Topics in the News
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
Since the 1970s many governments, businesses, and universities routinely used affirmative action policies in hiring and admissions to correct the lingering burdens of racism and gender discrimination. Beginning in the 1980s the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice William Hubbs Rehnquist, an opponent of affirmative action, began limiting such programs and making it harder to prove employment discrimination. In an effort to overrule the position of the Justices, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which voided some attempts by the Court to scale back laws and policies designed to redress prior discrimination. The statute, however, prohibited the use of quotas in hiring, promotions, and college admissions. In 1996 the Supreme Court refused to review a 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in Hopwood v. Texas that declared unconstitutional the race-based preference admissions system used by the University of Texas Law School. This ruling set a precedent by prohibiting separate standards for minority admissions. Affirmative action programs were also assaulted through the ballot. In California and Washington, initiatives limiting preferential hiring and race-based college admissions were adopted. In spite of strong opposition from civilrights and women's groups, California voters in 1997 passed Proposition 209, which proscribed state and local governments,...
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Crime and Punishment
Reflecting the downturn in crimes committed by and against adults, public opinion polls in the 1990s indicated that citizens felt safer in their homes and neighborhoods than they had in the 1980s. Polls also showed that in 1998, 48 percent of Americans thought that there was less crime in their local areas than in the previous year, while in 1989 only 18 percent responded that there was less crime. In 1998, in contrast to a poll taken ten years earlier, the number of people who thought there was less crime nationwide than in the previous year increased by 30 percent.
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Growing Hate Movement.
During the 1990s a proliferation of extremist and militant activities emerged, ranging from Ku Klux Klan marches to murders and bombings. Tens of thousands of Americans joined various antigovernment and hate groups. Early in the decade right-wing domestic terrorism rose to a level not seen since the activities of left-wing student radicals and militants of the late 1960s and early 1970s. There were about five hundred active militia groups across the country, some with only a few members and others with thousands. Many of these groups were antigovernment, racist, and anti-Semitic; they were often well-organized, heavily armed, and held national meetings and local training sessions on a regular basis. While most groups did not use violence, there were some tragic examples of how far extremist individuals and organizations were willing to go in waging war against the government and other traditional targets of hate, namely racial and ethnic minorities. There were scores of arson attacks against black churches in the South. Homosexuals and Jews were also targeted. With the growth of the radical right, state and federal law enforcement agencies were assigned to monitor and control these groups. In some cases they failed in this task.
One of the longest violent-crime cases of the Federal Bureau of...
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During the 1990s several judicial and legislative challenges were made to environmental protection laws passed in previous decades. Reflecting a growing property-rights movement that sought to strengthen the economic rights of landowners against government attempts to protect the environment, the federal courts, packed with conservative, probusiness Reagan and Bush administration appointees, tended to favor private-property owners and developers over environmental litigants. By mid decade the Republican-controlled Congress also worked to reduce or eliminate environmental programs and policies, as well as limit the scope of environmental protection regulations.
Targeting core environmental protection efforts, such as the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), Clean Air Act (1970), Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 1972), and Endangered Species Act (1973), advocates of strong property rights attempted to broaden the meaning of the "takings clause" of the Fifth Amendment to include partial takings. They also challenged state police powers to protect against public nuisances and to impose zoning restrictions. In a two-prong attack, developers and private landowners sought judicial remedies to prevent takings and for greater compensation. The due process clause of the Fourteenth...
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Problems Plague the Courts.
The 1990s was plagued by partisan fighting over the federal judiciary. In 1991 controversy arose over the confirmation of a U.S. Supreme Court justice who was accused of sexual harassment. By mid decade, as the political composition of the Congress moved increasingly to the right and tension between it and the White House heightened, scores of federal inferior court seats were left unfilled as the president and Republican senators fought over nominations.
The Supreme Court.
During the 1990s there were four appointments to the U.S. Supreme Court. President George Bush appointed two associate justices. David Hackett Souter took office on 9 October 1990, filling the vacancy created by the retirement of the politically moderate Justice William Joseph Brennan Jr. On 23 October 1991 Clarence Thomas replaced renowned liberal justice Thurgood Marshall. President Bill Clinton also made two appointments. Ruth Bader Ginsburg took office on 10 August 1993, following the retirement of President John F. Kennedy appointee Justice Byron R. White, the only Democrat left on the Court at the time. On 3 August 1994 Stephen Gerald Breyer filled the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Harry Andrew Blackmun, who had been appointed by President Richard M. Nixon.
The Rehnquist Court....
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Throughout the 1990s political parties established policy positions on gun control in their platforms, politicians vigorously campaigned on one side or the other of the gun-control issue, and interest groups lobbied Congress and the courts to increase or reduce restrictions on firearms ownership. The controversy centered around the need to curb crime, on one hand, and the Second Amendment right to bear arms, on the other. Pro-gun-control advocates claimed that the scales must be slightly tipped in favor of maintaining public order. Antigun-control proponents argued that law-abiding citizens have the constitutional right to protect themselves and their property with firearms. The issue, however, involved more than public and private security. At times, gun control became a Tenth Amendment issue. Some states contended that the federal government overstepped its bounds when it attempted to mandate that states perform background checks before allowing citizens to purchase handguns. These fundamental constitutional issues were often decided by the courts.
Reflecting the public concern over violent and drug-related crime, Democratic President Bill Clinton worked with the Republican majority in Congress to pass groundbreaking crime-control legislation. Efforts to require background checks for handgun purchases had...
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While the catalyst for the impeachment of President Bill Clinton was a 1998 report submitted to the U.S. House of Representatives by independent counsel Kenneth W. Starr, investigations into Clintons background began shortly after he took office. In 1993 Attorney General Janet Reno appointed a special counsel to investigate his involvement in a failed real estate venture, known as White-water, and in a defunct Arkansas financial institution, Madison Guaranty Savings and Loan. Originally headed by former federal prosecutor Robert B. Fiske Jr., Starr took over as independent counsel in August 1995. The investigation was gradually broadened to include the suicide of Deputy White House counsel Vincent W. Foster Jr., whose files were discovered missing after his death; the truthfulness of Clintons depositions in the sexual harassment case filed by Paula Corbin Jones, a former Arkansas state employee; and his alleged relationship with former White House intern Monica S. Lewinsky. On 17 January 1998 Clinton testified under oath to Jones's lawyers that he had not had a sexual relationship with Lewinsky. On 6 August 1998 Lewinsky testified before a grand jury convened by Starr that she had had a relationship with the President. On 17 August, Clinton gave his grand jury testimony via closed circuit television and admitted having had an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky. On 9...
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Juvenile Criminals and Victims
The 1990s was a period of violence for the youth in the United States. The number of serious crimes committed by and against juveniles rose dramatically in the first half of the decade, reaching historically high rates. Although violent crime began to decline by mid decade, drug offenses continued to increase. National statistics also indicated that not only were youth committing more crimes, but they were increasingly the victims as well. There were also several highly publicized and deadly school shootings involving young assailants. The public, government, and courts struggled to find explanations for and solutions to teen violence.
On 20 April 1999 gunfire erupted in a suburban high school in Littleton, Colorado, near Denver. Seniors Eric Harris, eighteen, and Dylan Klebold, seventeen, killed fifteen people total, and sent more than twenty others to hospitals with gunshot and shrapnel wounds, before turning their weapons on themselves. This attack was the deadliest school shooting in American history. Television images were broadcast nationwide of students fleeing from the building with their hands above their heads. Not shown were wounded victims still inside the school and beyond police help. Hundreds of officers from throughout the Denver area surrounded the school. Reflecting the ease with which children use...
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The Legal Profession
Law School Enrollment.
In 1990 there were 127,261 students enrolled in American Bar Association-approved law schools. This number increased to 129,397 in 1995, but dropped to 125,627 by 1998-1999. Despite the decline in total law school enrollment, the number of women in law programs rose consistently throughout the decade. In 1990 there were 54,097 women (43 percent) enrolled in 175 law schools; by 1998 the figure increased to 57,952 (46 percent) in 181 programs. The number of minority students also rose. In 1990 blacks, Hispanies, Asian/Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans constituted 14 percent (17,330) of law students. By 1998 minority enrollment increased to an historic high of 25,266 or just over 20 percent. The attrition rate among law students increased slightly during the decade, the vast majority of whom quit in their first year. A slightly higher percentage of men dropped out than women—in 1990, 3,187 male and 2,245 female students quit; in 1997, 3,418 men and 2,469 women dropped out.
Degrees and Bar Admissions.
The number of Juris Doctorate degrees awarded increased from 36,385 in 1990 to 39,455 in 1998. Women received 42 percent (15,345) of these degrees in 1990 and 45 percent (17,662) in 1998. Minorities awarded law degrees also increased from 4,128 in 1990 to 7,754 in 1998. Bar admissions rose from...
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United States of America v. Microsoft Corporation.
Since the early 1990s computer software giant Microsoft had been the target of federal investigations. In November 1999 a federal judge issued a "finding of facts" that stated the company had used its monopolistic market position to aggressively stifle competition and harm consumers. Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia heard testimony between October 1998 and June 1999 on the civil antitrust allegations that Microsoft had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) and various state statutes. In what was only an initial, albeit important, stage in the judicial process, the ruling in United States of America v. Microsoft Corporation, laid out the factual basis for determining that Microsoft had violated antitrust laws.
The Sherman Act was passed to dismantle monopolies of the giant steel companies and other huge corporations that emerged in the U.S. industrial revolution after the Civil War (1861-1865). Antitrust laws are designed to protect competition and benefit consumers with more and better products at lower prices. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Justice Department enforce antitrust laws.
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Race, Justice, and the Media
Conflicts over Rights.
The Bill of Rights guarantees citizens freedom of expression, a free press, and the right to a fair trial. Journalists argued that they had the right to cover every trial based on the public's right to know. Lawyers and judges maintained that publicity should not affect judicial trials. During the 1990s, however, these rights appeared to be in conflict in two highly publicized cases, which were further complicated when some segments of the public perceived the incidents and verdicts to be racially tainted.
On 3 March 1991 Rodney Glen King, a high school dropout who had served a year in prison for theft and aggravated assault, was driving on a California freeway with two friends. When Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers attempted to stop him for speeding, King, who had been drinking and was still on parole, led the police on a high-speed chase and was finally forced off the road. During his arrest, several officers used force against King. They claimed that the six-foot, three-inch King charged them and resisted arrest; King contended that he was afraid of the white officers and had attempted to defend himself. While the incident was in progress, unknown to anyone at the scene, residents of a nearby apartment complex were awakened by the noise. One man videotaped part of the incident....
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For decades, tobacco companies rarely lost health-related lawsuits filed by consumers. This trend changed in the 1990s as the tobacco industry paid hundreds of billions of dollars in settlements. Law suits were filed by individuals, groups (class action suits), states, and cities. As a result, cigarette prices soared. Smoking was made even more expensive as sales taxes on cigarettes were increased in an effort to discourage smoking and to raise revenue. State and federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, launched antismoking campaigns, primarily targeted at youth. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), an estimated forty-seven million adults in the United States were cigarette smokers in 1999. While cigar smoking increased by almost 70 percent from the 1980s, mostly among males, overall adult smoking consistently declined during the decade. After a twenty-year downward trend, however, tobacco use among individuals under the age of eighteen increased by more than 30 percent. Tobacco use was responsible for more than 430,000 deaths each year, or one in every five deaths, and associated health costs were $100 billion.
On 14 November 1998 a settlement was reached between four of the largest cigarette manufacturers and forty-six states. In the largest civil settlement in...
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The right to abortion was affirmed by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade (1973). Since the 1980s, however, the Court has consistently allowed states to impose restrictions on this right. In Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) the Court permitted Pennsylvania to limit abortions as long as state laws and regulations did not place an "undue burden" on pregnant women. The decision upheld a twenty-four-hour waiting period for abortions and parental consent requirements for minors seeking abortions. While the ruling did not overturn Roe it limited the 1973 decision. During the 1990s Congress and the Clinton administration battled over abortion and reproductive rights. President Bill Clinton ended bans on fetal tissue research and abortions in military hospitals and lifted the "gag" rule enacted in 1987 that prevented public health clinics receiving federal funds from discussing abortion as a family planning option. He also lifted the ban on testing of RU-486, an "abortion pill." By mid decade, however, with the new Republican majority Congress, activities restricting abortions resumed.
Partial Birth Abortion.
In 1996 and 1998 Congress passed bans on "partial birth" abortions, a procedure used late-term to terminate pregnancies. On each occasion, however, President Clinton...
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Cochran, Johnnie 1937-
Johnnie L. Cochran Jr. was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, in the midst of the Great Depression. In 1943 he and his family moved to California. In 1955 Cochran enrolled in the University of California, Los Angeles and then graduated from Loyola Law School. During the early years of his private practice many cases he defended involved controversial and often racial issues. In 1966 he represented the family of a black man shot by Los Angeles police officers. He was the court-appointed attorney in 1969 for a case involving a member of the Black Panthers, an extremist civilrights organization. In 1978 Cochran became an assistant district attorney in Los Angeles, the first black to serve in this capacity, and he initiated programs to assist victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. He left the District Attorney's office in 1982 to return to private practice and began to represent high-profile celebrity clients, including Elizabeth Taylor and Michael Jackson.
Cochran gained national notoriety in 1994 when he joined O. J. Simpson's defense team. Simpson, a former football player turned actor, was accused of murdering his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and Ronald Goldman. Along with fellow defense attorney F. Lee Bailey, Cochran developed the "race card" strategy as a...
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Dees, Morris 1936-
ATTORNEY, CIVIL-RIGHTS ACTIVIST
Born in Shorter, Alabama, the son of a farmer and cotton-gin operator, Morris Seligman Dees Jr. attended undergraduate school at the University of Alabama and then the University of Alabama School of Law. He founded a mail-order book publishing business, Fuller & Dees Marketing Group, which grew to be one of the largest publishing companies in the South. In 1969 Dees sold the company to Times Mirror, the parent company of the Los Angeles Times. In 1967 Dees began taking controversial cases that were unpopular within his white Southern community. For instance, he filed suit to stop construction of an all-white university in Alabama. He filed suit in 1968 to integrate the all-white Montgomery YMCA. As he continued to pursue equal opportunities for minorities and the poor, Dees and his law partner Joseph J. Levin Jr. recognized the need for a nonprofit organization dedicated to seeking justice. In 1971 the two lawyers and civilrights activist Julian Bond founded the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).
Fighting Hate. Dees served as the chief trial counsel and chair of the executive committee for the SPLC during the 1990s. In this capacity he tracked and sued hate groups, as well as developed educational programs to teach tolerance to youth. In 1994, after uncovering links between white...
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Hill, Anita 1956-
Anita F. Hill was born in 1956 in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, the youngest daughter of farmers. A devoted Baptist, she attended Oklahoma State University and graduated in 1977. She earned her J.D. at Yale University in 1980 and took a position with Wald, Harkrader & Ross of Washington. In 1981 she met Clarence Thomas and began to work with him in his capacity as Assistant Secretary of Education for Civil Rights. In 1983 she accepted a teaching post at Oral Roberts University, and later taught law at the University of Oklahoma.
In September 1991 Hill was asked if she knew anything about allegations that U.S. Supreme Court nominee Thomas had sexually harassed women. After several inquiries, she acknowledged that she had been a victim. On 10 September the Senate Judiciary Committee opened hearings on Thomas's nomination. Initially, Hill resisted testifying. The committee voted thirteen to one to recommend Thomas as an Associate Justice on 8 October. Later that day, however, Senator Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (D-Delaware), chair of the committee, informed Hill that...
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Hutchinson, Asa 1950-
U.S. REPRESENTATIVE, IMPEACHMENT PROSECUTOR
Asa Hutchinson was born in Gravette, Arkansas, on 3 December 1950. He attended Arkansas public schools and received a bachelor's degree in accounting from Bob Jones University in 1972. He earned his law degree from the University of Arkansas in 1975, where Bill Clinton taught, although Hutchinson did not take any of his classes. In 1986 the Arkansas Jaycees named him one of the ten outstanding young leaders in the state.
In 1977 Hutchinson assumed his first public office as city attorney for Bentonville, Arkansas. From 1982 to 1985 he served as U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas. Appointed by President Ronald Reagan, Hutchinson was, at age thirty-one, the youngest federal prosecutor in the country. During his tenure as U.S. Attorney, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) awarded Hutchinson a citation for his successful prosecution of a terrorist group in northern Arkansas known as the Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord. In 1984 he brought a cocaine-distributing charge against Roger Clinton, the half brother of Governor Bill Clinton. Roger Clinton pleaded guilty. Hutchinson then practiced law for the Fort Smith firm of Karr 8¢ Hutchinson. In 1986 he ran an unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate seat from...
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Jones, Paula Corbin 1966-
ARKANSAS STATE EMPLOYEE
Paula Corbin was born in Lonoke, Arkansas, in 1966. She graduated from high school in 1984, and worked as saleswoman, rental car clerk, and secretary. In 1991 she accepted a position as a clerk with the Arkansas Industrial Development Commission (AIDC); she also married Steven Jones. She moved to California in 1993.
In February 1994 Jones publicly accused President Bill Clinton of sexual harassment. Jones claimed that the alleged incident occurred in 1991, when she was a state employee, during Clinton's tenure as the governor of Arkansas. Although she received little initial attention from the mainstream press, Jones, who said that she waited two years to make the charge because she feared not being believed, was soon supported by Clinton's political opponents. Jones alleged that on 8 May 1991, when she was working at a conference for the AIDC in Little Rock, Arkansas, a state trooper approached her, handed her a piece of paper with a hotel room number on it, and told her that Clinton wanted to meet with her. Jones went to the room, where she alleged Clinton...
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Rehnquist, William 1924-
CHIEF JUSTICE, U.S. SUPREME COURT
William Hubbs Rehnquist was born on 1 October 1924 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He served in the Army Air Corps during World War II. After leaving the military he attended Stanford University where he received a B.A. in political science, and earned master's degrees in political science from both Stanford (1948) and Harvard (1950), before attending Stanford Law School. He graduated first in his class in 1952 with an LL.B. and was awarded the Order of the Coif. Rehnquist then served as a clerk to Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson. During his tenure as a clerk, he drafted a memo for Justice Jackson that stated racial segregation in education was "right and should be affirmed." Following the clerkship, Rehnquist practiced law in Phoenix, Arizona. He then served as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Affairs in the Department of Justice. In 1971 President Richard M. Nixon nominated Rehnquist to be an associate justice on the Supreme Court, filling the seat vacated by Justice John Marshall Harlan. He served as an associate justice on the bench until 1986 when President Ronald Reagan nominated him to replace retiring Chief Justice Warren Earl Burger. Rehnquist is the sixteenth Chief Justice.
During the 1990s the Supreme Court made...
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Reno, Janet 1938-
ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES
Janet Reno was born 21 July 1938 in Miami, Florida, the daughter of Danish immigrants, both of whom were reporters. She graduated from Cornell University in 1960 and from Harvard Law School in 1963, one of only sixteen women in a class of more than five hundred. After graduation, Reno was denied a position with a major Miami law firm because she was a woman. After being in private practice for several years, she was named staff director of the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives in 1971. In this position she helped to rewrite the state constitution and reform the court system. The following year she lost a bid for a seat in the state legislature. Reno then took a position in the state attorney's office, where she was assigned to the juvenile division. In 1978 she became the first woman to head a prosecutor's office in Florida.
In 1993 Reno was nominated to the position of U.S. Attorney General by President Bill Clinton. When sworn in on 12 March 1993 she became the first woman ever to hold the position. Noted for her strong-willed, straightforward manner, Reno had a reputation for being willing to make difficult decisions. This characteristic was tested shortly after she took office. One of her first major decisions as...
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Simpson, Orenthal James "O. J." 1947-
FOOTBALL PLAYER, ACTOR,
Image Pop-UpO.J. Simpson
Almost the American Dream.
O. J. Simpson ran away with rushing and scoring records during his spectacular professional football career, but in 1994 he found himself publicly running from the law in what became the most bizarre murder investigation and trial of the decade. The June 1994 murder of Simpson's former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman dominated media attention for nearly two years and turned the football hero and actor into a public pariah. Simpson's trial revealed deep divisions in the way Americans perceived the confluence of race, wealth, and justice, as lawyers, judges, detectives, friends, and family members became household names in a surreal, but very public, murder mystery.
Orenthal James Simpson was born 9 July 1947 in San Francisco, California. He and his mother, Eunice, lived in the Petrero Hills public housing projects where there were few opportunities for African American children to succeed and many opportunities to get in trouble. Though Simpson spent his formative years at the...
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People in the News
In 1999 Nathaniel Abraham, thirteen, was tried and convicted as an adult for the 29 October 1997 murder of eighteen-year-old Ronnie Greene Jr. The case attracted national attention and sparked contentious debate over juvenile justice because he was only eleven years old when he was charged with first-degree murder under a controversial Michigan law that allows children under age seventeen to be tried as adults.
On 6 May 1994 Deborah A. Batts became the first openly homosexual woman to be appointed to the federal courts. A graduate of Radcliffe College and Harvard Law School, she served as an Assistant Attorney General in the U.S. Justice Department and an associate professor at Fordham University School of Law before her appointment to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York.
In 1994 Stephen Gerald Breyer was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court as an Associate Justice by President Bill Clinton. He was sworn in on 3 August 1994. His field of expertise is regulatory law.
In a racially motivated murder that drew national attention, James Byrd Jr. was beaten and decapitated in June 1998 as he was dragged behind a pickup truck in Jasper, Texas. Three men, Shawn Allen Berry, John William King, and Lawrence Russell Brewer, members of a hate group, the Texas Rebel Soldiers, a branch of the...
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Harry Andrew Blackmun, 90, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1970-1994) who wrote the majority opinion in Roe v. Wade (1973), 4 March 1999.
Nils Andreas Boe, 78, judge, U.S. Court of International Trade and former governor of South Dakota, 30 July 1992.
William Joseph Brennan Jr., 91, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1956-1990), 24 July 1997.
Vincent L. Broderick, 74, judge, U.S. District Court of the Southern District of New York, 3 March 1995.
Vincent J. Browne, 80, civilrights scholar at Howard University, 27 August 1997.
Warren Earl Burger, 88, chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1969-1986) who wrote the decision in United States v. Richard Nixon (1974) establishing that claims of executive privilege do not shield presidents from judicial subpoenas, leading to the release of Nixon's tapes and ultimately to his resignation from the presidency, 25 June 1995.
Thomas Emmet Claire, judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, 24 September 1997.
Franklin T. Dupree, judge, U.S. District Court of the Eastern District of North Carolina, 17 December 1995.
Erika S. Fairchild, criminal-justice scholar at North...
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Robert H. Bork, Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline (New York: Regan Books, 1996).
Ann H. Coulter, High Crimes and Misdemeanors: The Case Against Bill Clinton (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1998).
Alan M. Dershowitz, Sexual McCarthyism: Clinton, Starr, and the Emerging Constitutional Crisis (New York: Basic Books, 1998).
Steven J. Eagle, Regulatory Takings (Charlottesville, Va.: Michie, 1996).
Barry C. Feld, Bad Kids: Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Stanley H. Friedelbaum, The Rehnquist Court: In Pursuit of Judicial Conservatism (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994).
Leslie Friedman Goldstein, ed., Feminist Jurisprudence: The Difference Debate (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Little-field, 1992).
Anita Hill, Speaking Truth to Power (New York: Doubleday, 1997).
Peter Irons, Brennan vs. Rehnquist: The Battle for the Constitution (New York: Knopf, 1994).
Barbara Klier, Nancy R. Jacobs, and Jacquelyn Quiram, Gun Control: Restricting Rights or Protecting People? (Wylie, Tex.: Information Plus, 1999).
John R. Lott Jr., More Guns, Less...
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Important Events in Law and Justice, 1990–1999
- On January 3, Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno, dictator of Panama (1983–1989), is arrested on drug smuggling, racketeering, and money-laundering charges. He is sentenced to forty years in prison on July 10, 1992.
- On January 9, in University of Pennsylvania and E.E.O.C. the Supreme Court ruled that requiring a university to disclose confidential peer review materials in a racial discrimination investigation does not violate the First Amendment.
- On January 17, in Swaggart Ministries and California Board of Equalization, the Supreme Court rules that California's imposition of a sales and use tax on the sale of religious materials does not violate the Free Exercise or Establishment Clauses of the First Amendment.
- On January 18, Raymond Buckey and Peggy McMartin Buckey, former preschool operators in California, are acquitted of fifty-two child molestation charges.
- On January 18, Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry is arrested on drug charges.
- On January 19, former Supreme Court Justice Arthur J. Goldberg dies.
- On March 12, Clarence Thomas, who was nominated by President George Bush, takes the oath of office as a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
- On March 23, a judge in...
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