By: Lisa Birnbach
Source: Birnbach, Lisa, "Prep Persona Number 3." The Official Preppy Handbook. New York: Workman Publishing, 1980, 98–99.
About the Author: Lisa Birnbach (1959–) graduated from Brown University and achieved notoriety in the United States upon the publication in 1980 of The Official Preppy Handbook, a guide to the etiquette, dress codes, and mannerisms of the "preppy" culture. The book was number one on The New York Times bestseller list for thirty-eight weeks.
The origins of a preppy style can be traced to the 1890s when the growing number of private schools in England—also referred to as preparatory or prep schools—became increasingly exclusive and competitive. Schools and students perpetuated an image of exclusivity and status by wearing a school uniform which incorporated regal elements such as emblems or coats of arms, ties and ribbons in unique combinations of school colors, and monogrammed shirts and sweaters. This privileged look changed following World War I, when students began wearing their khaki-colored military uniforms to school. This blend of casual and classy became the defining mark of the "preppy look." The preppy style reached a new...
(The entire section is 716 words.)
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Calvin Klein Jeans Advertisement
By: Calvin Klein
Source: Calvin Klein Jeans Advertisement. 1980. AP/Wide World Photos. Available online at http://www.apwideworld.com/WWP_HOME/index.html (accessed May 9, 2003).
About the Designer: Designer Calvin Klein (1942–) was born in the Bronx, New York. Interested in fashion at an early age, he taught himself to sew and sketch. Klein attended the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan. He graduated from New York's Fashion Institute of Technology in 1964, and went on to a successful career as a fashion designer. In the early 1980s Klein led the industry in offering more affordable designer jeans to the market.
Before the 1950s made denim jeans fashionable, they were mainly worn and regarded as work clothing. That image changed as stars like James Dean began to sport denim jeans in the movies. In 1968, designer Calvin Klein and longtime friend Barry Schwartz opened an apparel company that offered a line of men's and women's coats. Klein was responsible for the design work while Schwartz used his business skills to launch their new company, Calvin Klein Limited. Klein had a chance meeting with a buyer from Bonwit Teller, one of the...
(The entire section is 746 words.)
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Design Submission for Vietnam Veterans Memorial Competition
By: Maya Lin
Date: March 1981
Source: Lin, Maya. Design Submission for Vietnam Veterans Memorial Competition. March 1981. "Vietnam Veterans Memorial: Evolution of the Memorial." Available online at http://www.nps.gov/vive/memorial/evolution.htm#; website home page: http://www.nps.gov (accessed July 17, 2003).
Work of art
By: Maya Lin
Source: Schwartz, Ira. Vietnam Veterans Memorial, September 21, 1984. Associated Press/Wide World Photos. Available online at http://www.apwideworld.com/WWP_HOME/index.html (accessed May 23, 2003).
About the Artist: Maya Lin (1959–) was born in Athens, Ohio. At the age of twenty-one, while still an architecture student at Yale University, Lin won the design competition for the Vietnam Memorial in the Washington Mall. Lin works as both an architect and a sculptor. Although she has designed numerous buildings, her public monuments have brought her the most recognition....
(The entire section is 1349 words.)
From Bauhaus to Our House
By: Tom Wolfe
Source: Wolfe, Tom. From Bauhaus to Our House. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1981.
About the Author: Tom Wolfe (1931–) was born in Richmond, Virginia. He was educated at Washington and Lee University and earned his Ph.D. at Yale. During a ten-year journalism career, Wolfe wrote for the Springfield (Massachusetts) Union, served as Latin American correspondent for the Washington Post, and wrote for both the New York Herald Tribune and New York Magazine. In 1963, Wolfe wrote a forty-two page "memo" on a custom car show in Los Angeles for Esquire that the magazine printed in full. Eventually, that memo became his very successful first book, The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine Flake Streamline Baby. Considered the father of the New Journalism movement, Wolfe has published a number of bestsellers in both fiction and nonfiction.
In the late 1920s, American architects and designers began to abandon traditional American design principles and to adopt a European style based on the teachings of the avant-garde Bauhaus school in Weimar, Germany. The Bauhaus (German for "house for building") was a design philosophy developed in response to the...
(The entire section is 2528 words.)
Apple IIc Computer
By: FrogDesign and Steve Jobs
Source: "Apple Computer President and Co-Founders." April 24, 1984. Corbis. Image no. BE023357. Available online at pro.corbis.com (accessed June 16, 2003).
About the Designers: FrogDesign was founded in 1969 in Germany by designer Hartmut Esslinger. Esslinger and his team had produced the brand images for Sony, Louis Vuitton, and several German industrial firms before expanding to the United States in 1983 to develop a design language for Apple Computers.
Steve Jobs (1955–) was born in Los Altos, California. At age twenty-one, Jobs co-founded the Apple Computer Corporation with Steve Wozniak and was a millionnaire by age 30. Jobs left Apple in 1985 to pursue other ventures.
Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs was from the outset deeply committed to effective and compelling industrial design for Apple products. He believed that intelligent graphics and products with proven usability did not merely determine how the consumer judged or identified with a company's product—successful design could also enhance the user's understanding of how a product worked and increase user comfort with the product. At a time when...
(The entire section is 769 words.)
Source: Nike Air Advertisment, 1985. The Advertising Archive. Image no. 30502939.
About the Designer: Peter Moore was Nike's lead designer during the 1980s. His original sketches for the Air Jordan line—to be named after basketball star Michael Jordan and first manufactured in 1985—featured the shoes among an array of other sports clothing including warm-up suits and basketball jerseys.
In 1984, the Chicago Bulls drafted North Carolina's star player, Michael Jordan. Jordan was the third overall pick in that year's draft. Nike saw Jordan's potential as a player in the National Basketball Association (NBA), and his potential as a spokesperson for their shoes.
The winning formula ultimately combined Jordan, who was voted NBA Rookie of the Year with the vision of Peter Moore. Moore had the inspiration to use Jordan, a rising star in the sports world who had considerable charisma, as the defining icon for a new product. In 1985, Nike launched the Air Jordans, a boldly red and black and surprisingly awkward-looking sports shoe. In the past, sneakers had always been white, with rare and notable exceptions: a pair of green and white Converse Weapons for Celtics' Larry Bird...
(The entire section is 741 words.)
"Selling a Dream of Elegance and the Good Life"
By: Stephen Koepp
Date: September 1, 1986
Source: Koepp, Stephen. "Selling a Dream of Elegance and the Good Life." Time, September 1, 1986, 55–58.
About the Designer: Ralph Lauren (1939–) is a native of the Bronx, New York, and studied at the City College there. He began his fashion career in 1967, designing ties for the Beau Brummell Tie Company. One year later, with a fifty-thousand dollar loan and a headful of tie designs, he founded Polo Fashions. Ralph Lauren has received numerous awards from the fashion industry, including the coveted Council of Fashion Designers of America's Lifetime Achievement Award.
Ralph Lifshitz was born into a family of poor Russian Jews. He was too short to become a baseball player, and he did not do well enough to become a rabbi, as his mother had wished. Lauren changed his surname at the age of sixteen. After a brief stint in the army, he got his
(The entire section is 1755 words.)
"Casting Center, Walt Disney World"
By: Robert A.M. Stern
Source: Kraft, Elizabeth, ed. "Casting Center, Walt Disney World." Robert A.M. Stern: Buildings and Projects, 1987–1992. New York: Rizzoli, 1992.
About the Architect: Robert A.M. Stern (1939–) was born in Brooklyn and practices in New York City. He also serves as Dean of the prestigious School of Architecture at Yale University. Stern's architecture unites tradition with innovation, and he strives to create a meaningful sense of place in his buildings. His firm has won numerous awards for design excellence, and Stern has written and edited more than twenty books.
Walt Disney's vision of amusement parks and town squares was fully realized in Disneyland and Walt Disney World. When he began developing the theme parks, Disney hired artists and scene painters, many of them from Hollywood studios, to bring the imaginative visions of his animated films to life in Anaheim, California, and Orlando, Florida. It was an amusement park in Holland, featuring reproductions of architectural landmarks, that first gave Disney the idea of making his American amusement parks architecturally as well as artistically significant. He hired a young Californian architect, Welton Becket—known for his...
(The entire section is 1005 words.)
Wexner Center for the Arts
By: Peter Eisenman and Richard Trott
Source: "Wexner Center for the Visual Arts." Axonometric illustration. In Rifkind, Carole. A Field Guide to Contemporary American Architecture. New York: Penguin, 1998, 173; Smith, G.E. Kidder. "Wexner Center for the Arts at Ohio State University." 1989. Corbis. Image no. GE001356. Available online at http://pro.corbis.com (accessed May 9, 2003).
About the Architects: Peter Eisenman (1932–) was born in Newark, New Jersey. He studied architecture at Cornell, Columbia, and Cambridge Universities. He was a protégé of Philip Johnson. Eisenman is the founder and director of the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City. He also started the architecture journal, Oppositions. Eisenman has designed large housing and urban projects, educational facilities, and private houses. He is the author of numerous publications and has won many awards for his work.
Richard Trott, a Columbus-native, graduated from Ohio State University College of Engineering in 1961. In 1965 he founded Trott and Bean Architects, a reknowned Columbus firm. He co-designed the Wexner Center, as well as the Greater Columbus Convention Center, with Peter Eisenman. In...
(The entire section is 850 words.)
Empire Bay Tracksuit Advertisement
By: Empire Bay
Source: Empire Bay Tracksuit Advertisement. The Advertising Archive. Image no. 30506691.
By the late 1970s, sportswear and fashion were merging. A growing interest in fitness and exercise and an increase in body consciousness among Americans combined to create a new demand for fashionable exercise clothing. In the 1970s, the fashion industry began to respond by providing more appealing exercise clothing to replace the traditional gym shorts and old sweatshirt.
In the 70s and 80s, various influences were brought to bear on the new exercise fashions. The tracksuit was born when matching bottoms were added to the jacket tops athletes wore. Zip-fronted suits were inspired by the astronaut suits of the late 1960s. Fabrics normally used for casual, at-home, or workout attire, such as stretch velour and terrycloth, became stylish for party wear. Even cashmere, once reserved for expensive sweaters, began to be used for sweatshirts. Close-fitting Spandex tights, torn sweatshirts studded with rhinestones, and expensive sneakers made by L.A. Gear or Reebok became indispensable for the fashion-conscious, both in and out of the gym.
(The entire section is 568 words.)
"Oldfangled New Towns"
By: Kurt Andersen
Date: May 20, 1991
Source: Andersen, Kurt. "Oldfangled New Towns." Time, November 4, 1985, 52–55.
In 1946, Florida businessman J.S. Smolian bought eighty acres of beachfront property on Florida's northwest coast near the town of Seagrove. After failing to realize his vision for a company summer resort, Smolian used the property as a family getaway. There was almost no building on the site until Smolian's grandson, Robert Davis, an award-winning developer in Miami, decided to develop the property. His vision for Seaside was inspired by the desire to revive the architectural traditions of Northwest Florida—wood-frame cottages adapted to the climate.
The cottages Davis remembered from his childhood summers in the area featured deep roof overhangs for shade and ample windows for cross-ventilation in all the rooms. The cottages were built of wood and other low-maintenance materials that could survive several generations of homeowners. Davis asked Miami architects and urban planners Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (DPZ) to help him plan a community that could combine these traditions with a modern approach in order to create a year-round community. DPZ seized the chance to execute a...
(The entire section is 2438 words.)
Managing Lives: Corporate Women
and Social Change
By: Sue Joan Mendelson Freeman
Source: Freeman, Sue Joan Mendelson. Managing Lives: Corporate Women and Social Change. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990, 184.
About the Author: Sue Freeman (1944–) is a psychologist and professor of education at Smith College. Her research concentrates on women's moral development and on women and careers. She also works on the Project on Women and Social Change at Smith College, which uses a multidisciplinary approach to study women in the American workforce.
Calvin Klein Woman's Suit Advertisement
By: Calvin Klein
Source: The Advertising Archive Ltd. Image no. 30523208.
Although women were making significant progress in the American workplace in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, the number of women entering corporate leadership positions dramatically increased in the 1980s. With the exception of the rare female executive, however, many women continued to hold...
(The entire section is 1088 words.)
High Museum of Art
By: Richard Meier
Source: Krist, Bob. "Entrance to Atlanta's High Museum of Art." Corbis. Image no. RI002142. Available online at http://pro.corbis.com (accessed May 20, 2003).
About the Architect: Richard Meier (1930–) was born in Newark, New Jersey. He graduated from Cornell University and worked with several architectural firms before establishing his own practice in 1963. Just two years later, in 1965, Meier won national acclaim for his design of the Smith House in Darien, Connecticut. He next achieved fame in 1979, with the opening of his Visitors' Center at the utopian community of New Harmony, Indiana. In 1984, Meier became the youngest architect ever to be awarded the prestigious Pritzker Prize. He won the AIA Gold Medal in 1997.
The High Museum of Art was founded in 1905 as the Atlanta Art Association. In 1926, Atlanta benefactor Mrs. Joseph High donated her home to the Association for a museum and art school, and the High Museum opened to the public in 1928. In 1955, a new building was opened to accommodate a significant collection of Renaissance paintings donated to the museum. The museum collection doubled in the 1960s, again threatening to...
(The entire section is 893 words.)
By: Renzo Piano and Margaret Warner
Date: June 19, 1998
Source: Piano, Renzo. "Master Builder." Interview by Margaret Warner. MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour. PBS program transcript. June 19, 1998. Available online at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june98/pia... ; website home page: http://www.pbs.org (accessed May 23, 2003).
About the Author: Architect Renzo Piano (1937–) was born in Genoa, Italy, into a family of builders. At seventeen, Renzo announced his decision to study architecture. After graduating from Milan Polytechnic Architecture School in 1964, Piano worked for several years in his father's construction company. In 1970, he formed a partnership with the now-renowned British architect, Richard Rogers. Piano and Rogers became leaders in the "High-Tech" movement popular throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
(The entire section is 1961 words.)