By: Kent State Students for a Democratic Society
Date: April 1969
Source: Kent State Students for a Democratic Society. "Now is the Time of the Furnaces, And Only Light Should be Seen." Michigan State Special Collections, Students for Democratic Society ARVF.
About the Organization: The Kent State Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was part of the larger SDS, a radical student movement across the United States. Mark Rudd, the president of the Columbia University SDS, visited the Kent State University campus in 1968. Soon after Rudd's visit, the chapter joined with other militant groups on campus to stage protests. Kent State's SDS became more violent than many chapters due to the affiliation with leaders who later became part of the Weathermen.
Students for a Democratic Society reorganized in 1962 when leaders met in Port Huron, Michigan. They developed the Port Huron Statement, which provided a manifesto for chapters across the country. Kent State University, located in northeast Ohio, was a large regional college. Irwin Unger writes that Kent State "was no more implicated in capitalist misdeeds of Vietnam than five hundred other college campuses." Still, the student radicals at KSU became more militant than on...
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Pedagogy of the Oppressed
By: Paulo Freire
Source: Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 1992, 57–64.
About the Author: Paulo Freire (1921–1997), born in Brazil, was an educator who developed literacy programs throughout the world. His work concentrated on freedom and democracy for all people. Following his exile from Brazil in 1964, he worked in Chile. Later he taught at Harvard University in the Center for Studies in Education and Development.
In 1962 Freire taught 300 rural farm workers in Brazil to read and write in 45 days. He taught them the meanings of words that impacted daily living. The people were able to change their lives politically and socially as their reading and writing skills developed; no longer would they live in what Freire called a "culture of silence." This began Freire's approach to literacy training not only for peasants, but for all people who could not read or write. Freire was jailed, and later exiled from Brazil, for these efforts to teach people to read.
Paulo Freire first visited the United States in 1969–1970. Educators were attracted to his methods of teaching literacy, particularly to adult learners. There were divisions in...
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"Rethinking Black History"
By: Orlando Patterson
Source: Patterson, Orlando. "Rethinking Black History." Harvard Educational Review 41, no. 3, 1971, 299–304.
About the Author: Orlando Patterson (1940–) is the John Cowles Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. Patterson was born in Jamaica and moved to the United States in 1970. He has made important scholarly contributions to the study of slavery and ethnicity. Patterson also wrote three novels and several short stories.
Beginning in the 1950s, there was an interest for black history to be written and included in the curriculum. The Civil Rights era in the 1960s increased the quest for knowledge of the past—people needed to define themselves and their historical struggles. Students demanded courses in black history. Early attempts to comply with this request followed the "great man tradition," much like white history. That is, great male figures from black history were presented, written about, and discussed. This has changed. Now historians place more emphasis on primary documents such as oral histories, diaries, and letters and other first-hand accounts of the past.
Orlando Patterson describes five ways that academics have...
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"The Joy of Learning—In the Open Corridor"
By: Walter Schneir and Miriam Schneir
Source: Schneir, Walter, and Miriam Schneir. "The Joy of Learning—In the Open Corridor." The New York Times Magazine, April 4, 1971, 30–31, 72–80, 92–97. Reprinted in Silberman, Charles E., ed. The Open Classroom Reader. New York: Vintage Books, 1973, 39–42.
About the Authors: Miriam and Walter Schneir are journalists who write about history and education. In 1965 they coauthored the book, Invitation to an Inquest: A New Look at the Rosenberg-Sobell Case.
The Open Classroom Reader, edited by Charles Silberman, offers a collection of essays on the theories and practices of the open classroom in America. Grounded in an English tradition, the open classroom was one of the experimental programs of the 1970s and 1980s.
Silberman is a critic of the traditional classroom with straight rows and the teacher in the front of the class. He calls this a joyless place to learn. His previous work, Crisis in the Classroom, challenged failures he saw in American education. As a reformer, Silberman prefers the informal classroom, referred to as "open education" or the "open classroom." The open classroom is...
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"Busing—The Supreme Court Goes North"
By: Christopher Jencks
Source: Jencks, Christopher. "Busing—The Supreme Court Goes North." The New York Times Magazine, November 19, 1972, 41, 118.
About the Author: Christopher "Sandy" Jencks (1936–) is the Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy at Harvard University. He was educated at Harvard and the London School of Economics and Political Science. Jencks's research deals with the inequality in the standard of living over the past generation.
Numerous cases regarding desegregation of schools made their way to the Supreme Court in addition to the 1954 decision in Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka. That decision, sometimes referred to as Brown I, stated that state-imposed segregated schools were unequal and illegal. The Brown I decision set the path for integration in the schools in the southern United States, but not without much turmoil and controversy. Brown II, in 1955, tried to define how and when the schools would be desegregated across the country. The court did not take a strong stand on a time line, however. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 furthered the movement of eliminating inequality, not only in the schools, but in work, housing,...
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Writing Without Teachers
By: Peter Elbow
Source: Elbow, Peter. "Freewriting Exercises." In Writing Without Teachers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973, 3–7.
About the Author: Peter Elbow (1935–) is an Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He directed the writing program there between 1996 and 2000. Everyone Can Write: Essays toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing won the James Britton Award in 2002. In 2001 the National Council Teachers of English awarded Peter Elbow the James Squire Award for his transforming influence on the profession.
During the late 1960s and 1970s, a method of teaching writing labeled expressivism developed. This kind of writing provided power to the student or writer, rather than just to the teacher. Expressivism opposed the traditional methods of teaching writing, which emphasized academic forms, five-paragraph themes, and standard forms of "correct" grammar. Donald Murray, Ken Macrorie, and Peter Elbow were all part of this movement.
Donald Murray's A Writer Teaches Writing (1968), Ken Macrorie's Telling Writing (1970), and Peter Elbow's Writing Without Teachers (1973) were cornerstones for the process of...
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College Opportunity Act of 1978
By: U.S. Senate Committee on Human Resources
Source: Congress of the U.S. Washington D.C. Senate Committee on Human Resources. College Opportunity Act of 1978. Report, with Additional Views. 95th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,1978. Available online at http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org. (accessed October 3, 2002).
About the Organization: The Senate Committee on Human Resources was a committee in the 95th Congress. Bills are reported to the Senate via a committee chair and placed on a calendar. Reported bills and written reports are numbered, and the actions of the committee are in the copy of the bill.
The Higher Education Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-329) provided insured student loans for eligible college students. The act also provided grants to colleges and universities and provided for a number of training programs. Amendments between 1968 and 1978 added programs, grants, and loans for disadvantaged students. All of these acts and amendments contributed to the necessity for the College Opportunity Act of 1978.
In the 1960s, grant and scholarship money mainly went to the very...
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"Open Admissions and Equal Access: A Study of Ethnic Groups in the City University of New York"
By: David E. Lavin, et al.
Date: February 1979
Source: Lavin, David E. et al." Open Admissions and Equal Access: A Study of Ethnic Groups in the City University of New York." Harvard Educational Review 49, no. 1, February 1979, 53–57.
About the Author: David Lavin is a professor of Sociology at the Graduate School of the City University of New York. He has studied sociology of education and issues involving social inequality in education. Lavin has written a number of articles and books on the open admissions policies at CUNY.
Colleges and universities adopted open admissions policies in the 1970s to increase minority enrollment. The policy of the seventeen-campus City University of New York (CUNY) system has been studied since it began in 1970. Criticized by many for opening the doors of the university to unqualified students, the system had to justify why they were doing this and how it was working. The policy was implemented after student protests in 1969 demanding admission of more minority students. Until the 1970s, the CUNY system was primarily composed of white students. The protest focused on City College in particular because of its location in Harlem.
David Lavin has...
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"Introduction: The First Decade of Women's Studies"
By: Florence Howe
Source: Howe, Florence. "Introduction: The First Decade of Women's Studies." Harvard Educational Review 49, no. 4, November 1979, 413–421.
About the Author: Florence Howe (1929–) has been an advocate for women's voices and for educational and social reform. She served as the President of the Modern Language Association in 1973. In 1970, Howe founded the Feminist Press, a non-profit publisher and the oldest press dedicated to works by and about women.
Following a decade of the Civil Rights Movement and the Women's Movement, women's studies programs and courses began appearing in colleges across the country. This demand for courses in women's studies matched the demand for courses in other specialty areas. The 1970s was an era of progress for curricular change and development in women's studies. "Lost" women writers began being discovered and published, allowing women and men to read the works of women along with the canonical works of men.
Organizations and journals were founded to support the women's studies movement. The Feminist Press began in 1970 in New York City. Devoted to publishing women's work, the press was a leader as an independent...
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"An Interview on Title IX with Shirley Chisholm, Holly Knox, Leslie R. Wolfe, Cynthia G. Brown, and Mary Kaaren Jolly"
By: Editors of Harvard Educational Review
Date: November 1979
Source: "An Interview on Title IX with Shirley Chisholm, Holly Knox, Leslie R. Wolfe, Cynthia G. Brown, and Mary Kaaren Jolly." Harvard Educational Review 49, no.4, November 1979, 504–508, 519.
About the Publication: The Harvard Educational Review is a leading journal in the field of education. Its mission is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and debate about education's most vital issues. A quarterly publication, the HER presents opinions and research articles.
Equity for women as well as for African Americans was a goal during the Civil Rights era. Title IX, instituted by the Federal Government in 1972, is part of an affirmative action program. It prohibits discrimination based on sex in elementary and secondary schools and on college and university campuses. Although it is commonly associated with equality in sports, Title IX is about much more than athletics. It "guarantees equal access for women in the academic world and in athletics."
The editors of the Harvard Educational Review interviewed five women who were important in women's issues and in the implementation of Title IX:...
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"The Frenetic Fanatic Phonic Backlash"
By: Maryann Eeds-Kniep
Date: November/December 1979
Source: Eeds-Kniep, Maryann. "The Frenetic Fanatic Phonic Backlash." Language Arts 56, no. 8, November/December 1979, 909–911.
The debate about how to teach reading has been long and hard-fought. On one side are those who believe that teaching phonics should be the basic method for teaching young children to read. On the other side are those who believe in "whole language" teaching, or in using books to teach rather than breaking language into small bits. Maryann Eeds-Kniep finds value in both methods, depending on the situation and the student.
Eeds-Kniep's article addresses the question of how children learn language. Do they learn sounds and then words? Or do they learn whole words and recognize them as distinct units? This has been the focus of the "reading wars," as they are often called. Eeds-Kniep also mentions that it can be difficult to know what the child knows when he comes to school. What kind of training or knowledge does a child already possess? Is the child ready to learn to read, or is he already reading?
Kniep writes that "no matter what reading program we use, and sometimes in spite of them, a good majority of our...
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"Some Characteristics of the Historically Black Colleges"
By: Robert Clayton
Source: Clayton, Robert. "Some Characteristics of the Historically Black Colleges." No publisher. Available online at http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org. ERIC ED 176651. 1979. (accessed October 3, 2002). The Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) is a clearinghouse of papers and research on topics of interest to educators, including both published and previously unpublished material.
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have over a 150-year history in the United States. The first colleges were opened before the Civil War by abolitionists. As the century progressed, and particularly after the Civil War, more HBCUs were founded. Many of these were affiliated with religious groups that saw the need for institutions of higher education for African Americans. When legislation calling for desegregation became law in the 1950s and 1960s, some feared that HBCUs would close. They did not. In fact, they were strengthened in the ensuing decades by support of students who selected the colleges and by the federal government programs. In 2003 there are approximately 106 Historically Black Colleges and Universities across the United States.
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Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children, et al., Plaintiffs, v. Ann Arbor School District Board
By: District Court, Detroit, MI. Eastern District of Michigan Southern District
Source: District Court, Detroit, MI. Eastern District of Michigan Southern District. Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children, et. al., Plaintiffs, v. Ann Arbor School District Board, Defendant; Memorandum Opinion and Order. Civil Action No. 7–71861. ERIC 183684.
About the Organization: Eastern District of Michigan Southern District is part of the United States Court System. District Courts are trial courts and rule on nearly all categories of federal civil and criminal cases.
The case regarding teaching children who spoke black English was filed in U.S. District Court against the Ann Arbor School District in 1977. The plaintiffs in the suit were "fifteen black preschool or elementary school children residing at the Green Road Housing Project in Ann Arbor, Michigan, who previously attended, are currently attending, or will be eligible to attend the Martin Luther King, Jr., Elementary School." The lawsuit was filed by mothers and by the Student Advocacy Center, a non-profit organization in Michigan. The basic argument was that the fifteen children were being denied rights to special education, which...
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The Read-Aloud Handbook
By: Jim Trelease
Source: Trelease, Jim. The Read-Aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1985, 14–17.
About the Author: Jim Trelease (1941–) has written and lectured widely about the importance of reading. He was educated at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst (1963) and spent several years working as a journalist. Trelease began Reading Tree Productions in 1983. The International Reading Association honored Trelease in 1989 as one of the people who had made the biggest difference in reading in the 1980s.
Jim Trelease began his journey to discover and write about the importance of reading aloud to children as a parent of small children. Parents like Trelease have known the value of reading aloud to small children for generations. His concern grew for those children who did not have this opportunity and who had not learned how to read. As a result, he wrote and self published the first edition of The Read-Aloud Handbook in 1979 . The first edition, published by Penguin, spent four months on the New York Times bestseller list.
The connections between reading aloud and reading readiness have been explored in research for the past four decades by...
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