By: Jane Fonda
Source: Fonda, Jane. Jane Fonda's Workout Book. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981, 9–10, 35, 67–68.
About the Author: Jane Fonda (1937–), the daughter of actor Henry Fonda, grew up in California and New York. Gaining fame in a series of light comedies in the 1960s, Fonda eventually was acclaimed as one of the greatest actresses of her generation with Academy Award-winning roles in Klute (1971) and Coming Home (1978). She also provoked measures of admiration and criticism for her role in the anti-war movement, including a controversial trip to North Vietnam to protest America's involvement in Southeast Asia. In 1979 Fonda established the first of her Workout studios in Los Angeles; the publication of Jane Fonda's Workout Book followed in 1981. The book sold more than two million copies, and an accompanying record album, released in 1982, sold two million more copies. Fonda remained one of Hollywood's leading actresses until announcing her retirement upon her marriage to media mogul Ted Turner in 1991, her third marriage. Fonda separated from Turner in 2000.
Like many American women, Jane Fonda absorbed the standard ideals of femininity while she was growing...
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Megatrends: Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives
By: John Naisbitt
Source: Naisbitt, John. Megatrends: Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives. New York: Warner Books, 1982, 249–250, 251, 252.
About the Author: John Naisbitt (1929–) was born in in Salt Lake City and graduated from the University of Utah. He worked at IBM and Eastman Kodak before becoming a business consultant in the 1970s. His company, the Naisbitt Group, gathered information from hundreds of daily newspapers to formulate predictions on emerging social trends, a practice known as content analysis. Billing himself as "the world's leading futurist" and "the global philosopher among futurists," Naisbitt built a multimedia empire in the 1980s based on his best-selling books, seminars, and frequent talk-show appearances. Although criticized by social scientists as more of a public relations survey than a rigorous study of American society, Naisbitt's methods formed the basis of much of his later work, including his 1982 bestseller, Megatrends.
The digital electronic computer age began with the ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and computer), a thirty-ton device with 17,468 electronic vacuum tubes built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1946....
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President Ronald Reagan's Inaugural Address, January 21, 1985
By: Ronald Reagan
Date: January 21, 1985
Source: Reagan, Ronald. President Ronald Reagan's Inaugural Address, January 21, 1985. Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/ (accessed March 21, 2003).
About the Author: The fortieth President of the United States, Ronald Reagan (1911–) served two terms in office, from 1981 to 1989. Appearing as an actor in fifty-three movies from the 1930s through the 1950s, Reagan entered politics with a successful bid for the California governor's office in 1966. Reelected in 1970, Reagan became one of the leading conservative politicians in the United States. His 1980 presidential campaign emphasized patriotism, reduced government regulation, and lower taxes. In the early 1990s Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and thereafter ceased his public appearances.
Former California governor and movie actor Ronald Reagan won the presidency in 1980 by asking Americans a simple question throughout his campaign: "Are you better off now than you were four years ago?" After the high inflation, energy shortages, rising interest rates, and plant closings of the late 1970s, many...
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Less Than Zero
By: Bret Easton Ellis
Source: Ellis, Bret Easton. Less Than Zero. New York: Penguin Books, 1985, 39–43.
About the Author: Bret Easton Ellis (1964–) was born in Los Angeles. He published Less Than Zero at age twenty-one while still a college student. His subsequent novels have not had the success of his debut effort, and his violence-drenched 1991 novel, American Psycho, resulted in a boycott of his publisher. Ellis and Jay McInerny were two of the best-known members of the so-called "Literary Brat Pack" of the 1980s, when a flood of young authors gained fame for their best-selling books, high media profiles, and celebrity friends.
In contrast to the idealism of the 1960s and the search for self-fulfillment in the 1970s, the 1980s were dominated by more material concerns. The individual quest for the trappings of wealth and status, as well as Reagan administration policies that resulted in an increase of wealth for the upper class, resulted in booming sales of luxury items from multimillion-dollar mansions to art works to yachts. New "upscale" restaurants, nightclubs, health clubs, and spas appeared with regularity from New York City to Los Angeles and in major urban centers in between....
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The Closing of the American Mind
By: Allan Bloom
Source: Bloom, Allan. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987, 73–75, 78–79.
About the Author: Allan Bloom (1930–1992) demonstrated his intellectual brilliance by earning his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago at the age of nineteen. He stayed at the institution to earn his doctorate in philosophy in 1955 and taught at a series of prestigious universities before returning to the University of Chicago in 1979. He also co-directed the John M. Olin Center for Inquiry into the Theory and Practice of Democracy, a conservative think-tank, from 1984 until his death in 1992. With the publication of The Closing of the American Mind in 1987, Bloom became the leading neo-conservative thinker and social critic of his generation. ﾀ
When Allan Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind hit the top of the bestseller list in 1987, it kicked off a contentious debate among academics, policy makers, and the public at large. Few could have predicted that a book about the failure of America's higher-education system to teach its students central and lasting values would have had such an impact. Yet it became one of the most talked-about...
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Racial Fault Lines
Go and Tell Pharaoh: The Autobiography of the Reverend Al Sharpton
By: Al Sharpton and Anthony Walton
Source: Sharpton, Al, and Anthony Walton. Go and Tell Pharaoh: The Autobiography of the Reverend Al Sharpton. New York: Doubleday, 1996, 125, 127, 139, 141–142.
About the Author: The Reverend Al Sharpton (1954–) grew up in the Queens and Brooklyn boroughs of New York City. Ordained as a Pentecostal minister at the age of ten, Sharpton later joined the Baptist Church. Politically active during his youth, Sharpton was mentored in the 1970s by prominent civil rights leaders such as Jesse Jackson, Shirley Chisholm, and Adam Clayton Powell. He emerged as a national figure by organizing protests against the racially motivated attacks at Howard Beach in Queens in 1986. His role in the Tawana Brawley case the following year proved controversial and Sharpton was later found liable for defamation against one of the accused figures in the event. Sharpton remained in the public eye as an unsuccessful political candidate and leading civil rights activist.
Report of the Grand Jury Concerning
the Tawana Brawley Investigation
By: Grand Jury...
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The Specter of AIDS
San Francisco AIDS Foundation Advertisements
By: San Francisco AIDS Foundation
Source: San Francisco AIDS Foundation. Advertisements. 1986–1987. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.sfaf./org/ (accessed August 20, 2003.)
About the Organization: The San Francisco AIDS Foundation started out as the Kaposi Sarcoma Research and Education Foundation in 1981. A grassroots, volunteer organization to help men suffering from Kaposi's sarcoma, a formerly rare skin cancer that was a symptom of AIDS, the foundation evolved into a full support-service agency for AIDS patients as well as an outreach organization to educate the public about AIDS.
AIDS Doctors: Voices from
By: Ronald Bayer and Gerald M. Oppenheimer, eds.
Source: Bayer, Ronald, and Gerald M. Oppenheimer, eds. AIDS Doctors: Voices from the Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 21–25.
About the Authors: Ronald Bayer and Gerald M. Oppenheimer both practiced medicine in the late 1970s and...
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Army Recruiting Advertisements
"Be All That You Can Be: 95 Bravo"; "Take Something Valuable to College"
By: NW Ayer
Source: Gaslight Advertising Archives, Inc. Available online at http://www.gaslightarchives.com (accessed March 27, 2003).
About the Organization: Anticipating a shortfall in its recruiting goals, the U.S. Army hired the NW Ayer advertising
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Under Fire: An American Story
By: Oliver L. North with William Novak
Source: North, Oliver L., with William Novak. Under Fire: An American Story. New York: HarperCollins, 1991, 9–11, 14–15, 409.
About the Author: Oliver L. North (1943–), the son of a U.S. Army lieutenant colonel, graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and served on active duty in Vietnam in 1968–1969. In the 1970s he taught guerilla warfare tactics at U.S. Marine training centers in Virginia and Okinawa. In 1981 North joined the staff of the National Security Council. After Congress prohibited funding of the Contras, an anti-Communist rebel group dedicated to the overthrow of the Nicaraguan government, North began secretly raising funds for the group. When he was authorized to sell arms to Iran in 1985 with the intent to enlist that country's efforts to secure the release of American hostages in Lebanon, North decided to overcharge the Iranians and funnel the rest of the proceeds to the Contras. When the Iran-Contra affair, with North at its center, hit the headlines in late 1986, it damaged the credibility of the Reagan administration, even though it was never clear who authorized the deal and who knew about it.
The election of Ronald Reagan (served...
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Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line
By: Ben Hamper
Source: Hamper, Ben. Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line. New York: Warner Books, 1991, 117–119.
About the Author: Ben Hamper (1958–), a native of Flint, Michigan, went to work on a General Motors assembly line in 1977. He was the fourth generation in his family to become an autoworker, or "shoprat," as he called it. The deadening pace of the line and uncertainty of constantly being laid off and recalled induced panic attacks in Hamper, who finally left his factory job to pursue writing full-time as a columnist for the Michigan Voice and other publications. After appearing in Michael Moore's documentary of deindustrialization and its impact on Flint, Roger and Me, Hamper published Rivethead in 1991.
End of the Line: Autoworkers and
the American Dream
By: Richard Feldman and Michael Betzold, eds.
Source: Feldman, Richard, and Michael Betzold, eds. End of the Line: Autoworkers and the American Dream. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990, 111–114, 191, 195,...
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Cry of the Invisible: Writings from the Homeless and Survivors of Psychiatric Hospitals
By: Michael A. Susko, ed.
Source: Susko, Michael A., ed. Cry of the Invisible: Writings from the Homeless and Survivors of Psychiatric Hospitals. Baltimore: The Conservancy Press, 1991, 214–215, 230–231, 233, 235.
About the Author: Michael A. Susko, a Baltimore-based counselor who had worked for more than a decade with the homeless, collected the narratives in Cry of the Invisible. By focusing attention on the lives of the "invisible" people of the street, Susko also hoped to help the individuals find validation and healing. Rob, who describes his first day of being homeless, had graduated from medical school before schizophrenia left him unable to hold a job and alienated from his family. Like Rob, Jan was also diagnosed with mental disorders that resulted in several hospitalizations, which she resented. As her narrative shows, the institutional response to homelessness was often ineffective, and even counterproductive.
There has always been at least a small number of people who lived without permanent shelter throughout American history. Known in different eras as "hoboes," "vagrants," or "street people," it was not until the 1970s that the term "homeless" came into wide usage to...
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Son of a Preacher Man: My Search for Grace in the Shadows
By: Jay Bakker, with Linden Gross.
Source: Bakker, Jay, with Linden Gross. Son of a Preacher Man: My Search for Grace in the Shadows. New York: HarperCollins, 2001, 6–8.
Tammy: Telling It My Way
By: Tammy Faye Messner
Source: Messner, Tammy Faye. Tammy: Telling It My Way. New York: Villard, 1996, 128–129, 145, 147.
I Was Wrong
By: Jim Bakker, with Ken Abraham
Source: Bakker, Jim, with Ken Abraham. I Was Wrong. Nashville: Nelson, 1996, 514–515, 517–518.
About the Authors: Jim Bakker (1940–) and Tammy Faye LaValley (1942–) met as students at the North Central College run by the Assemblies of God in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The two dropped out to get married and in 1961 traveled around the country as Jim Bakker preached in various evangelical churches. In 1965 the couple began broadcasting a religiousthemed...
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