By: Richard M. Nixon
Date: November 3, 1969
Source: Richard M. Nixon, "Vietnamization." November 3, 1969, delivered in Washington, D.C. Public Papers of President Richard M. Nixon, courtesy of Richard M. Nixon Library & Birthplace.
About the Author: Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) was the nation's thirty-seventh president (served 1969–1974). Elected in 1968, in part on his promise to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War (1964–1975), Nixon enacted a policy of Vietnamization that indeed curtailed the American presence there.
"President Gerald R. Ford's Address at a Tulane University Convocation"
By: Gerald R. Ford
Date: April 23, 1975
Source: Gerald R. Ford, Presidential Speech on "Looking Past Vietnam," April 23, 1975, delivered at Tulane University. Public Papers of President Gerald R. Ford, courtesy of Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum.
About the Author: Gerald R. Ford (1913–) assumed the presidency (served 1974–1977) in 1974 after Nixon resigned over the Watergate scandal. In office when the South Vietnamese government fell to the...
(The entire section is 2097 words.)
Want to Read More?
Subscribe now to read the rest of this article. Plus get complete access to 30,000+ study guides!
Law and Order
"U.S. to Tighten Surveillance of Radicals"
By: James M. Naughton
Date: April 12, 1970
Source: Naughton, James M., "U.S. to Tighten Surveillance of Radicals." The New York Times, April 12, 1970, 1, 69.
About the Author: James M. Naughton (1938–) began his career as a reporter and photographer while still in high school. After completing his bachelor's degree at the University of Notre Dame, he worked for the Cleveland Plain Dealer for seven years, before joining the staff of The New York Times in 1969. He remained at The New York Times as a political reporter until 1977, when he became an editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer. In 1996, Naughton was named president of the Poynter Institute, one of the country's leading centers for the study of journalism.
"Listen to Youths, Hickel Writes Nixon"
By: Walter J. Hickel
Date: May 18, 1970
Source: "Listen to Youths, Hickel Writes Nixon." U.S. News & World Report, May 18, 1970, 84.
About the Author: Walter J. Hickel (1919–) served as Alaska's second governor...
(The entire section is 2813 words.)
"Presidential Speech Announcing Acceptance of an Invitation to Visit the People's Republic of China"
By: Richard M. Nixon
Date: July 15, 1971
Source: Nixon, Richard M. "Presidential Speech Announcing Acceptance of an Invitation to Visit the People's Republic of China," July 15, 1971, delivered in Los Angeles, California. Public Papers of President Richard M. Nixon, courtesy of Richard M. Nixon Library & Birthplace.
About the Author: Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) became the thirty-seventh president of the United States (served 1969–1974) in 1968, and he won re-election in 1972. Among his most important accomplishments was opening of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, severed since the communist takeover in 1949. Nixon was forced to resign from office in 1974 during the Watergate scandal, however, before full diplomatic relations could be restored. Although his reputation never recovered, Nixon regained a measure of respect as an elder statesman in his final years, particularly for his continued willingness to broker ties with China.
One of the longest stalemates of the Cold War took place between the United States—the world's wealthiest and most powerful country—and the People's Republic of China, its most populous. The United States severed ties with mainland China after its takeover...
(The entire section is 1460 words.)
A Thaw in the Cold War
"Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction"
By: United Nations General Assembly and the Conference of
the Committee on Disarmament
Date: April 10, 1972
Source: "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction." April 10, 1972, signed in Washington, D.C., London, and Moscow. Available online at http://www.state.gov/www/global/arms/treaties/bwc1.html; website home page http://www.state.gov (accessed May 25, 2003).
Notes About the Organization: The United Nations (UN) tackled the issue of chemical and biological weapons disarmament in 1969 through its Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, encompassing twenty-six member nations. The committee gained momentum for its mission after President Nixon (served 1969–1974) announced that the United States unilaterally renounced the use of chemical, biological, or other toxic weapons in two separate declarations in late 1969 and early 1970. The following year, the Soviet Union agreed to...
(The entire section is 3979 words.)
Dark Days in the White House
"5 Held in Plot to Bug Democrats' Office Here"
By: Alfred E. Lewis
Date: June 18, 1972
Source: Lewis, Alfred E. "5 Held in Plot to Bug Democrats' Office Here." Washington Post, June 18, 1972, 1, 22.
About the Author: Alfred E. Lewis, a veteran crime reporter who joined the staff of the Washington Post in the 1930s, delivered the first front-page article on the Watergate break-in on Sunday, July 18, 1972.
"Suspect Aided, Fought Castro"
By: Carl Bernstein and Kirk Scharfenberg
Date: June 18, 1972
Source: Bernstein, Carl, and Kirk Scharfenberg. "Suspect Aided, Fought Castro." Washington Post, June 18, 1972.
About the Author: Carl Bernstein and Kirk Scharfenberg also contributed a story on the Watergate suspects in that day's Washington Post. Bernstein would later team with reporter Bob Woodward to write most of the paper's Watergate coverage over the next two years, culminating in President Nixon's (served 1969–1974) resignation in August 1974.
(The entire section is 3314 words.)
"Text of Address by McGovern Accepting the Democratic Presidential Nomination"
By: George S. McGovern
Date: July 14, 1972
Source: McGovern, George S. "Text of Address by McGovern Accepting the Democratic Presidential Nomination." The New York Times, July 14, 1972, 11.
About the Author: George S. McGovern (1922–) briefly pursued an academic career before winning a Congressional seat from South Dakota in 1956. The Democrat was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1962, and he remained in that body until his retirement from politics in 1980. In 1972, he won the Democratic nomination for the presidency, but was defeated by President Richard R. Nixon (served 1969–1974) in the election. McGovern remained a respected public figure in his retirement in the 1990s, serving as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations Agencies on Food and Agriculture, where he was recognized as one of the world's leading experts on the issue of world hunger.
The Democrats had hoped to retain the White House in 1968 with the presidential candidacy of Robert F. Kennedy, who appealed to both traditional Democratic bases and younger voters. After Kennedy's assassination in June 1968, the party's nomination went to Hubert Humphrey, who lost the election by a half-million votes to Republican Richard M. Nixon. Nixon's appeal to...
(The entire section is 3241 words.)
From Victor to Vanquished
"How the President Sees His Second Term"
By: Daniel P. Moynihan
Date: September 1, 1972
Source: Moynihan, Daniel P. "How the President Sees His Second Term." Life, September 1, 1972, 26–29.
About the Author: Daniel P. Moynihan (1927–2003) pursued successful careers as a political advisor and urban studies professor in the 1960s. He gained fame as the author of several controversial studies of the American welfare system. He served as a special advisor to President Nixon (served 1969–1974) from 1971 to 1973, and was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate from New York in 1976. Moynihan retired from politics in 2001.
Richard Nixon's Remarks on Leaving the White House, August 9, 1974
By: Richard M. Nixon
Date: August 9, 1974
Source: Nixon, Richard M. Remarks on Leaving the White House, August 9, 1974, delivered in Washington, D.C. Public Papers of President Richard M. Nixon, courtesy of Richard M. Nixon Library & Birthplace.
About the Author: Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) served as the thirty-seventh president of the United States until...
(The entire section is 4617 words.)
The Boys on the Bus
By: Timothy Crouse
Source: Crouse, Timothy. The Boys on the Bus. New York: Random House, 1973, 3–8, 10–15.
About the Author: Timothy Crouse (1947–), New York City native, completed his bachelor's degree at Harvard University in 1968. After a tour in the Peace Corps, he wrote for the Boston Herald, before joining the staff of Rolling Stone as a contributing editor from 1971 to 1975. While at the magazine, he covered the presidential campaign of South Dakota senator George S. McGovern, the subject of his 1973 book The Boys on the Bus.
Through the 1970s, journalists adopted a mostly deferential tone when reporting on public figures. Pictures of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (served 1933–1945), who was confined to a wheelchair after a crippling bout of polio, were never publicized; nor did reports on the numerous indiscretions of President John F. Kennedy (served 1961–1963) become public until years after his assassination. Although political writers justified the news blackouts of potentially scandalous or disturbing reports that might offend public sensibilities, most reporters acquiesced to the limits in order to maintain their access to public figures or, in some cases,...
(The entire section is 3883 words.)
Why Not the Best
By: Jimmy Carter
Date: November 3, 1975
Source: Carter, Jimmy. Why Not the Best? New York: Bantam Books, 1975, 158–166.
About the Author: Jimmy Carter (1924–) entered the 1976 presidential race as a relative underdog. During his campaign, Carter (served 1977–1981) emphasized his integrity and presented himself as a moderate Democrat who would practice fiscal responsibility, while maintaining his party's commitment to social welfare programs. Carter narrowly won the election over incumbent Gerald R. Ford (served 1974–1977), and he served one term as the nation's thirty-eighth president. After leaving the White House in 1981, Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, have devoted themselves to numerous philanthropic projects. Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
In 1972, Richard Nixon (served 1969–1974) won a landslide victory over his Democratic challenger, George S. McGovern, for a second term in the White House. The margin of Nixon's victory seemed to confirm the trend away from sixties-style liberalism and toward law-and-order conservatism. Yet Nixon's triumph was short-lived, as his second term degenerated into disillusionment over the corruption and deceit of the Watergate scandal. With a majority of...
(The entire section is 3340 words.)
"Is America Turning Right?"
By: David Gelman, et al.
Date: November 7, 1977
Source: Gelman, David, et al. Newsweek. November 7, 1977, 34–36, 43–45.
About the Author: David Graham Gelman (1926–), born in New York City, studied at the City University of New York while working as a reporter for the New York Post. He joined the staff of the Peace Corps in 1962 as the director of special projects. In 1966, Gelman became the associate editor for national affairs at Newsweek; three years later, he became the national editor of Newsday, before rejoining Newsweek as a general editor and senior writer in 1975.
After a decade dominated by liberalism, the political right hailed the election of Richard M. Nixon (served 1969–1974) to the presidency in 1968 as proof that the American public wanted a return to conservative values. Criticizing the urban riots, campus protests, and political upheavals of the era, Nixon came into office on a lawand-order platform that seemed to resonate with the "silent majority" of Americans appalled by the perceived excesses of the Woodstock generation. Yet, Nixon disappointed some of his supporters by withdrawing from the Vietnam War (1964–1975), a move that admitted the...
(The entire section is 3638 words.)
"Foreign Affairs: The Need for Leadership"
By: Ronald Reagan
Date: March 17, 1978
Source: Reagan, Ronald. "Foreign Affairs: The Need for Leadership." March 17, 1978, speech delivered to the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington, D.C. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.reaganlegacy.org (accessed May 25, 2003).
About the Author: Ronald Reagan (1911–) was a successful movie and television actor from the 1930s through the 1950s. In his first bid for political office, he won the governorship of California in 1966 on a pro-business platform that took direct aim at the liberalism of the era. Despite an unsuccessful presidential run in 1976, Reagan remained in the national political spotlight and emerged as the Republican presidential nominee in 1980. Reagan (served 1981–1989) went on to win the election and served two terms as the nation's fortieth president.
The isthmus of Panama's value as a transport point between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans became crucially important during the nineteenth century, when international trade, spurred by the Industrial Revolution, greatly expanded. The United States had formally been involved in the region since the 1850s, when it entered into an...
(The entire section is 2295 words.)
Harvard Hates America: The Odyssey of a Born-Again American
By: John LeBoutillier
Source: LeBoutillier, John. Harvard Hates America: The Odyssey of a Born-Again American. South Bend, Ind.: Gateway Edition, 1978, 50–56.
About the Author: John LeBoutillier (1953–) graduated from Harvard University in 1976 with a bachelor's degree, and he later completed a master's degree in business administration. While attending Harvard, he became a high profile political fundraiser for conservative candidates. In 1976, he served as the New Jersey coordinator for the presidential campaign of Gerald Ford (served 1974–1977). In 1980, LeBoutillier was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from the 6th District of New York. After serving one term, LeBoutillier resumed his career as a conservative commentator.
In the 1960s, many American college campuses were rocked by protests against the government, the Vietnam War (1964–1975), and social issues such as poverty, sexism, and racial discrimination. Many students
(The entire section is 2655 words.)
A National Malaise
"The Crisis of Confidence"
By: Jimmy Carter
Date: July 15, 1979
Source: Carter, Jimmy. "The Crisis of Confidence," July 15, 1979, delivered in Washington, D.C. The Program in Presidential Rhetoric, Department of Communication, Texas A&M University. Available online at ; website home page http://www.tamu.edu (accessed May 25, 2003).
Notes About the Author: Jimmy Carter (1924–) entered the 1976 presidential race as a relative underdog. During his campaign, Carter emphasized his integrity and presented himself as a moderate Democrat—who would practice fiscal responsibility, while maintaining his party's commitment to social welfare programs. Carter narrowly won the election over incumbent Gerald R. Ford (served 1974–1977) and served one term as the nation's thirty-eighth president. His term was beset by numerous problems and he was defeated in his reelection bid in 1980. Although his presidency was regarded as one of the less successful of the twentieth century, Carter's numerous philanthropic efforts after leaving office earned him the reputation as one of the country's great statesmen. Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
"Carter at the Crossroads"
(The entire section is 2571 words.)
I'm Mad as Hell: The Exclusive Story of the Tax Revolt and Its Leader
By: Howard Jarvis with Robert Pack
Source: Jarvis, Howard, with Robert Pack. I'm Mad as Hell: The Exclusive Story of the Tax Revolt and Its Leader. New York: Times Books, 1979, 4–10, 12–13.
About the Author: Howard Jarvis (1902–1986) was a successful businessman with careers as the owner of a Utahbased newspaper chain and numerous manufacturing businesses in California. Always active in Republican Party affairs, Jarvis devoted himself full-time to politics in the last decades of his life, particularly on the issue of reducing corporate and personal taxes. After several tries to get a property-tax reduction initiative on the California ballot, Jarvis succeeded in putting Proposition 13 before the voters in June 1978. The effort made Jarvis a national spokesman on the issue of taxation.
In the 1960s, federal and state governments expanded social welfare programs, many the result of the Great Society vision articulated by President Lyndon Johnson (served 1963–1969). As the expenditures for the new programs collided with the faltering economy of the 1970s, however, governments were hard pressed to find enough revenue to continue funding the programs. Some Americans started to view the programs,...
(The entire section is 3341 words.)
Yellow Ribbon: The Secret Journal of Bruce Laingen
By: L. Bruce Laingen
Source: Laingen, L. Bruce. Yellow Ribbon: The Secret Journal of Bruce Laingen. Washington: Brassey's, 1992, 11, 12–13, 45, 126–127, 266–267.
About the Author: Lowell Bruce Laingen (1922–) pursued a distinguished career as a diplomat that took him to Germany, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, among many other countries. After serving as the U.S. Ambassador to Malta from 1977–1979, Laingen became the chargé d' affaires of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran, where he was responsible for many of the day-to-day operations of the outpost. On November 4, 1979, Laingen became one of the fifty-two Americans held hostage by the revolutionary government of Iran that had just ousted longtime dictator Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi. After a 444-day captivity, Laingen returned to the United States and continued his public service career for another decade.
In January 1979, facing unprecedented domestic unrest, the longtime ruler of Iran, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi—known simply as the Shah of Iran—fled the country. Although the United States had propped up the Shah in past crises, and, in fact, had reinstalled him as Iran's leader in 1953 after a power struggle, the opposition to the...
(The entire section is 2518 words.)