Topics in the News
Assimilation of the Counterculture
A Chasm of Misunderstanding.
Counter-culture was the youth culture of the 1960s, which continued to flourish in the 1970s. As the term implied, it was a culture that developed against the established culture. Young people rejected capitalism, competition, social conventions, and the work ethic of their parents. They embraced communitarianism, cooperation, toleration, and "doing your own thing." In contrast to the heterosexual monogamy of their parents, young people championed sexual experimentation; in place of the three-martini lunch, young people had marijuana picnics. For those embracing the counterculture, sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll took precedence over hard work, sobriety, and suburbia. Un-counted numbers of adolescents left home or school in the early 1970s to enjoy the hippie life in Boston, New York's Greenwich Village, San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury, or in rural communes. By the mid 1970s, how-ever, the countercultural energies of these centers were spent; the publicity and media attention on the counter-culture had nonetheless diffused aspects of it to every American town, city, and suburb. While Theodore Rozak, Charles Reich, and Herbert Marcuse argued that the counterculture was a form of philosophical romanticism, destined to alter radically the character of techno-logical capitalism, much of the counterculture was simply adolescent rebellion and indulgent mischievousness. As...
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Back to Nature
New Age Environmentalism.
The back to the earth movement was one aspect of a New Age Movement that was predicated on the belief that people were able to attain an increased level of awareness by communing with nature. On 24 February 1977 the prestigious Rand Corporation described the shift of one million people from urban centers to rural areas in 1970-1975 as one of the most important trends in recent American history. Later events proved this claim was somewhat exaggerated, but this back-to-the-earth movement was no mere fad. The hippies celebrated nature, saw Native Americans as a spiritual people close to Mother Nature and God, and rejected the urban capitalist industrial society. Millions of hippies, and countless other would-be or weekend hippie wanna-bes, flocked to the countryside. Abandoned farms in New England or upstate New York became hippie communes, as did isolated sites in the Northwest and Southwest. Any inexpensive, remote rural locations (with convenient access to highways for trips to the city) could become a New Age farm.
Many New Age farmers, however, were city or suburban college dropouts or liberal-arts graduates with no experience or training in agriculture. Most communal farms failed or became vacation retreats for affluent hippies, but some were successful. Educated newcomers read books, government...
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Changing Sexual Morality
The so-called sexual revolution was considered by many to be the most shocking social trend in the 1970s. The sexual revolution, an outgrowth of the counterculture, cast aside traditional sexual restraints and began a decade of alternative eroticism, experimentation, and promiscuity. In part facilitated by the development of the birth-control pill and other contraceptives, Americans in the 1970s broke many sexual taboos. Interracial dating, open homosexuality, communal living, casual nudity, and dirty language all seemed to indicate a profound change in sexual behavior. Sexual activity among the young especially increased. Surveys during the 1970s reported that by age nineteen, four-fifths of all males and two-thirds of all females had had sex. Fashion designers promoted a new sensuality, producing miniskirts, hot pants, halter tops, and formfitting clothes designed to accentuate women's sexuality. Abandoning the censorious production code, Hollywood used nudity and eroticism to attract audiences (and, all too often, to cover shortcomings in screenplays). Hard-core pornography annually earned $4 billion. Graphic suggestion and profanity became a staple of rock music and popular novels. Public schools offered sexual education courses for adolescents. Most of these developments took place without the hand-wringing and guilt that had formerly characterized American attitudes...
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The Energy Crisis
The energy crisis came to public attention when an oil embargo by the Arab-controlled Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was imposed from October 1973 to March 1974 to protest U.S. military support of Israel. This was an important shift in world economics and politics, and it caused President Nixon to impose emergency energy-conservation measures. He ordered thermostats lowered to sixty-eight degrees, reduced air travel and highway speed limits, halted coal-to-oil conversions, licensed more nuclear power plants, relaxed environmental regulations, and approved daylight savings time in winter, Carpools and public transportation increased as gas stations closed or limited sales. Business and school schedules were shortened to conserve fuel.
The energy crisis pointed to Americans' lavish consumption of oil. With only 6 percent of the world population, the United States annually consumed 30 percent of the world's energy, increasingly in foreign oil. One result of the energy crisis was to draw attention to environmental issues and to alternative forms of energy (wind and solar power) and transportation (bicycles, walking, and public transportation). A more popular response to the gas shortage was to buy smaller, fuel-efficient automobiles such as the General Motors Vega as well as imported cars...
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Environmentalism was a new concern for the ecology of the human habitat, a social trend derived from the space program, the energy crisis, scientific warnings about pollution and a future shortage of natural resources, the counterculture's back-to-the-earth movement; and the new interests in health, nature, Asian religion, and human-potential movements.
Image Pop-UpEarth Day demonstrators conclude their rally at the Department of the Interior by leaving spilled oil to protest pollution caused by off-shore oil drilling.
Congress reacted to new public pressures, and in 1970 President Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act, which required government agencies to assess the environmental impact of public projects and to protect endangered species. Nixon also signed the Clean Air Act (1970), the Clean Water Act (1972), and the Pesticide Control Act (1972). The first Earth Day, on 22 April 1970, was a national teach-in on pollution and ecological problems on fifteen hundred college and ten thousand high-school campuses. But to many Americans the environmentalists seemed to be making the 1970s the doomsday decade....
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Ethnic pride reappeared in the 1970s in a wave of group consciousness and group identification among members of virtually all ethnic and racial groups. While ethnic and racial pride had always been quietly present in American life, even becoming an intellectual vogue in the early part of this century, since World War I ethnic consciousness had been subsumed to Anglo-Saxon culture and the melting-pot tradition. Stimulated by the success of the Black Power movement and by conservative political appeals to white ethnic voters, pride in one's own roots became popular.
The second phase of the civil rights movement of the 1960s, focused on black nationalism and militance, spawned the soul culture of the 1970s. Rejecting white standards of beauty, art, and culture, blacks reclaimed their African heritage. The Afro or "natural" hairstyle rejected conking and other methods of making African-American hair straight like that of whites. Women adopted West African cotton print dresses and scarves, and dashikis were popular.
Network television responded to growing black pride with sitcoms such as Sanford and Son (1972-1977), Good Times (1974-1979), and The Jeffersons (1975-1984). Featuring African-Americans as the primary actors, these...
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Family life changed considerably in this decade. In 1960 married couples with children comprised 44.2 percent of American households; by 1980 this had dropped to 30.9 percent. The number of men living alone rose from 4.3 to 8.6 percent, and women living alone from 8.7 to 14 percent. The percentage of the population who never married also increased from 17.3 to 22.5. The median age at first marriage increased, as did the divorce rate, the number of births to unmarried mothers, and the number of adults in unmarried-couple households.
Image Pop-UpIn the 198-s, with the increasing divorce rate, television shows such as The Brady Bunch depicting remarried spouses with children from previous marriages became popular.
Although the explanations for the increase in divorce vary, many experts believe that because the courts accepted mental cruelty as grounds for divorce and tended to award custody of children to their mothers, divorce and remarriage became more acceptable to and for women. Greater employment opportunities and economic independence for women also contributed to the increased divorce rate. Also, no-fault divorce laws passed by...
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Housing costs in the United States increased rapidly in the 1970s. The median-priced single-family home in 1970 cost $23,000 at an average interest rate of 8.5 percent, which represented 17 percent of the home owner's income. By 1979 the same house cost $55,700 at 10.9 percent interest, or 25 percent of the owner's in-come. This trend continued in the next decade, contributing to inflation, urban decay, and the problem of homelessness.
The affluent society of the 1960s, measured by a gross national product (GNP) increase of 4 percent annually, created new consumer demands for larger housing units. The average family home in the 1950s had 800 square feet, but this doubled by 1970, when 1.5 million new housing starts occurred. Related to this suburbanization of the United States was federal funding of highway construction, which grew from $429 million in 1950 to $4.6 billion in 1970.
Modern roads meant easy access to the cities for suburbanites, so adults could work in urban centers and live in bedroom communities. In this new world made by the automobile, three of four suburbanites drove to work each day. By 1970 about 40 percent of Americans lived in suburbs, and each census recorded a further decline in both urban and rural population. These new suburbs were...
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Gay liberation was an important social-justice movement precipitated by the spirit of the 1960s. In June 1970 more than five thousand gay men and women marched in Greenwich Village to celebrate the first anniversary of the Stonewall riot, a violent clash between New York City police and gay people at the Stonewall bar on Christopher Street. Each year in a growing number of cities, the Stonewall marchers called for "Gay Power" and "Gay Liberation," and their politics and consciousness transformed a small reform movement into a grassroots gay liberation crusade. Hundreds of gay rights organizations in American cities demanded legal reform, access to public services, and an end to discrimination. By 1973 the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in response to lobbying by gay liberation groups who charged that psychiatry provided the underpinnings for many antihomosexual practices. The National Association of Social Workers, the American Sociological Association, other academic organizations, and several states took similar action by 1975.
The success of the gay liberation and gay rights movement prompted gay candidates to run for public office. In Massachusetts Gerry Studds, a gay Democrat from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was elected to Congress in 1973. Elaine Noble was...
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The Me Decade
The term me decade was coined by novelist Tom Wolfe in New York magazine in August 1976, describing the new American preoccupation with self-awareness and the collective retreat from history, community, and human reciprocity. The term seemed to de-scribe the age so aptly that it quickly became commonly associated with the 1970s. Compared to the 1960s, Americans in the 1970s were self-absorbed and passive. Americans turned from street theater to self-therapy, from political activism to psychological analysis. Everyone, it seemed, had an analyst, adviser, guru, genie, prophet, priest, or spirit. In the 1970s the only way many Americans could relate to one another was as members of a national therapy group.
Much of what the term me decade actually described was merely a stylistic change in American preoccupations. Whereas the 1960s had been preoccupied with questions of social and political justice, the 1970s were concerned with self-fulfillment and personal happiness. Unable to solve social problems, many self-absorbed Americans focused on personal fulfillment through health food, diets, hot tubs, and physical exercise. Specialized sportswear appeared in stores by the mid 1970s, and young Americans took up kung fu, aikido, yoga, tennis, jogging, massage, camping, hiking, skiing, and dancing...
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Neoconservatism was the most influential and distinctive social trend to emerge in the 1970s, drawing its leaders from former leftists and liberal Democrats disillusioned with the political changes and popular democracy of the 1960s. Neoconservatives, called by wits "liberals mugged by reality," railed against radicalism disguised as liberalism and defended elitism. Unlike earlier conservative Republican leaders, such as Sen. Barry M. Goldwater and President Richard M. Nixon, the most prominent neoconservatives tended to be prolific intellectual writers, such as Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Daniel Bell, Irving Kristol, Norman Podhoretz, Jeanne Kirkpatrick, and William Bennett.
Moynihan was the most prominent of the neoconservative spokesmen and has served as Democratic U.S. senator from New York after 1977. Before entering politics he was a professor of government at Harvard University and made a national reputation as an adviser to Presidents John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Nixon, and Gerald Ford, as well as serving as ambassador to India (1973-1975) and ambassador to the United Nations (1975-1976).
This liberal Democrat became a neoconservative hero when he wrote a memo in 1970 to President Nixon suggesting a period of "benign neglect" for race...
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Terrorism, which became a major international issue in the 1970s, refers to acts or threats of violence intended to intimidate political opponents or to publicize grievances. Modern terrorists use murder, bombing, airplane hijacking, kidnapping of hostages, and assassination to force the media, public opinion, and governments to address their demands. Groups most often accused of clandestine warfare or terrorism in the 1970s included the Irish Republican Army's Provisional Wing (IRA Provos), the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Red Brigades in Italy, and the Baader-Meinhof gang in Germany.
The most notorious terrorist action of the decade was when Black September, a PLO terrorist group, killed Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich in September 1972. Despite this widely condemned act, by 1974 the United Nations and several Arab states recognized the PLO as the government of the Palestinian people.
In 1977 Ugandan dictator Idi Amin held hostage two hundred Americans living in his country, leading President Carter to plan a military invasion. Amin was persuaded to release the hostages. Terrorism came to the United States two weeks later. A small group of Hanafi Muslims held 130 people at gunpoint in three Washington, D.C., buildings....
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Cigarettes and Liberation.
One of the most popular advertising campaigns of the early 1970s was that of Virginia Slims cigarettes. The cigarette was thinner than most, but beyond that, hardly remarkable. The ad campaign, however, was an eye grabber. Magazines and bill-boards displayed slender, apparently self-assertive models in the latest fashions clutching the cigarette. The ad copy said, "You've Come a Long Way, Baby." Sometimes featuring an insert photograph of women in turn-of-the-century dress being punished for smoking by police, ministers, or other authority figures, the ad successfully tied cigarette smoking to the burgeoning women's liberation movement. Emphasizing the fact that at one time it was thought unladylike to smoke, the ad implied that to continue smoking Virginia Slims was an act of rebellion against women's traditional roles. Hugely successful as an ad campaign, the caption "You've Come a Long Way, Baby" also embodied for many the triumph of the women's movement and feminism in the 1970s.
The women's liberation movement shattered many established traditions of female subordination in American life and opened up a host of heretofore closed occupations to women. Feminism revolutionized women's and men's sense of their gender roles and transformed literary theory, art, and social analysis. Women's liberation...
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Abzug, Bella 1920-
Bella Abzug made news in the 1970s as a vocal and flamboyant advocate for equal rights for women. Born in New York City in 1920, Bella Savitsky Abzug was the daughter of Russian-Jewish immigrants. She attended Bronx public schools, and, after graduating from Hunter College and Columbia University Law School, she was admitted to the New York bar in 1947. In the 1950s and 1960s she was a leader in the anti-McCarthy and civil rights movement and served as a labor and American Civil Liberties Union lawyer.
Elevation to Congress.
By the mid 1960s she lobbied for nuclear disarmament and was a vigorous critic of the Vietnam War policies of Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon. Her leadership roles in the women's liberation movement and in the new Democratic coalition led to her serving in Congress from 1971-1976.
First Jewish Congresswomen.
Defeating a seven-term regular...
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Chavez, Cesar 1927-1993
United Farm Workers.
Cesar Chavez was the most effective labor leader of the 1970s, rising from poverty as a Hispanic migrant worker in Arizona to international celebrity as the leader of the United Farm Workers Union. In 1962 Chavez left his job as director of the Community Service Organization in California to establish the National Farm Workers Association. His success with Hispanic and Filipino farm pickers led to the formation of the United Farm Workers (UFW) in 1966.
Supported by Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, United Auto Workers president Walter Reuther, and other prominent liberals, Chavez adroitly used church meetings, sit-ins, picket lines, consumer boycotts, and media propaganda to win a bitter strike against twenty-six California table-grape growers. The growers signed a contract with the UFW in July 1970, and in 1972 he negotiated a contract with the agribusiness giant Minute Maid in Florida....
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Child, Julia 1912-
A Cultural Icon.
Julia Child taught millions of Americans to enjoy French cuisine with her popular cookbook, Mastering the Art of French Cooking (1961), and a second volume published in 1970. Her Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, The French Chef, began in 1963 on Boston's WGBH station and was quickly syndicated and endlessly rebroadcast. By the mid 1970s Julia Child was a popular-culture icon, an imposing (over six feet tall) WASP Francophile matron bustling expertly around a studio kitchen. Her next book, From Julia Child's Kitchen (1975), reflected her celebrity status and witty persona. She won an Emmy in 1966 and many honors from culinary organizations at home and abroad.
Secret Agent Cook.
Julia Child was, however, a cook with a difference. Born in Pasadena and educated at Smith College, she was an Office of Strategic Services (OSS) agent, with assignments that took her all over the world. In Paris she was one of the first American women to attend the Cordon Bleu culinary school. Not content with a domestic life when she settled in Cambridge,...
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Fiedler, Arthur 1894-1979
Arthur Fiedler was responsible to an extraordinary degree for the popularity of classical music by the 1970s. Born in Boston on 17 December 1894, he studied music with his father and at the Royal Academy of Music in Berlin. He was a pianist, second violinist, and violist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1915 to 1930. In 1924 he formed the Boston Sinfonietta, a chamber orchestra drawn from the Boston Symphony Orchestra staff. In 1929 he demonstrated his genius for broadening the classical-music audience by founding the Esplanade Concerts, a free summer concert series on the banks of the Charles River.
By 1930 Fiedler was the conductor of the renamed Boston Pops Orchestra, staffed by Boston Symphony musicians, which attracted thousands of new listeners. Lovers of classical music resisted this popularization at first, but the charming (and sometimes crusty) Fiedler won over his critics. He had proved that new concert audiences for classical music could be won by public outreach.
For fifty years the white-maned, mustachioed Boston Pops maestro led the world's most successful concert and recording orchestra. His un-paralleled showmanship and knack for public tastes brought Broadway,...
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Hearst, Patricia 1953-
HEIRESS, KIDNAPING VICTIM
Patricia Hearst became an American celebrity, victim, and criminal in February 1974 when she was kidnapped by a leftist terrorist group, the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). This obscure Oakland, California, revolutionary group held her for a $2-million ransom. Patricia was the granddaughter of William Randolph Hearst, the wealthy California newspaper publisher, but during months of harsh captivity she was allegedly brainwashed and renamed "Tania." To obtain her release, her parents donated millions of dollars worth of food to the poor, but the giveaway became a fiasco and did not result in her release.
When Hearst was filmed in April 1974 assisting the SLA in a San Francisco bank robbery, the kidnapping victim was transformed in the public mind into another spoiled, rich college student whose unconventional lifestyle led to crime as a self-confessed "urban guerrilla" and "radical feminist." Patty was captured a year later during a police shoot-out. She was convicted of bank robbery in a sensational California trial in January 1976. On 24 September she was sent to prison for seven years, but President Carter commuted her sentence on 29 January 1979.
This was a major news story, but with...
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Hoffman, Abbie 1936-1989
Image Pop-UpAbbie Hoffman and the Chicago Seven
Abbie Hoffman was a countercultural leader whose commitment to radical politics spanned the civil rights, antiwar, and environmentalist movements. When the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee expelled all whites in 1964, Hoffman moved into the hippie movement, seeing the counterculture as an arena for political change. He pioneered the idea that experimental use of sex, drugs, clothing, and communal living were revolutionary activities.
Hoffman, who was born in a middle-class Jewish family in Worcester, Massachusetts, and graduated from Brandeis University, was influenced by both Marshall McLuhan and Herbert Marcuse. His political career demonstrated his dramatic flair in using the media to promote himself as well as his unconventional Marxism. The generation gap, not class conflict, sparked his social and political revolution. With fellow hippie-radical spokesman Jerry Rubin he created the Yippies—the Youth International Party, which pioneered the use of street theater as a means of political protest. They made the...
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Schlafly, Phyllis 1924-
Phyllis Schlafly represented the conservative and traditional American women in the 1970s who feared and rejected the liberal women's liberation movement. Dubbed the "Gloria Steinem of the Right," this Illinois activist organized the Stop ERA lobby in 1972. She argued that social changes were a threat to the family and traditional sex roles.
Born in Saint Louis in 1924, Schlafly was educated at Washington University and Radcliffe College, worked briefly as a congressional aide, and married a wealthy Illinois lawyer in 1949. Although a self-described housewife and mother of six, she ran for Congress three times, wrote and published several books on conservative issues, worked as a radio commentator, and was editor of the Phyllis Schlafly Newsletter. As a campaigner for Joseph McCarthy and Barry Goldwater, she adopted an early and consistent anti-Communist position, and she even criticized President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger for their conciliatory détente policy with the Soviet Union.
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Spock, Benjamin 1903-
Baby Boom Influence.
Benjamin Spock exerted enormous influence on the baby-boom generation (people born in 1946-1965) who came of age in the 1970s. Dr. Spock was a pediatrician, author, and social reformer who published The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), an im-mediate best-seller and quickly one of the most influential books in postwar America. Retitled and republished as Baby and Child Care (1968, 1976, and 1985), it was an ideal guide for a country preoccupied with children and just the kind of gentle, warm, and thoughtful expert advice young parents needed in the baby-boom years. In contrast to prevailing child-rearing customs and advice, Spock emphasized affectionate and loving parenting, which was dubbed by his critics as permissiveness.
Reassuring parents that "You know more than you think you know," Dr. Spock became a household name...
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People in the News
On 19 July 1977 Anita Bryant was retained as a spokes-person for the Florida Citrus Commission despite her outspoken antigay opinions and activities.
On 22 February 1970 Ellsworth Bunker, Henry Cabot Lodge, Red Skelton, Anita Bryant, and Kate Smith were awarded the Freedom Foundation Award for "furthering American values."
On 4 June 1972 former University of California at San Diego philosophy professor Angela Davis was acquitted of charges that she helped to murder Judge Harold Haley in a August 1970 kidnapping attempt. The kidnapping of Judge Haley was executed in order to publicize the cause of the "Soledad Brothers," three Soledad prison inmates charged in the murder of another inmate.
Lee Elder became the first black golfer to qualify for the Masters golf tournament by winning the Monsanto Open on 21 April 1974.
First Lady Betty Ford underwent a radical mastectomy to combat breast cancer on 28 September 1974. On 5 March 1978 she was released from Long Beach (California) Naval Hospital for treatment of addiction to alcohol and painkillers.
On 6 June 1973 George F. Getty II, the oldest son of billionaire J. Paul Getty, died of an overdose of barbituates and alcohol.
Antiwar activists Tom Hayden and Jane Fonda...
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Saul Alinsky, 63, social organizer, 12 June 1972.
Charles Atlas, 79, bodybuilder, 24 December 1972.
Dr. Eric Berne, 60, psychiatrist and author of Games People Play (1964), 15 July 1970.
Margaret Bourke-White, 67, photojournalist with Life magazine, 27 August 1971.
Al Capp, 70, cartoonist, creator of "Lil' Abner," 5 November 1979.
Roberto Clemente, 38, baseball player and philanthropist, 31 December 1972.
Marie Dionne, 35, one of the Dionne quintuplets, 28 May 1970.
Virginia O'Hanlon Douglas, 80, famous for having written the letter to the New York Sun that brought the famous editorial reply, "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus," 13 May 1971.
Mamie Doud Eisenhower, 82, wife of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 14 November 1979.
Duke Ellington, 75, composer and bandleader, 24 May 1974.
Walker Evans, 71, photographer whose most famous work was Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941), a collaboration with James Agee, 10 April 1975.
Arthur Fiedler, 84, conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, 10 July 1979.
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Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex: The Classic Manifesto of the Liberated Woman (New York: Vintage, 1974);
Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975);
Julia Child, From Julia Child's Kitchen (New York: Knopf, 1975);
Alex Comfort, ed., The Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking (New York: Crown, 1972);
Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology (New York: Knopf, 1971);
Andrea Dworkin, Our Blood: Prophecies and Discourses on Sexual Politics (New York: Putnam, 1976);
Christopher Edwards, Crazy for God (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979);
Barbara Ehrenreich and Deidre English, For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the Experts' Advice to Women (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978);
Zillah R. Eisenstein, Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism (New York: Monthly Review, 1979);
Gloria Emerson, Winners and Losers: Battles, Retreats, Gains, Loses, and Ruins from a Long War (New York: Random House, 1976);
Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New...
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- Ralph Nader's citizens' lobbying group, nicknamed "Nader's Raiders," petitions the government for consumer protection. Common Cause, a citizens' group lobbying for political reform, is formed.
- The Census Bureau puts the nation's population at just over 203 million. But the 13 percent growth since 1960 is the result of the lowest birth rate since the Great Depression of the 1930s. An increased divorce rate and a trend toward marrying at an older age are given as factors. California has passed New York to become the nation's most populous state.
- In two firsts, California adopts no-fault divorce and Massachusetts adopts no-fault auto insurance.
- For the first time in American history, a majority of Americans live in suburbs.
- Police touch off a riot in the barrio of East Los Angeles, resulting in the death of prominent Hispanic journalist Ruben Salazar and inspiring the growing Chicano consciousness movement.
- On January 14, more than 15 years after its first desegregation order, the Supreme Court sets a February 1 deadline for the integration of public schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.
- In May, student strikes and other protests against the Vietnam War take place at 451 colleges and universities nationwide. War...
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