I'm OK—You're OK: A Practical
Guide to Transactional Analysis
By: Thomas A. Harris
Source: Harris, Thomas A. I'm OK—You're OK. New York: Harper & Row, 1967, 18, 43, 50–51.
About the Author: Psychiatrist Thomas A. Harris (1910–1995) completed his medical training at Temple University and served as the chief of the U.S. Navy's psychiatric branch in the 1940s. In his 1967 book I'm OK—You're OK: A Practical Guide to Transactional Analysis, he suggested that a person develops his or her identity based on social interactions. The volume was a consistent best-seller in the 1970s and led to a sequel, Staying OK, co-authored with his wife, Amy Bjork Harris, in 1985.
The Book of est
By: Luke Rhinehart
Source: Rhinehart, Luke. The Book of est. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976, xi–xiii, 212–216.
About the Author: Luke Rhinehart (1932–), born George Powers Croft, based The Book of est (1976) on the self-help program designed and promoted by Werner...
(The entire section is 3482 words.)
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Go Ask Alice
By: Anonymous [Beatrice Sparks]
Source: Anonymous [Beatrice Sparks]. Go Ask Alice. New York: Avon, 1971, 32–36, 38, 54–57, 89, 152–153.
About the Author: Beatrice Sparks (1918–), who published Go Ask Alice anonymously, worked in drug treatment programs for teenagers in the 1960s in Southern California. After moving to Utah, she remained involved with the issue of teen drug use and appeared regularly as a public speaker on the subject. Following the success of Go Ask Alice, Sparks wrote and published several other "real life" diaries for the young-adult market, including books on AIDS, suicide, and the occult.
The use of illegal drugs skyrocketed in the 1960s, for a number of reasons. Advances in international transportation and travel explained part of the increased supply of drugs, many of which came from Asia and Latin America. In addition, some of the half-million American soldiers who served in Vietnam were introduced to heroin during their tour of duty and brought their drug habits back home. Demographic changes also contributed to the upswing in drug use. As baby boomers hit their teenage years, some used drugs as part of their rebellion against authority. By the end of the...
(The entire section is 3030 words.)
By: Gloria Steinem
Source: Gloria Steinem. "Sisterhood." Ms., 1972. Reprinted in Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1983, 112–113, 116–118.
About the Author: Gloria Steinem (1934–) was born in Toledo, Ohio. She graduated magna cum laude with a degree in government from Smith College in 1956. After attending an abortion-rights rally in 1969, Steinem embraced a feminist perspective in her life and work. A co-founder of the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) in 1971, Steinem also founded Ms. magazine in 1971. The author of several best-selling books, Steinem remains a leading advocate of women's causes. She married David Bale, a South African-born entrepreneur and political activist, in 2000.
As the modern women's movement gathered momentum in the wake of Betty Friedan's 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, feminism produced some fundamental changes in American society. Many Americans began to question the common assumptions about a woman's place in society, which traditionally had been defined through her identity as a wife and mother. Others demanded reforms in the educational system to end bias against female students, who were...
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Changing Gender Roles
"Coffee, Tea, or He"
Date: March 19, 1973
Source: Newsweek, March 19, 1973, p. 65.
"You've Come a Long Way, Baby"
By: Philip Morris Company
Source: Philip Morris Company. "You've Come a Long Way, Baby." Advertisement for Virginia Slims. Reprinted in The Advertising Archive, Ltd. Image Ref.: 30520065.
The changing gender roles of the 1970s resulted in part from the legal and social developments that overturned traditional gender concepts during the 1960s. Through the early 1960s, newspaper job ads routinely divided jobs into "male" and "female" employment; the women's jobs typically paid less than the men's jobs, even if the work itself was essentially the same. As the Civil Rights movement put discrimination on the nation's legal agenda, however, many women began to call for equal rights in employment regardless of gender.
One of the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964—Title VII—prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. In the first years of the act the federal...
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The American Indian Movement
"The American Indian Movement," "Tourist Boycott," and "March July 4 from Keystone to Mt. Rushmore"
By: American Indian Movement
Date: 1973; 1976
Source: "The American Indian Movement," "Tourist Boycott," and "March July 4 from Keystone to Mt. Rushmore." Michigan State University Library, Urban Policy and Planning File.
About the Authors: Under the leadership of its national director, Russell Means (1939–), the American Indian Movement (AIM) used the standoff at Pine Ridge to publicize its grievances against the federal government and the elected leadership of the reservation. Criminal charges against Means and other AIM leaders at Pine Ridge were later dropped after some of the FBI's investigation techniques were discredited at trial. In the 1990s Means pursued an acting and producing career while continuing to speak out on issues of importance to Native Americans.
Airlift to Wounded Knee
By: Bill Zimmerman
Source: Zimmerman, Bill. Airlift to Wounded Knee. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1976, 175–177.
About the Author: Bill Zimmerman left a...
(The entire section is 3740 words.)
Fear of Flying
By: Erica Jong
Source: Jong, Erica. Fear of Flying. New York: Plume, 1973.
About the Author: Erica (Mann) Jong (1942–) was born in New York City. Married to psychiatrist Allan Jong from 1966–1975, Jong paralleled the relationship in her first novel, Fear of Flying, published in 1973 to great commercial and critical acclaim. The main character of the novel, Isadora Wing, appeared in two later novels, How to Save Your Own Life (1977) and Parachutes & Kisses (1984). Jong has continued to explore issues of gender, identity, history, and mysticism in her subsequent fiction and memoirs.
The "sexual revolution" of the 1960s had a direct impact on the media in the following decade, as the sexually explicit content of magazines, movies, books, and television programs became much more commonplace. In 1972 the pornographic movie Deep Throat, the first full-length adult film with more than a trace of a plot, made its star, Linda Lovelace, a household name. Made for a $25,000-investment put up by a New York organized crime family, Deep Throat grossed between $400 and $600 million. Its popularity spawned a deluge of pornographic films aimed at mainstream audiences; many...
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The Energy Crisis Hits Home
"Cadillac Sedan deVilles Average 15.8 mpg at 55 mph in Fuel Economy Tests"
By: General Motors Corporation
Source: General Motors Corporation, GM Media Archives. "Cadillac Sedan deVilles Average 15.8 mpg at 55 mph in Fuel Economy Tests." Advertisement, 1974.
"You Save Heat and Gas by Weatherproofing Your Home"
By: American Gas Association
Source: American Gas Association. "You Save Heat and Gas by Weatherproofing Your Home." Advertisement, 1976
IntroductionOn October 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched a military offensive against Israel in a conflict that came to be known as the Yom Kippur War, after the Jewish holy day that marked the conflict's first day. After the United States came to Israel's aid, the seven Arab nations in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced an oil embargo against Israel's supporters, which included the United States, Japan, and most western European countries. The embargo, which lasted from October 1973 to March 1974, created fundamental changes in the global economy and had...
(The entire section is 1111 words.)
Pat Loud: A Woman's Story
By: Pat Loud; Nora Johnson
Source: Loud, Pat, with Nora Johnson. Pat Loud: A Woman's Story. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1974, 15, 51–52, 121, 177–178.
About the Author: Pat (Russell) Loud (1926–), born in Oregon, married Bill Loud in 1950, and the couple had five children over the next seven years. The Louds' marriage was plagued by Bill Loud's infidelities. In 1971 the family agreed to be filmed as part of a documentary series, which aired on public television stations in 1973. In the most memorable segment, Pat Loud told her husband that she was going to seek a divorce. Pat Loud published a memoir in 1974, Pat Loud: A Woman's Story.
The rise in divorce rates transformed American family life in the 1970s. In 1965 more than one-third of all marriages ended in divorce, but by 1979 the rate had climbed to one-half of all marriages. Where children were involved, the mother almost always retained parental custody, leading to a rise in the number of children growing up in single-parent families headed by a single woman. In 1972, 14 percent of American children lived in households headed by a single woman (a statistic that included divorced and single mothers as well as...
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Aunt Erma's Cope Book: How to Get from Monday to Friday … In Twelve Days
By: Erma Bombeck
Source: Bombeck, Erma. Aunt Erma's Cope Book: How to Get from Monday to Friday … In Twelve Days. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979, 19–20, 31–33.
About the Author: Erma (Fiste) Bombeck (1927–1996) grew up in a working-class family in Dayton, Ohio. In 1964 she began writing a weekly humor column for a local newspaper that eventually was titled "At Wit's End" and that appeared in more than eight-hundred newspapers nationally. Bombeck also released a series of bestsellers, including The Grass Is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank (1976) and If Life Is a Bowl of Cherries, What Am I Doing in the Pits? (1978).
According to the 1970 U.S. Census, for the first time in American history more people lived in suburban areas than in cities or on farms. It was a trend that began with the post-World War II building boom, when returning veterans and their growing families took advantage of high wages, low interest rates, and a booming economy to buy their piece of the American Dream: a new home. Indeed, in the decade after World War II, ninety-seven percent of all homes built in the United States were detached, single-family dwellings; for many of the purchasers, it was the...
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May 4 Collection
By: Carol Mirman; Diane Williams; Art Koushel
Date: 2000; 1990; 1995
Source: Kent State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections and Archives. May 4 Collection. ; http://speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/dwilliam.html; ; website home page: http://www.library.kent.edu/exhibits/4may95/ (accessed July 15, 2003).
About the Authors: Each of these witnesses to the disturbances at Kent State University (KSU) in May 1970 presents a different perspective. Although she was against the war in Vietnam, Carol Mirman, then a KSU senior, did not approve of the riots in downtown Kent, Ohio, that led to the antiwar rally of May 4. Diane Williams was a seventeen-year-old Kent native who attended the antiwar rally that ended with the National Guard opening fire on the crowd. Art Koushel was a politically active student at KSU who later testified at the Scranton Commission, a government inquiry into the events.
After President Richard M. Nixon's announcement on April 30, 1970, that American troops would take part in a military offensive into Cambodia in conjunction with South Vietnamese...
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Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivor's Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple
By: Deborah Layton
Source: Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison: A Jonestown Survivor's Story of Life and Death in the Peoples Temple. New York: Anchor Books, 1998, 66–69, 91–92, 151, 299.
About the Author: Deborah Layton (1953–) was born in Utah. She joined Jim Jones' Peoples Temple in 1971 and served as the financial secretary. She moved to the group's Jonestown compound in Guyana, but the brutal conditions prompted her to flee in May 1978. She released an affidavit describing the conditions at Jonestown to alert American officials about the abuses. Convinced that the American government was going to destroy the Peoples Temple, Jones ordered his followers to commit mass suicide on November 18, 1978.
Although thousands of Americans had experimented with collective living arrangements on communes in the 1960s as part of a stance against materialism and individualism, larger, more structured groups—typically professing a spiritual purpose—rose to prominence in the 1970s. The group attracting the largest number of adherents, the Unification Church of South Korean Presbyterian minister Sun Myung Moon, was labeled a cult by the mainstream media, who reported financial irregularities and repressive...
(The entire section is 2541 words.)