voters' concerns with the country's economy. Noting the rising hours and falling wages of the average worker, Clinton often noted that Americans were working more for less than in previous years. The statistics bore out Clinton's claim. As measured in inflation-adjusted dollars, weekly wages had peaked at...
(The entire section is 1809 words.)
The Immigration Debate
"To Reunite a Nation"
By: Patrick J. Buchanan
Date: January 18, 2000
Source: Buchanan, Patrick J. "To Reunite a Nation." Delivered at the Richard M. Nixon Library, January 18, 2000. Available online at (accessed March 8, 2003).
About the Author: Patrick J. Buchanan (1938–) was raised in a Catholic family in Washington, D.C., where he learned the argumentative style that would later serve him well. After studying at Georgetown University and the Columbia University School of Law, he began a career as a journalist before joining the New York City law firm where Richard Nixon practiced. When Nixon was elected president in 1968, Buchanan joined his administration as a speechwriter. He returned to journalism as a columnist in the 1970s and began a television broadcast career. Aligning himself with the Republican Party, Buchanan launched unsuccessful presidential bids in 1992, 1996, and 2000 on a conservative platform that opposed abortion and free trade and called for a reduction in immigration.
"Will It Come to This?"
By: U.S. English, Inc.
Source: U.S. English, Inc. Available online at
(The entire section is 1959 words.)
Kurt Cobain Journals
By: Kurt Cobain
Source: Cobain, Kurt. Kurt Cobain Journals. New York: Riverhead, 2002, 44, 167–170.
About the Author: Kurt Cobain (1967–1994) grew up in the logging town of Aberdeen, Washington. Scarred by his parents' divorce, Cobain dropped out of high school and began singing and playing guitar with several local punk bands. He formed Nirvana with bassist Krist Novoselic around 1986; the band was completed with the addition of drummer Dave Grohl in 1990. After the release of Bleach on the Seattle-based Sub Pop label in 1989, Nirvana signed with Geffen Records in 1990 and released its major-label debut, Nevermind, in 1991. The band released just one more original studio album, In Utero (1993) before Cobain's death from suicide, which was discovered on the morning of April 8, 1994. Cobain was survived by his wife, singer and actress Courtney Love, and their daughter.
The domination of MTV over the music and culture of young Americans in the 1980s sparked numerous complaints about the direction that the nation was headed. Parents, educators, and law-enforcement groups were disturbed by videos that glamorized sex and violence, and they were far from alone in their...
(The entire section is 2259 words.)